While Felix Martin Oberländer (born in Dresden, Saxony, Germany) is remembered in German-speaking urology and abroad, and his name has been honored since 1997 with an award named after him, the memory and knowledge of Arthur Kollmann of Leipzig (Saxony, Germany) seems to have been nearly forgotten within urology in Germany and abroad. However, the memory of him in other fields of science in which he was involved, e.g., puppets and puppetry-based research, remain vivid up to now.
AssuntosDistinções e Prêmios , Urologia , Masculino , Humanos , Urologistas , Alemanha , Jogos e Brinquedos
Importance: Firearms are the leading cause of death for children in the US. It is therefore crucial to identify effective ways to reduce firearm injuries among children. Objective: To test the effectiveness of a gun safety video vs a car safety video on decreasing unsafe behaviors around real guns after exposure to a violent movie with vs without guns. Design, Setting, and Participants: Of 245 participants aged 8 to 12 years, 226 were tested (13 did not complete the laboratory portion, 4 had technical problems, and 2 did not respond to follow-up inquiries). Data were collected from February 2 to October 16, 2022. Participants were recruited via Facebook ads, ResearchMatch, and parent or guardian referrals. The study was conducted in 2 parts. Children watched a safety video at home 1 week before coming to the laboratory at The Ohio State University. Interventions: Pairs of children were randomly assigned to watch a 1-minute gun or car safety video at home. In the laboratory, they were randomly assigned to watch a 20-minute clip from a violent PG-rated movie with or without guns. Next, they played with games and toys for 20 minutes in another room that contained 2 disabled 9-mm handguns hidden in a file cabinet drawer. Sessions were videotaped via a hidden camera. Main Outcomes and Measures: Outcomes were whether children told an adult, touched a handgun, handled it, or pulled the trigger. Control variables were age, gender, race and ethnicity, trait aggressiveness, age-inappropriate media exposure, firearm attitude and interest, presence of firearms at home, and whether children had taken a firearm safety course. Results: Of 226 children (mean [SD] age, 9.99 [1.38] years; 113 [52.3%] male), 216 (95.6%) found a gun and were included in analyses. Those who saw the gun (vs car) safety video were more likely to tell an adult about the gun they found (38 of 112 [33.9%] vs 11 of 104 [10.6%]), were less likely to touch the gun (44 of 112 [39.3%] vs 70 of 104 [67.3%]), held the gun fewer seconds if they did touch it (mean [SD], 42.04 [121.46] vs 98.96 [195.10]), were less likely to pull the trigger at all (10 of 112 [8.9%] vs 31 of 104 [29.8%]), and pulled the trigger fewer times (mean [SD], 4.20 [20.17] vs 7.23 [15.75]). Being male, exposure to age-inappropriate movies, and gun interest were related to unsafe behavior. Prior completion of a firearm safety course, having guns at home, and negative gun attitudes were related to safe behavior. Conclusions: In this trial of children assigned to watch a gun or car safety video, watching a gun safety video reduced children's unsafe behavior around real guns. Children who had previously taken a gun safety course, had guns in the home, and had negative attitudes toward guns were less likely to engage in unsafe behavior around real guns. To encourage safe firearm behavior, children should be educated about gun safety and should not watch age-inappropriate media. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT05257837.
AssuntosArmas de Fogo , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Criança , Feminino , Jogos e Brinquedos , Ohio , Comportamento Social , Segurança
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of a pretend play-based training in 5-6-year-old children in a large scale school context on emotion comprehension, emotion regulation, prosocial behaviour and on their pretend play competences. The analysis of implementation variables was carried out in order to ensure program implementation quality in the experimental group. Results show an improvement in emotion comprehension and a decrease in aggressive behavioural responses in children in the experimental group (n = 101) compared to those in the control group (n = 79). Findings are discussed in regard to implementation outcomes and the influence of this form of play on the improvement of these variables.
