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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e258275, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364498

RESUMO

Variety assortment enhancement is a normal task that involves enhancing the assortment's quality and upgrading varieties. The findings of a research of imported grape varieties in the southeast of Kazakhstan, namely in the Almaty region's bottom-mountain zone, are presented in this article. The onset and conclusion of the main phenological phases of a grape plant throughout the vegetative period were directly influenced by the climatic and meteorological conditions of this district. In comparison to the recognized variety Almaty early-maturing, it has been proven that types Priusadebny, Iyulsky, and Kuibyshevsk early-maturing have a high degree of eyes wintering buds and may provide a high-quality crop in this location.


O aprimoramento da variedade é uma tarefa normal que envolve o aprimoramento da qualidade da variedade e o aprimoramento das variedades. As descobertas de uma pesquisa de variedades de uvas importadas no sudeste do Cazaquistão, ou seja, na zona de base da montanha da região de Almaty, são apresentadas neste artigo. O início e a conclusão das principais fases fenológicas de uma videira ao longo do período vegetativo foram diretamente influenciados pelas condições climáticas e meteorológicas deste distrito. Em comparação com a variedade reconhecida Almaty de maturação precoce, foi comprovado que os tipos Priusadebny, Iyulsky e Kuibyshevsk de maturação precoce têm um alto grau de gomos de inverno de olhos e podem fornecer uma safra de alta qualidade neste local.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Cultivos Agrícolas , Vitis , Cazaquistão
2.
Zootaxa ; 5183(1): 58-63, 2022 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36095459

RESUMO

The new species Acaudinum (Acaudinum) rogeri sp.n. is described from Kazakhstan from Serratula coronata L. The new species is close to A. (Acaudinum) longisetosum Holman, 1970 and A. (Acaudinum) roumanicum Holman, 1991. It differs from both species in the proportion of the length of the last rostral segment to the length of the second segment of the hind tarsus (1.471.71 versus 1.221.55), the number of accessory setae on the last segment of the rostrum (46 versus 25). Fewer setae on the anterior margin of the genital plate (810 and 1024). It also differs from A. longisetosum in the ratio of siphunculi length to body length (0.130.20 versus 0.200.30), in having fewer setae on the cauda (1012 and 1317), and 8th abdominal tergite (46 in comparison with 59). From A. roumanicum with a longer second segment of the hind tarsus (0.140.19 mm and 0.120.15 mm). From A. centaureae (Koch, 1854) it is distinguished by setae on trochanters, femora, and ventral side of the body which is long and thin, and a fodder plant belonging to another genus of Asteraceae family. A comprehensive key to distinguish apterous viviparous females based on existing keys is provided.


Assuntos
Afídeos , Asteraceae , Animais , Feminino , Cazaquistão
3.
Zootaxa ; 5165(3): 405-414, 2022 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36101320

RESUMO

Illustrated descriptions of species from the Macropsidius bogutensis group from Southern Kazakhstan with data on biology, male calling signals, and distribution are provided. M. karatavicus sp. n. from Syrdaryinskiy Karatau Range is described and the synonymy M. bogutensis Mityaev, 1990 = M. zhuravlevi Mityaev, 2014, syn n. is established. Conclusions concerning the evolution of M. bogutensis species group are presented.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Biologia , Cazaquistão , Masculino
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15115, 2022 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36068280

RESUMO

We have investigated the diversity and composition of gut microbiotas isolated from AD (Alzheimer's disease) patients (n = 41) and healthy seniors (n = 43) from Nur-Sultan city (Kazakhstan). The composition of the gut microbiota was characterized by 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing. Our results demonstrated significant differences in bacterial abundance at phylum, class, order, and genus levels in AD patients compared to healthy aged individuals. Relative abundance analysis has revealed increased amount of taxa belonging to Acidobacteriota, Verrucomicrobiota, Planctomycetota and Synergistota phyla in AD patients. Among bacterial genera, microbiotas of AD participants were characterized by a decreased amount of Bifidobacterium, Clostridia bacterium, Castellaniella, Erysipelotrichaceae UCG-003, Roseburia, Tuzzerella, Lactobacillaceae and Monoglobus. Differential abundance analysis determined enriched genera of Christensenellaceae R-7 group, Prevotella, Alloprevotella, Eubacterium coprostanoligenes group, Ruminococcus, Flavobacterium, Ohtaekwangia, Akkermansia, Bacteroides sp. Marseille-P3166 in AD patients, whereas Levilactobacillus, Lactiplantibacillus, Tyzzerella, Eubacterium siraeum group, Monoglobus, Bacteroides, Erysipelotrichaceae UCG-003, Veillonella, Faecalibacterium, Roseburia, Haemophilus were depleted. We have also found correlations between some bacteria taxa and blood serum biochemical parameters. Adiponectin was correlated with Acidimicrobiia, Faecalibacterium, Actinobacteria, Oscillospiraceae, Prevotella and Christensenellaceae R-7. The Christensenellaceae R-7 group and Acidobacteriota were correlated with total bilirubin, while Firmicutes, Acidobacteriales bacterium, Castellaniella alcaligenes, Lachnospiraceae, Christensenellaceae and Klebsiella pneumoniae were correlated with the level of CRP in the blood of AD patients. In addition, we report the correlations found between disease severity and certain fecal bacteria. This is the first reported study demonstrating gut microbiota alterations in AD in the Central Asian region.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbiota , Idoso , Bactérias/genética , Bacteroides/genética , Faecalibacterium/genética , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Humanos , Cazaquistão , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
5.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2022: 3602996, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36065336

