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1.
Molecules ; 27(19)2022 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36234962

RESUMO

Cancer is a global public health problem that is related to different environmental and lifestyle factors. Although the combination of screening, prevention, and treatment of cancer has resulted in increased patient survival, conventional treatments sometimes have therapeutic limitations such as resistance to drugs or severe side effects. Oriental culture includes herbal medicine as a complementary therapy in combination with chemotherapy or radiotherapy. This study aimed to identify the bioactive ingredients in Kalanchoe pinnata, a succulent herb with ethnomedical applications for several diseases, including cancer, and reveal its anticancer mechanisms through a molecular approach. The herb contains gallic acid, caffeic acid, coumaric acid, quercetin, quercitrin, isorhamnetin, kaempferol, bersaldegenin, bryophyllin a, bryophyllin c, bryophynol, bryophyllol and bryophollone, stigmasterol, campesterol, and other elements. Its phytochemicals participate in the regulation of proliferation, apoptosis, cell migration, angiogenesis, metastasis, oxidative stress, and autophagy. They have the potential to act as epigenetic drugs by reverting the acquired epigenetic changes associated with tumor resistance to therapy-such as the promoter methylation of suppressor genes, inhibition of DNMT1 and DNMT3b activity, and HDAC regulation-through methylation, thereby regulating the expression of genes involved in the PI3K/Akt/mTOR, Nrf2/Keap1, MEK/ERK, and Wnt/ß-catenin pathways. All of the data support the use of K. pinnata as an adjuvant in cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Kalanchoe , Ácidos Cumáricos/análise , Epigênese Genética , Ácido Gálico/análise , Humanos , Quempferóis/análise , Kalanchoe/química , Kalanchoe/genética , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2 , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Folhas de Planta/química , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt , Quercetina/farmacologia , Estigmasterol/análise , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR , beta Catenina
2.
Pak J Biol Sci ; 25(7): 602-607, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36098166

RESUMO

<b>Background and Objective:</b> <i>Kalanchoe tomentosa</i> is identified and their different characteristics regarding the antibacterial and antioxidant properties have a vast effect. Fresh <i>K. tomentosa</i> leaves obtained from Bandung, Indonesia was extracted using n-hexane followed by serial dichloromethane maceration. <b>Materials and Methods:</b> N-hexane and ethyl acetate were used to separate the dichloromethane extract using vacuum liquid chromatography and the isolated compounds were recrystallized with n-hexane. <b>Results:</b> About 37 mg of dichloromethane extract was obtained from the extraction process. Recrystallized compound isolates were identified as stigmast-5-en-3-ol or ß-sitosterol. Both dichloromethane extract and ß-sitosterol isolated compounds showed strong bacteriostatic activity against <i>S. aureus</i> with MIC = 15.63 and 7.81 µg mL<sup></sup><sup>1</sup> and<i> K. pneumonia</i> with MIC = 7.81 and 31.25 µg mL<sup></sup><sup>1</sup>, respectively. However, only dichloromethane extract exhibited a bactericidal effect (7.81 µg mL<sup></sup><sup>1</sup>). <b>Conclusion:</b> The pure ß-sitosterol compound was isolated from<i> K. tomentosa</i> dichloromethane extract. Both the dichloromethane extract and the isolated ß-sitosterol compound had antibacterial effects against <i>S. aureus</i> and <i>K. pneumonia.</i>.


Assuntos
Kalanchoe , Pneumonia , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Klebsiella , Cloreto de Metileno , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Sitosteroides , Staphylococcus aureus
3.
Plant Sci ; 321: 111323, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35696923

RESUMO

Plant transformation with root oncogenic loci (rol) genes and open reading frames (ORFs) from Rhizobium rhizogenes have not yet targeted the underground root phenotype of these transformants. Hence, there is a need to develop plants with more efficient root system architecture (RSA). Here, RSA was assessed in naturally transformed (NT) and single rol/ORF Kalanchoë blossfeldiana 'Molly' lines in an aeroponic growth system combined with gene expression analysis. Three NT lines; 306, 324 and 331; exhibited better-developed RSA with longer roots and increased root biomass. In line 306, longest root was 6.3 ±â€¯0.3 cm while WT had 4.8 ±â€¯0.1 cm. However, root length of all overexpressing lines was ca. 30% shorter than WT. Root fresh weight of NT lines was 4.5-fold higher than WT. The expression of rolB, ∆ORF13a and ORF14 in the leaves of overexpressing lines was many folds higher than in NT lines. Increased expression of ∆ORF13a and ORF14 in leaves and roots may contribute more to a stronger compact phenotype than previously assumed. The moderate compact phenotype of NT lines combined with improved RSA compared to the overexpressing lines and WT strongly indicate that the use of R. rhizogenes has great potential to produce Kalanchoë phenotypes with enhanced RSA.