AssuntosCompreensão , Emoções , Humanos , Criança , Jogos e Brinquedos
¿Cómo nos puede ayudar el método de la interpretación de los sueños a entender los elementos arcaicos presentes en el juego del niño de 0 a 4 años, en un dispositivo clínico inspirado en la Maison Verte creada por Françoise Dolto? En este artículo describiremos las similitudes entre el sueño y el juego del niño, particularmente con respecto al trabajo del sueño. Propondremos que los mismos mecanismos del sueño están presentes en el juego del niño como parte de un contenido manifiesto. Enseguida propondremos que es posible interpretar el contenido latente del juego trasponiendo el método de la interpretación de los sueños gracias a la información aportada por los padres que acompañen al niño. Para explicar esta técnica, examinaremos el ejemplo de juego de unos niños, tomado de un Lugar de Acogida de Niños y Padres que se adhiere a los principios de la Maison Verte AU
Comment la méthode d'interprétation des rêves peut-elle nous aider à comprendre les éléments archaïques présents dans le jeu des enfants de 0 à 4 ans, dans un dispositif clinique inspiré de la Maison Verte créée par Françoise Dolto? Dans cet article, nousdécrirons les similitudes entre le rêve et le jeu de l'enfant, notamment en ce qui concerne le travail du rêve. Nous proposerons que les mêmes mécanismes oniriques sont présents dans le jeu de l'enfant dans le cadre d'un contenu manifeste. Ensuite, nous proposerons qu'il est possible d'interpréter le contenu latent de ce jeu en transposant la méthode d'interprétation des rêves grâce aux informations fournies par les parents accompagnan l'enfant. Pour expliquercette technique, nous examinerons un exemple de jeu d'enfants, tiré d'un Lieu d'Accueil pour Enfants et Parents qui adhère aux principes de la Maison Verte AU
How can the dream interpretation method help us to understand the archaic elements present in the play of children from 0 to 4 years old, in a clinical device inspired by the Maison Verte project created by Françoise Dolto? In this article we will describethe similarities between the child's dream and play, particularly regarding to dream-work. We will propose that the same dream mechanisms are present in the child's play as part of a manifest content. Then we will propose that it is possible to interpret the latent content of this play by transposing the dream interpretation method thanks to the information provided by the parents. To explain this technique, we will examine an example of children's play, taken from a Dolto's Maison Verte Project AU
Como o método da interpretação dos sonhos pode nos ajudar a compreender os elementos arcaicos presentes nas brincadeiras das crianças de 0 a 4 anos, em um dispositivo clínico inspirado na Maison Verte criada por Françoise Dolto? Neste artigo, descreveremos as semelhanças entre o sonho e a brincadeira da criança, principalmente no que diz respeito ao trabalho onírico. Proporemos que os mesmos mecanismos oníricos estão presentes na brincadeira da criança como parte de um conteúdo manifesto. Imediatamente propomos que é possível interpretar o conteúdo latente desta brincadeira transpondo o método de interpretação dos sonhos graças às informações fornecidas pelos pais. Para explicar est técnica examinaremos um exemplo de brincadeira infantil, retirado de um Local de Acolhimento para Crianças e Pais que segue os princípios da Maison Verte AU
AssuntosHumanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Jogos e Brinquedos/psicologia , Terapia Psicanalítica , Sonhos/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Ludoterapia , Cuidados Intermitentes/métodos
Introducción: teóricamente, el juego es descrito en terapia ocupacional como una entidad importante en sí misma, una ocupación esencial en la infancia, un derecho fundamental del niño y promotor de innúmeros beneficios a nivel físico, psicológico, emocional y social. Con este trabajo, explicamos cómo la comunidad educativa de una escuela primaria de Portugal, se movilizó para promover el juego durante el Día Mundial del Niño, permitiendo que 250 escolares jugasen libremente durante dos horas, con material de uso no específico. Esto hizo que el comportamiento lúdico del alumnado aumentase en todos sus componentes. De esta forma, pretendemos, describir nuestro trabajo de promoción del juego, a través de un abordaje comunitario. Métodos: realizamos un análisis de la evidencia científica sobre la importancia del juego en la infancia y sobre el papel de la terapia ocupacional como agente promotor de la justicia ocupacional; identificamos posibles socios, los intereses, potencialidades y necesidades de la comunidad; construimos puentes de comunicación; empoderamos y dimos voz a la comunidad. Conclusión: es relevante que las y los terapeutas ocupacionales realicen acciones dirigidas a los determinantes sociales y de salud, contribuyendo a que la comunidad se implique en el rescate del juego, como ocupación fundamental de la infancia y promotor de salud.(AU)