Assuntos
Kalanchoe , Rhizobium , Agrobacterium , Kalanchoe/genética , Fenótipo , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Transformação Genética
4.
Appl Biochem Biotechnol ; 194(9): 4266-4277, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35666380

RESUMO

A green chemistry approach was employed to synthesize silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) using aqueous extract of Bryophyllum pinnatum leaf as capping agents. The novelty of this study was to produce silica nanoparticles using the biological method. An analysis of the physicochemical properties of formed nanoparticles was successfully completed through sophisticated characterization methods, such as UV-Visible absorbance spectroscopy, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray, zeta potential analysis, and thermo-gravimetric analysis. All the characterization results indicated their spherical morphology and amorphous nature with an average size of 24 nm. FT-IR results highlighted the key bioactive compounds that could be responsible for capping and reducing the formation of SiNPs. Synthesized SiNPs show excellent stability with a negative zeta potential value of - 32 mV. The biomolecules from B. pinnatum were successfully working for the formation of Si NPs with spherical shapes. Moreover, to assess the agricultural application, green-synthesized SiNPs were carried out by seed germination assay on Vigna radiata. The seed germination assay confirms that a low concentration of SiNPs enhances seed germination. Meanwhile, a higher concentration of the SiNPs inhibits seed germination and shoot, and root formation. SiNPs at optimum concentration could be used in the agriculture field as nano growth promoters.


Assuntos
Kalanchoe , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Agricultura , Química Verde , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Dióxido de Silício , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Difração de Raios X
5.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2022: 8657249, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35463824

RESUMO

Background: Deposition and formation of stones in any part of the urinary system is called urolithiasis. CaOx is the predominant component of most stones, and the formation of these stones is a multistep process that includes supersaturation, nucleation, aggregation, growth, and retention. In ayurvedic medicine, medicinal plants are used for the management of kidney stones. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of aqueous, ethanol, and hexane extracts of Drymoglossum piloselloides leaves, Kalanchoe laciniata leaves, and Aegle marmelos flowers against CaOx urolithiasis in vitro. Methods: The crystallization of CaOx monohydrate (COM) and dihydrate (COD) was induced in a synthetic urine system. The nucleation, growth, and aggregation of crystals were measured using spectrophotometric methods. The results were compared against the polyherbal drug, Cystone, under identical concentrations. Crystals generated in the urine were also observed under light microscopy. Statistical differences and percentage inhibitions were calculated using standard formulae and compared. A preliminary phytochemical screening was also performed to detect active phytoconstituents present in the three plants used in the study. Results: The results obtained clearly demonstrated that Kalanchoe laciniata, Aegle marmelos, and Drymoglossum piloselloides have the capacity to inhibit the nucleation, growth, and aggregation of CaOx crystals. Microscopic examination of crystals revealed the presence of more COM than COD crystals but a dose-dependent reduction in crystals was observed in the presence of plant extracts. Hexane, ethanol, and aqueous extracts of all three plants had different capabilities to inhibit nucleation, growth, and aggregation of CaOx crystals but their activities were different at different concentrations. Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of reducing sugars, proteins, flavonoids, tannins, and polyphenol compound in Kalanchoe laciniata and Drymoglossum piloselloides and reducing sugars, proteins, anthracene glycosides, and saponins in Aegle marmelos. Conclusions: This study provided evidence that Kalanchoe laciniata, Aegle marmelos, and Drymoglossum piloselloides have the potential to be developed as inhibitors of nucleation, growth, and aggregation of CaOx crystals in the treatment of urolithiasis.


Assuntos
Kalanchoe , Plantas Medicinais , Urolitíase , Oxalato de Cálcio/química , Oxalato de Cálcio/urina , Etanol , Feminino , Hexanos , Humanos , Masculino , Plantas Medicinais/química , Sri Lanka , Açúcares , Urolitíase/tratamento farmacológico
6.
Molecules ; 27(7)2022 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35408681

RESUMO

Kalanchoe species are succulents with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and analgesic properties, as well as cytotoxic activity. One of the most popular species cultivated in Europe is Kalanchoe daigremontiana Raym.-Hamet and H. Perrier. In our study, we analyzed the phytochemical composition of K. daigremontiana water extract using UHPLC-QTOF-MS and estimated the cytotoxic activity of the extract on human ovarian cancer SKOV-3 cells by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay, flow cytometry, luminometric, and fluorescent microscopy techniques. The expression levels of 92 genes associated with cell death were estimated via real-time PCR. The antioxidant activity was assessed via flow cytometry on human keratinocyte HaCaT cell line. The DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical and FRAP (ferric-reducing antioxidant power) assays were also applied. We identified twenty bufadienolide compounds in the water extract and quantified eleven. Bersaldegenin-1,3,5-orthoacetate and bryophyllin A were present in the highest amounts (757.4 ± 18.7 and 573.5 ± 27.2 ng/mg dry weight, respectively). The extract showed significant antiproliferative and cytotoxic activity, induced depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane, and significantly arrested cell cycle in the S and G2/M phases of SKOV-3 cells. Caspases-3, 7, 8, and 9 were not activated during the treatment, which indicated non-apoptotic cell death triggered by the extract. Additionally, the extract increased the level of oxidative stress in the cancer cell line. In keratinocytes treated with menadione, the extract moderately reduced the level of oxidative stress. This antioxidant activity was confirmed by the DPPH and FRAP assays, where the obtained IC50 values were 1750 ± 140 and 1271.82 ± 53.25 µg/mL, respectively. The real-time PCR analysis revealed that the extract may induce cell death via TNF receptor (tumor necrosis factor receptor) superfamily members 6 and 10.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Kalanchoe , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Humanos , Kalanchoe/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Água
7.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264987, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35263358

RESUMO

Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Oken (BP) is a plant that is used worldwide to treat inflammation, infections, anxiety, restlessness, and sleep disorders. While it is known that BP leaves are rich in flavonoids, the extent of the beneficial and toxic effects of its crude extracts remains unclear. Although some neurobehavioral studies using leaf extracts have been conducted, none has examined the effects of water-extracted leaf samples. The zebrafish is a powerful animal model used to gain insights into the efficacy and toxicity profiles of this plant due to its high fecundity, external development, and ease of performing behavioral assays. In this study, we performed behavioral testing after acute exposure to different concentrations of aqueous extract from leaves of B. pinnatum (LABP) on larval zebrafish, investigating light/dark preference, thigmotaxis, and locomotor activity parameters under both normal and stressed conditions. LABP demonstrated dose-and time-dependent biphasic effects on larval behavior. Acute exposure (25 min) to 500 mg/L LABP resulted in decreased locomotor activity. Exposure to 300 mg/L LABP during the sleep cycle decreased dark avoidance and thigmotaxis while increasing swimming velocity. After sleep deprivation, the group treated with 100 mg/L LABP showed decreased dark avoidance and increased velocity. After a heating stressor, the 30 mg/L and 300 mg/L LABP-treated groups showed decreased dark avoidance. These results suggest both anxiolytic and psychoactive effects of LABP in a dose-dependent manner in a larval zebrafish model. These findings provide a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying relevant behavioral effects, consequently supporting the safe and effective use of LABP for the treatment of mood disorders.


Assuntos
Kalanchoe , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Flavonoides , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta , Peixe-Zebra
8.
Drug Chem Toxicol ; 45(1): 360-366, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791148

RESUMO

This is the first investigation on the in vitro cytotoxicological and genotoxicological effects of Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam.) Pers. fresh leaf juice, for establishing a safe and effective quantity for use. Peripheral blood of 6 healthy, non-addicted males between 20 and 25 years of age was used for toxicity assessment by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT), mitotic index (MI), sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and Cytokinesis Blocked Micronucleus (CBMN) assays. The IC50 of the leaf juice calculated by MTT assay was 155.1 µl. The 50 and70 µl of the juice concentrations were decided after standardization by MI and showed non-significant and significant decrease respectively when compared to control. The SCEs/Cell and SCEs/Chromosome were increased non-significantly (50 µl) and significantly (70 µl),while cell cycle proliferative index, Average generation time and Population doubling time values were non-significant for both doses when compared to the controls. In CBMN assay, the Cytokinesis block proliferation index, cytotoxicity, Micronuclei, Nuclear bud, Nucleoplasmic bridge frequencies and total DNA damage biomarkers showed non-significant changes for both 50 and 70 µl. The changes observed were significant only at 70 µl for MI and SCEs, which were significantly lower than that by positive control indicating a non genotoxic effect. Hence, the fresh leaf juice can be used pharmaceutically as well as traditionally, but for long durations and higher doses should be used with caution, as it can have mutagenic effect at particularly high levels.