Introduction: Play is described by occupational therapy theorists as an important entity in itself, an essential occupation in childhood, a fundamental right of the child, and a promoter of numerous benefits, such as physical, psychological, emotional, and social well- being. In this work, we aim to explain how the educational community of a primary school in Portugal mobilized to promote play during World Children's Day. We facilitated two hours of free play for 250 students using materials that encouraged non-specific use. This initiative resulted in an overall increase in the students' playful behavior across all its components. Through this community-based approach, we intend to describe our efforts in promoting play. Methods: We conducted an analysis of the scientific evidence regarding the importance of play in childhood and the role of occupational therapists as agents promoting occupational justice. We also identified potential partners, assessed the community's interests, potentialities, and needs, established effective communication channels, and empowered and gave voice to the community. Conclusion: It is crucial for occupational therapists to engage in actions aimed at addressing social and health determinants, thus contributing to the community's involvement in preserving play as a fundamental occupation of childhood and a promoter of health.(AU)
AssuntosHumanos , Masculino , Feminino , Defesa da Criança e do Adolescente , Terapia Ocupacional , Comportamento Infantil , Jogos e Brinquedos/psicologia , Portugal , Saúde da Criança , Instituições Acadêmicas
OBJECTIVES: to analyze an educational intervention, through game "Violetas", for the qualification of professionals who work in the fight against gender violence. METHODS: a qualitative study, involving 28 professionals from intersectoral services to assist women in situations of violence, located in three Brazilian capitals. Data were collected through Critical-Emancipatory Workshops, being submitted to thematic content analysis through software. RESULTS: sexist patterns, pornography and sexual diversity were topics listed by participants for intervention in reality. To this end, they suggested orientation actions on gender violence, promotion of individual and group assistance and service network consolidation. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: the intervention proved to be playful, due to the use of games, critical, due to the fact that it allowed reflection on the theme, emancipatory, due to the possibility of professionals rethinking their practice and qualifying themselves to face the problem.
AssuntosViolência de Gênero , Humanos , Feminino , Violência de Gênero/prevenção & controle , Violência , Comportamento Sexual , Jogos e Brinquedos , Software
Given the established role of parental talk in the growth of math knowledge in preschoolers, there has been an increasing focus on identifying ways to promote parental math talk at this stage of child development. The current study investigated how parental math talk is affected by features of play materials and contexts. The features were manipulated along two dimensions: homogeneity (whether the toys were unique or included identical sets) and boundedness (whether the number of toys was restricted). Parent-child dyads (n = 75, child's age: 4-6) from China were randomly assigned to one of three experimental conditions: unique objects-unbounded range, homogeneous sets-unbounded range, and homogeneous sets-bounded range. In all conditions, dyads played games in two contexts that varied in the extent to which they were typically associated with math-party preparation and grocery shopping. As expected, more parental math talk was observed in the grocery shopping than in the party preparation context. Importantly, the manipulation of features within context also affected the amount and nature of parental math talk: homogeneity increased absolute magnitude talk, and boundedness increased relative magnitude talk. The results provide support for the cognitive alignment framework, underscoring the importance of aligning the features of materials with targeted concepts and demonstrating the possibility of impacting parental math talk through small manipulations of play materials. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved).
AssuntosPais , Jogos e Brinquedos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Conhecimento , Matemática , Pais/psicologia
BACKGROUND: Scientific evidence and public health reports keep highlighting the continuous and alarming worldwide progression of physical inactivity and sedentary behaviors in children and adolescents. The present paper summarizes findings from the 2022 French Report Card (RC) on physical activity for children and youth and compares them to the 2016, 2018, and 2020 RCs. METHODS: The 2022 edition of the French RC follows the standardized methodology established by the Active Healthy Kids Global Matrix. Ten physical activity indicators have been evaluated and graded based on the best available evidence coming from national surveys, peer-reviewed literature, government and nongovernment reports, and online information. The evaluation was also performed in children and adolescents with disabilities. Indicators were graded from A (high level of evidence) to F (very low level of evidence) or INC for incomplete. RESULTS: The evaluated indicators received the following grades: overall physical activity: D-; organized sport participation and physical activity: C; active play: F; active transportation: C; sedentary behaviors: D-; family and peers: D; physical fitness: C; school: C-; community and the built environment: F; government: B. CONCLUSIONS: While this 2022 French RC shows progression for 7 out of the 10 indicators considered, it also underlines the continuous need for actions at the local, regional, and national levels to develop better surveillance systems and favor a long-term improvement of youth movement behaviors.
AssuntosExercício Físico , Comportamento Sedentário , Humanos , Criança , Adolescente , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Política de Saúde , Jogos e Brinquedos
La gamificación consiste en el empleo de elementos de los juegos en entornos no lúdicos, como la educación. Es un enfoque educativo alternativo que fomenta la motivación y la participación de los estudiantes en su proceso de aprendizaje. La gamificación ha demostrado eficacia en la formación de profesionales de la salud y un papel importante en la formación en radiodiagnóstico, tanto en pregrado como en posgrado. Las actividades de gamificación pueden realizarse en entornos reales, como aulas o salas de sesiones, pero existen interesantes modalidades online que favorecen el acceso remoto y la gestión de usuarios. Las posibilidades de gamificación en mundos virtuales para aprender radiología en pregrado son muy prometedoras y merecen ser exploradas con residentes. El objetivo de este artículo es revisar conceptos generales de gamificación y presentar los principales tipos empleados en la formación médica, destacando sus aplicaciones, ventajas e inconvenientes y enfatizando experiencias educativas en radiología (AU)
Gamification is the use of elements from games in non-game environments, such as education. It is an alternative educational focus that promotes students motivation and participation in the learning process. Gamification had proven effective in training health professionals and can play an important role in diagnostic radiology training, both at the undergraduate and postgraduate levels. Gamification activities can be carried out in real environments, such as classrooms or session rooms, but there are also interesting online modalities that favor remote access and user management. The possibilities of gamification in virtual worlds to teach undergraduate students radiology are very promising and deserve to be explored in training residents. This article aims to review general concepts in gamification and to present the main types of gamification used in medical training, pointing out its applications and advantages and disadvantages and emphasizing experiences in radiology education (AU)
AssuntosHumanos , Educação Médica , Radiologia/educação , Internato e Residência , Jogos e Brinquedos , Teoria do Jogo
Theory and research have linked pretend play in early childhood with the development of language and theory of mind. In 102 mother-child dyads at 4.5 years, we examined whether (1) introducing a story stem (a play narrative with socioemotional dilemmas) in a mother-child play context increases pretend play complexity compared with mother-child free play; and (2) maternal sensitivity is associated with pretend play complexity. Further, we explored whether the story stem increased child pretend play complexity more in dyads with mothers with low sensitivity compared with highly sensitive mothers. Sensitivity was coded using Coding Interactive Behavior and pretend play complexity with a global, integrated measure of the developmental level and quantity of play. Using generalized estimating equations, we found that pretend play complexity was positively associated with introducing a story stem and maternal sensitivity. Mixed methods ancova showed no significant interaction between play situation and maternal sensitivity. The findings stress the importance of maternal sensitivity and participation for play and how introducing a story stem may help promote child pretend play complexity.
AssuntosIdioma , Mães , Feminino , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Mães/psicologia , Jogos e Brinquedos , Relações Mãe-Filho
BACKGROUND: The primary objective of this study was to investigate the relative contributions of factors from multiple social-ecological levels in explaining outdoor play changes in childcare centers during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: In Alberta, Canada, licensed childcare center directors (n = 160) completed an online questionnaire. For outcomes, changes in the frequency and duration of outdoor play in childcare centers during COVID-19 compared to before COVID-19 were measured. For exposures, center demographic, director, parental, social, environmental, and policy-level factors were measured. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted separately for winter (December-March) and nonwinter months (April-November). RESULTS: In most instances, factors at each social-ecological level explained a statistically significant amount of unique variance in changes in outdoor play in childcare centers during COVID-19. Full models accounted for more than 26% of the variance in the outcomes. Changes in parental interest in outdoor play was the most consistent correlate of changes in the frequency and duration of outdoor play in both winter and nonwinter months during COVID-19. In terms of changes in the duration of outdoor play, social support from the provincial government, health authority, and licensing, and changes in the number of play areas in licensed outdoor play spaces were also consistent correlates in both winter and nonwinter months during COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Factors from multiple social-ecological levels uniquely contributed to changes in outdoor play in childcare centers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Findings can help inform interventions and public health initiatives related to outdoor play in childcare centers during and after the ongoing pandemic.