Assuntos
Kalanchoe , Células Cultivadas , Dano ao DNA , Humanos , Linfócitos , Testes para Micronúcleos , Folhas de Planta , Troca de Cromátide Irmã
9.
Complement Med Res ; 29(1): 35-42, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237738

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Bryophyllum pinnatum is widely used in folk medicine. It has neuropharmacological, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, and nephroprotective effects, among others. It also acts on uterine contractility. It is prescribed by practitioners of anthroposophic medicine for preterm labor, insomnia, and emotional disorders, and has other potential uses in obstetrics. As all drugs currently used in preterm labor have side effects, new tocolytic agents remain an area of active research. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of B. pinnatum mother tincture (MT) on albino rats and their offspring throughout pregnancy from a biochemical and histological standpoint. METHODS: Longitudinal, prospective, randomized controlled bioassay. This is the second stage of a trial that investigated 60 animals distributed across six equal groups: controls C1 and C2, which received 1 and 25 times the vehicle dose (30% ethanol), B1 and B2 (1- and 25-fold doses of B. pinnatum MT), and B3 and B4 (which received 50- and 100-fold doses of B. pinnatum concentrate). At this stage, blood chemistry parameters (glucose, alanine aminotransferase [ALT], aspartate aminotransferase [AST], creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen) were measured in dams, as well as histological aspects of dam liver, kidney, placenta, and uterine tissue and fetal liver, kidney, heart, and brain. RESULTS: No differences were found between group B1 (therapeutic dose) and its control C1 in relation to glucose, AST, ALT, and creatinine. Group B2 exhibited lower glucose levels than groups C1, B3, and B4. There was no difference in AST across groups. Groups B3 and B4 exhibited higher ALT levels than groups C1 and B1. Groups B1-B4 exhibited higher urea nitrogen levels than group C1. Creatinine levels were higher in groups B2 and B3 than group C1. On morphological evaluation, fatty infiltration of the liver was observed in the alcoholic vehicle control groups (C1 and C2). CONCLUSIONS: Daily administration of B. pinnatum at therapeutic doses (group B1) to pregnant albino rats appears to be safe, with reduced glucose at dose B2, elevated ALT at doses B3 and B4, and increased urea at doses B1 to B4 and creatinine at B2 and B3, but never exceeding the normal reference range. It was not associated with histological changes in specimens of the maternal or fetal structures of interest.


Assuntos
Kalanchoe , Tocolíticos , Animais , Feminino , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
10.
Toxicol Mech Methods ; 32(4): 243-258, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34663170

RESUMO

Toxic metals such as aluminum accumulation in the brain have been associated with the pathophysiology of several neurodegenerative disorders. Bryophyllum pinnatum leaves contain a vast array of polyphenols, particularly flavonoids, that may play a role in the prevention of toxic and degenerative effects in the brain. This study assessed the neuro-restorative potential of leaves of B. pinnatum enriched flavonoid fraction (BPFRF) in aluminum-induced neurotoxicity in rats. Neurotoxicity was induced in male Wistar rats by oral administration of 150 mg/kg body weight of aluminum chloride (AlCl3) for 21 days. Rats were grouped into five (n = 6); Control (untreated), Rivastigmine group, AlCl3 group and BPFRF group (50 and 100 mg/kg b.wt.) for 21 days. Neuronal changes in the hippocampus and cortex were biochemically and histologically evaluated. Expression patterns of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) mRNA were assessed using semi-quantitative reverse-transcription-polymerase chain reaction protocols. Molecular interactions of BPFRF compounds were investigated in silico. The results revealed that oral administration of BPFRF ameliorated oxidative imbalance by augmenting antioxidant systems and decreasing lipid peroxidation caused by AlCl3. BPFRF administration also contributed to the down-regulation of AChE mRNA transcripts and improved histological features in the hippocampus and cortex. Molecular docking studies revealed strong molecular interactions between BPFRF compounds, catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase Overall, these findings suggest the neuroprotective effect of Bryophyllum pinnatum against aluminum-induced neurotoxicity.