AssuntosCOVID-19 , Cuidado da Criança , Criança , Humanos , Pandemias , Exercício Físico , Promoção da Saúde , Jogos e Brinquedos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Creches , Políticas , Pais , Demografia
INTRODUCTION: Children's physical activity, especially play, is important for healthy physical, social, and psychological development. Playgrounds are public spaces for children, but not all playgrounds are conducive to play and physical activity. We examined "playability," the ability of a space to promote active play, and associations with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and energy expenditure. METHODS: This cross-sectional study assessed playground features with the Play Space Audit Tool; we calculated playability scores from audit data, overall and by domain (general amenities, surface, path, and play structure), from playgrounds in 70 parks in Chicago, Illinois, in 2017. We observed 2,712 individuals during the audits and used the System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities tool to assess MVPA and energy expenditure. We used generalized estimating equation negative binomial regression to calculate incidence rate ratios for MVPA and mixed effects models to calculate energy expenditure (in kcal/kg/min) associated with playability scores. RESULTS: General amenities and play structure scores were associated with 1.28 (95% CI, 1.08-1.52) and 1.15 (95% CI, 1.00-1.31) times as many individuals (any age) engaged in MVPA, respectively. The general amenities score was significantly associated with 0.51 (95% CI, 0.24-0.79) and 0.42 (95% CI, 0.15-0.68) higher energy expenditure in renovated playgrounds and in all playgrounds, respectively. CONCLUSION: Overall, general amenities and play structure scores were associated with MVPA and were robust to adjustment for weather, neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics, and crime. These playground playability indices may strengthen future evaluations of community infrastructure for children's physical activity.
AssuntosExercício Físico , Características de Residência , Criança , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Chicago , Jogos e Brinquedos
IMPORTANCE: Parent-child play is a beneficial and meaningful co-occupation. Therapists who want to optimize parent-child play for Latino- and Latina-American dyads need valid, reliable measures to assess caregiver playfulness in addition to preexisting measures of child playfulness. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate data collected from Latino-American caregivers with the Scale of Parental Playfulness Attitude (PaPA), a 28-item parent self-report to determine its construct validity, internal reliability, and cross-cultural validity. DESIGN: Quantitative exploratory design applying a latent-trait psychometric model. SETTING: Online survey. PARTICIPANTS: Convenience sample of 50 Spanish-speaking parents from the mainland United States recruited via snowballing (88% mothers, ages 24-47 yr; M = 34.8 yr; 82% first-generation Americans). The inclusion criteria were age ≥18 yr; literate in Spanish; primary caregiver to a child age 2.5-7 yr. Data from an existing sample of 50 parents dwelling in Puerto Rico were used to examine cross-cultural validity. OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Rasch analysis demonstrated evidence for adequate construct validity: positive point-measure correlations, 93% fit of items, logical item hierarchy, and good progression of the rating scale. Range and mean for parent playfulness exceeded those of the items; principal-components analysis revealed one contrast of 4.46 eigenvalues, bringing unidimensionality into question. Evidence suggested excellent internal reliability (person-reliability index = 0.85, strata = 3.55) and good cross-cultural validity (25 of 28 items formed a similar hierarchy for parents dwelling in the mainland United States and Puerto Rico). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Although the PaPA can be used to assess caregiver playfulness with culturally diverse Latino-American dyads, further research is required. What This Article Adds: This study provides evidence for the construct validity and internal reliability of a tool that measures parent playfulness in the context of parent-child play. The PaPA is an important tool for occupational therapists working with Latino-American families.
AssuntosHispânico ou Latino , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais , Jogos e Brinquedos , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Hispânico ou Latino/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , Relações Pais-Filho/etnologia , Masculino , Feminino , Jogos e Brinquedos/psicologia
Along with bisphenol-A (BPA), conventional phthalate esters (PAEs) have been reported as environmental hormones, despite their functional usefulness as plasticizers. Nevertheless, they are frequently found in various products, including children's utensils and toys made of poly (vinyl chloride). This is tremendously important because PAEs are harmful to infants. In addition, gel/slime-type toys made of poly (vinyl alcohol) are currently popular for developing infant' tactile senses. In this study, we developed a method to qualitatively and quantitatively detect PAEs in gel/slime-type toys mimicking, infants playing with them in a bathtub. As a result, 1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid diisononyl ester (DINCH), one of the PAE alternatives, transferred into the water from the toys and was detected most commonly (108-719 µg g-1; 0.01-0.07 wt%) among PAEs. The detected DINCH levels were below the universally accepted levels for PAEs (0.1 wt%). However, the amount of DINCH detected could still be toxic, in accordance with toxicity tests using water fleas. Furthermore, unpleasant odors were emitted when the toys containing toxic volatile organic compounds were unpacked. This is the first study to develop a method to analyze PAE in gel/slime-type toys and determine that alternatives to conventional PAEs cannot be unconditionally regarded as safe chemicals. Therefore, the revised standards for regulating PAEs and their alternatives must be reconsidered.