Assuntos
Kalanchoe , Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Alumínio/toxicidade , Cloreto de Alumínio , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Flavonoides/uso terapêutico , Kalanchoe/metabolismo , Masculino , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Estresse Oxidativo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
11.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 283: 114640, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606947

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Advancement in cancer therapy has improved survival among patients. However, use of anticancer drugs like anthracyclines (e.g., doxorubicin) is not without adverse effects. Notable among adverse effects of doxorubicin (DOX) is cardiotoxicity, which ranges from mild transient blood pressure changes to potentially serious heart failure. Anecdotal reports suggest that Kalanchoe integra (KI) may have cardio-protective potential. AIMS OF THE STUDY: This study sought to determine the cardio-protective potential of KI against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity and also examined any possible genotoxic potential of KI in selected organs. Additionally, the nitric oxide modulatory potential of KI was assessed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The leaves of KI were collected, air-dried, pulverised and extracted using 70% ethanol. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprinting was done for KI. Also, the single-cell gel electrophoresis assay (Comet assay) was employed to ascertain the genotoxic potential of KI. In assessment of cardio-protective potential of KI against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity, a total of 42 female Sprague-Dawley rats were put into 7 groups (n = 6). Group I: vehicle control, received normal saline (1 mL/kg p.o) for 30 days. Group II: toxic control, received DOX (20 mg/kg i.p.) once on the 29th day. Group III: KI control, received KI (300 mg/kg p.o) for 30 days. Group IV: vitamin E control, received vitamin E (100 mg/kg p.o) for 30 days. Group V: KI treated-1, received KI (300 mg/kg p.o) for 30 days and DOX (20 mg/kg i.p) on the 29th day. Group VI: KI treated-2, received KI (600 mg/kg p.o) for 30 days and DOX (20 mg/kg i.p) on the 29th day. Group VII: vitamin E treated, received vitamin E (100 mg/kg p.o) for 30 days and DOX (20 mg/kg i.p) on the 29th day. Thirty-six (36) hours after last administration, rats were sacrificed. Blood samples were taken via cardiac puncture to determine levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), enzymatic antioxidants such as glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT). Nitric oxide level was also determined. Hearts of rats in each group were excised and taken through histopathological examination. RESULTS: In the HPLC fingerprint analysis, 13 peaks were identified, and peak with retention time of 24.0 min had the highest peak area (3.223 x104 mAU). Comet assay showed that the KI extract was non-genotoxic. Pretreatment with KI protected rats against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity as evidenced by the low levels of AST, ALT, ALP, CK and LDH compared with the controls (p < 0.05). SOD, CAT and GPX levels were also high for rats administered KI extracts, further showing that KI protected rats against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. KI also inhibited nitric oxide levels at 300 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg effective doses. Histological examination revealed that rats pretreated with KI showed no signs of abnormal myocardial fibres (shape, size and configuration). CONCLUSION: Ethanolic (70%) leaf extract of KI showed no genotoxic potential and possessed cardioprotective effects against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats. KI also inhibited nitric oxide production, thus, a potential nitric oxide scavenger.


Assuntos
Cardiotoxicidade/prevenção & controle , Doxorrubicina/toxicidade , Kalanchoe/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/toxicidade , Cardiotônicos/administração & dosagem , Cardiotônicos/isolamento & purificação , Cardiotônicos/farmacologia , Cardiotoxicidade/etiologia , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Folhas de Planta , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Vitamina E/farmacologia
12.
Plant Physiol ; 189(1): 248-263, 2022 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34935983

RESUMO

The unique mechanism by which leaf margin cells regain potency and then form a plantlet in Kalanchoë spp. remains elusive but involves organogenesis and embryogenesis in response to age, day length, nutrient availability, and drought stress. In light of this, we investigated whether TARGET OF RAPAMYCIN (TOR), a conserved protein kinase in eukaryotes that controls cell growth and metabolism in response to nutrient and energy availability, may regulate plantlet formation. Kalanchoë daigremontiana TOR (KdTOR) was expressed in the leaf margin at the site of plantlet initiation, in the early plantlet cotyledons, and in the root tip of the developed plantlet. Both chemical and genetic inhibition of TOR Kinase activity in Kalanchoë daigremontiana leaves disrupted plantlet formation. Furthermore, downregulation of KdTOR in transgenic plants led to wide-ranging transcriptional changes, including decreased K. daigremontiana SHOOTMERISTEMLESS and K. daigremontiana LEAFYCOTYLEDON1 expression, whereas auxin treatments induced KdTOR expression in the plantlet roots. These results suggest that the KdTOR pathway controls plantlet development in cooperation with auxin, organogenesis, and embryogenesis pathways. The ancient and highly conserved TOR Kinase therefore controls diverse and unique developmental pathways, such as asexual reproduction within the land plant lineage.


Assuntos
Kalanchoe , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Kalanchoe/genética , Kalanchoe/metabolismo , Reprodução Assexuada , Sirolimo/metabolismo , Sirolimo/farmacologia , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(1)2022 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36614068

RESUMO

Accumulation of anthocyanins in detached leaves and in excised stems of Kalanchoë blossfeldiana kept under natural light conditions in the presence or absence of methyl jasmonate (JA-Me) was investigated. When the abaxial surface of detached leaves was held lower than the adaxial surface (the normal or natural position) under natural light conditions, anthocyanins were not accumulated on the abaxial side of the leaves. In contrast, when the adaxial surface of detached leaves was held lower than the abaxial surface (inverted position), anthocyanins were highly accumulated on the abaxial side of the leaves. These phenomena were independent of the growth stage of K. blossfeldiana as well as photoperiod. Application of JA-Me in lanolin paste significantly inhibited anthocyanin accumulation induced on the abaxial side of detached leaves held in an inverted position in a dose-dependent manner. Anthocyanin accumulation in the excised stem in response to natural light was also significantly inhibited by JA-Me in lanolin paste. Possible mechanisms of anthocyanin accumulation on the abaxial side of detached K. blossfeldiana leaves held in an inverted position under natural light conditions and the inhibitory effect of JA-Me on this process are described. The accompanying changes in the content of primary metabolites and histological analyses were also described.


Assuntos
Antocianinas , Kalanchoe , Antocianinas/farmacologia , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Kalanchoe/metabolismo , Lanolina/metabolismo , Lanolina/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo
14.
IET Nanobiotechnol ; 15(3): 266-276, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34694671

RESUMO

A large population is suffering from multifactorial urolithiasis worldwide with a reoccurrence rate of almost 70%-80% in males and 47%-60% in females. In the present study, the nephroprotective effect of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesised by Bryophyllum pinnatum was evaluated in ethylene glycol-induced urolithiasis in rat. B. pinnatum-mediated AgNPs which were found to be spherical and polydispersed particles with an average size of 32.65 nm determined by transmission electron microscopy analysis, and showing an absorption peak at 432 nm by the UV-Vis spectrophotometric analysis, revealing the role of hydroxyl group in the synthesis by Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy analysis, with a zeta potential value of -15.7 mV. The crystalline nature and fcc structure was demonstrated based on X-ray diffraction analysis. Animal study was performed on 36 male Wistar rats divided into six equal groups, which demonstrated significant increase in serum total protein, albumin and globulin and significant decrease in AST, ALT, creatinine, BUN, calcium and phosphorus in group V and VI when compared with group II and IV. No crystalluria was observed in rats given B. pinnatum AgNPs. Histopathological observations in group V and VI showed mild degenerative changes and restoration or maintenance of kidney parenchyma when compared with group II and IV rats. Thus, the authors conclude with the beneficial preventive and therapeutic nephroprotective effect of B. pinnatum-mediated AgNPs against ethylene glycol-induced urolithiasis in rats.


Assuntos
Kalanchoe , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Urolitíase , Animais , Etilenoglicol/toxicidade , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Prata/toxicidade , Urolitíase/induzido quimicamente , Urolitíase/tratamento farmacológico , Urolitíase/prevenção & controle
15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(29): 8081-8089, 2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34279926

RESUMO

Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam) Pers. (Crassulaceae) is widely used in folk medicine as leaf juice, aqueous, or hydro-ethanolic extracts. It is also listed as a medicinal plant in several countries such as France and Brazil. The main reported constituents are flavone glycosides, especially those with the rare 3-O-α-l-arabinopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-α-l-rhamnopyranoside moiety. Despite several phytochemical screenings indicating the presence of cyanide derivatives or alkaloids, there are no reports of nitrogenous metabolite characterization from this plant species. Nevertheless, the occurrence and the type of such compounds are of particular interest, as they may account for some of the numerous biological activities and ethnomedicinal uses described for B. pinnatum and could be regarded as chemical/taxonomic markers. Consequently, a hydro-ethanolic extract of B. pinnatum was investigated by using UHPLC-HRMS/MS and the nitrile glucoside sarmentosin was detected for the first time within the genus Bryophyllum/Kalanchoe. Considering the wide use of B. pinnatum and its closely related species for health purposes, the target metabolite was isolated by a combination of centrifugal partition chromatography in elution/extrusion mode and MPLC in order to confirm its structure. A linear, selective, precise, fast, and reliable 1H NMR quantitation method was then developed and validated and may become a tool for easy quality assessment of the plant species. The amount of sarmentosin was determined as 2.07% of the examined sample. Sarmentosin was also detected in Kalanchoe laciniata, confirming the occurrence of this compound within the genus.