AssuntosÁcidos Ftálicos , Criança , Humanos , Lactente , Plastificantes , Jogos e Brinquedos , Produtos Domésticos , Ésteres , Dibutilftalato , China
IMPORTANCE: Ayres Sensory Integration® (ASI) is commonly used with children on the autism spectrum to promote sensory processing and improved occupational performance, including play. To date, there has been no explicit effort to examine improvements in playfulness through ASI. OBJECTIVE: To explore whether ASI, coupled with parent training, improves child playfulness and fathers' support of child playfulness. DESIGN: Single-subject A-B-BC design secondary analysis of a nonconcurrent multiple-baseline study. SETTING: Occupational therapy clinic. PARTICIPANTS: Three father-child dyads; children were ages 3 to 6 yr, with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and documented sensory processing concerns. INTERVENTION: After a baseline phase, each child received at least 24 sessions of ASI, and fathers received parent training focusing on sensory processing issues and play via an online presentation. OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The Parent/Caregiver's Support of Children's Playfulness and the Test of Playfulness. RESULTS: Visual analysis of the baseline phase, ASI phase, and ASI with parent training phase shows that all 3 fathers demonstrated an increase in the way they supported their child's playfulness; however, this change was not maintained. Children's playfulness fluctuated, reaching a peak after fathers received training, but none of the children maintained that change. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Additional support by the therapist is required for fathers to learn and use new strategies to promote consistent change in child playfulness during play. Pilot data can be used to inform future studies. What This Article Adds: Occupation- and family-centered frameworks may be useful in guiding practice when working with families of children with ASD.
AssuntosTranstorno do Espectro Autista , Terapia Ocupacional , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Masculino , Jogos e Brinquedos , Sensação , Pai
OBJECTIVES: to describe the use of toys by nursing during the care of children in the inpatient unit; to analyze the factors that influence the use of therapeutic toys by nursing in the care of hospitalized children. METHODS: qualitative research, conducted in a pediatric hospital in Rio de Janeiro between July and August 2019. Semi-structured interview and thematic analysis were used as methodological procedure. RESULTS: the 12 nurses and 7 nursing technicians revealed minimizing fear, relieving tension, and creating a bond between the child and the professional as the main benefits; they use as resources: children's toys, hospital materials, cartoons, and children's videos. The high demand for work, deficit of human resources, and appropriate ludic materials are factors that interfere with the use of toys as a therapeutic resource. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: although the participants recognize the importance of the toy as a therapeutic resource, there is no systematization of its use in pediatric practice.
AssuntosCriança Hospitalizada , Jogos e Brinquedos , Criança , Humanos , Brasil , Pesquisa Qualitativa
BACKGROUND: The study goal was to identify playground features associated with visitor length of stay and physical activity. METHODS: We observed playground visitors over 4 days during summer 2021 in 60 playgrounds in 10 US cities, selected based on design, population density, and poverty levels. We observed 4278 visitors and documented their length of stay. We observed an additional 3713 visitors for 8 min, recording their playground location, activity level, and use of electronic media. RESULTS: People stayed an average of 32 min (range 5 min-4 h). Stay time varied by group size, with larger groups staying longer. The presence of restrooms increased the likelihood of staying longer by 48%. Playground size, mature trees, swings, climbers, and spinners were associated with longer stays. When a teen was a part of the group observed, the group was 64% less likely to stay longer. The use of electronic media was associated with lower amounts of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity compared to non-media users. CONCLUSIONS: To increase population-level physical activity and time spent outdoors, playground features associated with a longer stay should be considered when renovating or building new playgrounds.
AssuntosExercício Físico , Jogos e Brinquedos , Adolescente , Humanos , Pobreza , Parques Recreativos , Cidades
Although play results in physical, social, and cognitive benefits, there is a consensus that children's opportunities to play have been reduced, particularly for those who live in urban environments. What are the barriers to play, and how can we mitigate them? This review examines a critical factor in play opportunities: parents as the decision-makers with regard to children's play. Using perspectives from psychology, urban design, and cognitive science, we analyze the relationships between the design of built environments, parental attitudes and beliefs, and parental decisions on allowing children to play. For example, can a new implementation of children-centered urban design change parents' skeptical attitude toward play? By drawing from global studies, we chart (1) the three key beliefs of parents regarding play and built environments: play should benefit learning, be safe, and match the child's competence and (2) the design principles that can foster these beliefs: learning, social, and progressive challenge designs. By making the link between parents, urban design, and play explicit, this paper aims to inform parents, educators, policymakers, urban planners, and architects on the evidence-based measures for creating and increasing opportunities to play.