Assuntos
Kalanchoe , Brasil , França , Glicosídeos , Nitrilas , Extratos Vegetais , Folhas de Planta , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética
16.
Cells ; 10(6)2021 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204368

RESUMO

Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) is an important photosynthetic pathway for plant adaptation to dry environments. CAM plants feature a coordinated interaction between mesophyll and epidermis functions that involves refined regulations of gene expression. Plant microRNAs (miRNAs) are crucial post-transcription regulators of gene expression, however, their roles underlying the CAM pathway remain poorly investigated. Here, we present a study characterizing the expression of miRNAs in an obligate CAM species Kalanchoë marnieriana. Through sequencing of transcriptome and degradome in mesophyll and epidermal tissues under the drought treatments, we identified differentially expressed miRNAs that were potentially involved in the regulation of CAM. In total, we obtained 84 miRNA genes, and eight of them were determined to be Kalanchoë-specific miRNAs. It is widely accepted that CAM pathway is regulated by circadian clock. We showed that miR530 was substantially downregulated in epidermal peels under drought conditions; miR530 targeted two tandem zinc knuckle/PLU3 domain encoding genes (TZPs) that were potentially involved in light signaling and circadian clock pathways. Our work suggests that the miR530-TZPs module might play a role of regulating CAM-related gene expression in Kalanchoë.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Metabolismo Ácido das Crassuláceas/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Kalanchoe/fisiologia , MicroRNAs/fisiologia , Genes de Plantas/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Transcriptoma
17.
Pharm Biol ; 59(1): 444-456, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33930998

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Oken (Crassulaceae) is used traditionally to treat many ailments. OBJECTIVES: This study characterizes the constituents of B. pinnatum flavonoid-rich fraction (BPFRF) and investigates their antioxidant and anticholinesterase activity using in vitro and in silico approaches. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Methanol extract of B. pinnatum leaves was partitioned to yield the ethyl acetate fraction. BPFRF was isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction and purified. The constituent flavonoids were structurally characterized using UPLC-PDA-MS2. Antioxidant activity (DPPH), Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation (LP) and anticholinesterase activity (Ellman's method) of the BPFRF and standards (ascorbic acid and rivastigmine) across a concentration range of 3.125-100 µg/mL were evaluated in vitro for 4 months. Molecular docking was performed to give insight into the binding potentials of BPFRF constituents against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE). RESULTS: UPLC-PDA-MS2 analysis of BPFRF identified carlinoside, quercetin (most dominant), luteolin, isorhamnetin, luteolin-7-glucoside. Carlinoside was first reported in this plant. BPFRF significantly inhibited DPPH radical (IC50 = 7.382 ± 0.79 µg/mL) and LP (IC50 = 7.182 ± 0.60 µg/mL) better than quercetin and ascorbic acid. Also, BPFRF exhibited potent inhibition against AChE and BuChE with IC50 values of 22.283 ± 0.27 µg/mL and 33.437 ± 1.46 µg/mL, respectively compared to quercetin and rivastigmine. Docking studies revealed that luteolin-7-glucoside, carlinoside and quercetin interact effectively with crucial amino acid residues of AChE and BuChE through hydrogen bonds. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: BPFRF possesses an excellent natural source of cholinesterase inhibitor and antioxidant. The material could be further explored for the potential treatment of oxidative damage and cholinergic dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Inibidores da Colinesterase/análise , Flavonoides/análise , Kalanchoe , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Acetilcolinesterase/análise , Antioxidantes/química , Butirilcolinesterase/análise , Inibidores da Colinesterase/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Simulação por Computador , Cristalografia por Raios X/métodos , Impressões Digitais de DNA/métodos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Flavonoides/química , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos
18.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2021: 6649574, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33994883

RESUMO

Garugapinnata Roxb. (Burseraceae) is a medium-sized tree widely available all over the tropical regions of Asia. Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam) Oken. (Crassulaceae) is an indigenous and exotic plant grown in tropical regions. Both plants have been used for their anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer, wound healing, antidiabetic activities, etc. This investigation was designed to explore the result shown by methanolic extract of Garuga pinnata bark and Bryophyllum pinnatum leaves, on cognitive power and retention of the memory in experimental mice along with quantification of phenolic compounds and DPPH radicals neutralizing capacity. The memory-enhancing activity was determined by the elevated plus-maze method in Scopolamine-induced amnesic mice, using Piracetam as allopathic and Shankhpushpi as ayurvedic standard drugs. Two doses (200 and 400 mg/kg p.o.) of both extracts were administered to mice up to 8 consecutive days; transfer latency of individual group was recorded after 45 minutes and memory of the experienced things was examined after 1 day. DPPH assay method and the Folin-Ciocalteu method were employed to determine antioxidant potency and total phenol amount, respectively. 400 mg/kg of the methanolic B. pinnatum bark extract significantly improved memory and learning of mice with transfer latency (TL) of 32.75 s, which is comparable to that of standard Piracetam (21.78 s) and Shankhpushpi (27.83 s). Greater phenolic content was quantified in B. pinnatum bark extract (156.80 ± 0.33 µg GAE/mg dry extract) as well as the antioxidant potency (69.77% of free radical inhibition at the 100 µg/mL concentration). Our study proclaimed the scientific evidence for the memory-boosting effect of both plants.


Assuntos
Amnésia/tratamento farmacológico , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Burseraceae/química , Kalanchoe/química , Nootrópicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Amnésia/induzido quimicamente , Amnésia/fisiopatologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Compostos de Bifenilo/antagonistas & inibidores , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Cognição/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/fisiologia , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Memória/fisiologia , Camundongos , Nootrópicos/isolamento & purificação , Fenóis/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Picratos/antagonistas & inibidores , Piracetam/farmacologia , Casca de Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Escopolamina/administração & dosagem
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803750

RESUMO

The mode of action of 1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) to induce conspicuous local stem swelling in the area of its application to the growing internode in intact Bryophyllum calycinum was studied based on the aspects of histological observation and comprehensive analyses of plant hormones. Histological analyses revealed that NPA induced an increase in cell size and numerous cell divisions in the cortex and pith, respectively, compared to untreated stem. In the area of NPA application, vascular tissues had significantly wider cambial zones consisting of 5-6 cell layers, whereas phloem and xylem seemed not to be affected. This indicates that stem swelling in the area of NPA application is caused by stimulation of cell division and cell enlargement mainly in the cambial zone, cortex, and pith. Comprehensive analyses of plant hormones revealed that NPA substantially increased endogenous levels of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in the swelling area. NPA also increased endogenous levels of cytokinins, jasmonic acid, and its precursor, 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, but did not increase abscisic acid and gibberellin levels. It was shown, using radiolabeled 14C-IAA, that NPA applied to the middle of internode segments had little effect on polar auxin transport, while 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid substantially inhibited it. These results strongly suggest that NPA induces changes in endogenous levels of plant hormones, such as IAA, cytokinins, and jasmonic acid, and their hormonal crosstalk results in a conspicuous local stem swelling. The possible different mode of action of NPA from other polar auxin transport inhibitors in succulent plants is extensively discussed.


Assuntos
Kalanchoe/citologia , Ftalimidas/farmacologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Caules de Planta/fisiologia , Transporte Biológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Indolacéticos/farmacologia , Kalanchoe/anatomia & histologia , Caules de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
World J Urol ; 39(10): 3921-3930, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33855598

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To conduct a rigorous assessment of in-hospital morbidity after urethroplasty according with the European Association of Urology (EAU) guidelines for complication reporting. METHODS: We retrospectively (2015-2019) identified 469 consecutive patients receiving urethroplasty (e.g. bulbar urethroplasty with grafts, penile urethroplasty with/without grafts/flaps, Johanson, de novo or revision perineostomy, end-to-end anastomosis, meatoplasty and/or meatotomy) at our tertiary care institution. Complications were graded with Clavien-Dindo score and Comprehensive Complication Index (CCI). Complications were classified in: bleeding no gastrointestinal, cardiac, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, infectious, neurological, oral, wound, miscellaneous, and pulmonary. Logistic regression tested for predictors of in-hospital complications and prolonged hospitalization (> 75th percentile). Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression investigated the effect of complications on failure after urethroplasty. RESULTS: Overall, 161 (34.3%) patients experienced at least one complication. Of those, 47 (10%) experienced two or more complications and 59 (12.6%) experienced at least one Clavien-Dindo ≥ II complication. Only two patients had Clavien-Dindo III complications. Infectious was the most frequent complication, and de novo or revision perineostomy was associated with the highest rate of complications. The occurrence of any complications, as well as complication with Clavien-Dindo ≥ II were associated with prolonged hospitalizations, but not with higher rates of post-urethroplasty failure. CONCLUSIONS: Complications after urethroplasty were common events, but rarely with severe sequelae. Infectious were the most common complications and perineostomy was the type of urethroplasty with the highest rate of complications. The application of the EAU recommendations allowed the identifications of a higher number of complications after urethroplasty if compared with previous reports based on unsupervised chart review.


Assuntos
/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Estreitamento Uretral/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Urológicos Masculinos/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Kalanchoe , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Períneo/cirurgia , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/epidemiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia
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