RESUMO

In Kazakhstan, barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is the second most important cereal crop after wheat, with an annual production of approximately 1.9 million tons. The study aimed to characterize Bipolaris sorokiniana isolates obtained from barley fields surveyed. A total of 21 diseased leaves showing spot blotch symptoms were collected from experimental plots located close to the Kazakh Research Institute of Agriculture and Crop Production, where the spring barley Arna cultivar was planted in June 2020. The overall strategy for control of spring barley blotch in the Almaty region of Kazakhstan should include the determination of the aggressiveness of the pathogen isolates to better understand the biology of the diseases and ultimately proper control strategy. Pathogenicity of B. sorokiniana isolates was made on barley seedlings in vitro. Inoculated seedlings showed clear symptoms of B. sorokiniana, and therefore, Koch's postulates were fulfilled by reisolating the pathogen from artificially inoculated seedlings and identifying it based on standard morphology criteria. Further investigation is needed to understand the impact of B. sorokiniana on barley production in Kazakhstan.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Hordeum , Ascomicetos/genética , Bipolaris , Hordeum/genética , Cazaquistão , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle
6.
J Environ Radioact ; 253-254: 106991, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36084569

RESUMO

The article highlights the results of a radioecological survey of the surface areas of combat boreholes at the Sary-Uzen site located on the territory of the Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS), where underground nuclear tests in these boreholes were conducted earlier. The surface areas of boreholes were examined the levels of radioactive contamination of the soil were determined. A total of 2 main groups were identified. The first group includes boreholes with radioactive contamination of the soil on the surface area. The second group includes boreholes with no radioactive contamination of the surface soil layer. The first group can be divided into boreholes with a deformation of the ground surface and without it. For each variety, depending on the specifics of the nuclear test, the characteristic features of radioactive contamination were determined. Based on the results of the survey, the ranges of specific activity values were established.


Assuntos
Monitoramento de Radiação , Radioatividade , Poluentes Radioativos do Solo , Cazaquistão , Monitoramento de Radiação/métodos , Solo , Poluentes Radioativos do Solo/análise
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 14872, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36050456

RESUMO

Records on the distribution of Rickettsia spp. in their natural hosts in Central Asia are incomplete. Rodents and small mammals are potential natural reservoirs for Rickettsiae in their natural lifecycle. Studies about the maintenance of Rickettsia in wild animals are available for Western nations, but-to our knowledge-no studies and data are available in the Republic of Kazakhstan so far. The first case description of Rickettsioses in Kazakhstan was made in the 1950ies in the Almaty region and now Kyzylorda, East Kazakhstan, Pavlodar and North Kazakhstan are endemic areas. The existence of murine and endemic typhus was proven in arthropod vectors in the regions Kyzylorda and Almaty. Here we show for the first time investigations on tick-borne Rickettsia species detected by a pan-rickettsial citrate synthase gene (gltA) real-time PCR in ear lobes of small mammals (n = 624) in Kazakhstan. From all analysed small mammals 2.72% were positive for Rickettsia raoultii, R. slovaca or R. conorii. Sequencing of the rickettsial gene OmpAIV and the 23S-5S interspacer region revealed a similar heritage of identified Rickettsia species that was observed in ticks in previous studies from the region. In summary, this study proves that rodents in Kazakhstan serve as a natural reservoir of Rickettsia spp.


Assuntos
Rickettsia , Rickettsiose do Grupo da Febre Maculosa , Carrapatos , Animais , Incidência , Cazaquistão/epidemiologia , Mamíferos/microbiologia , Camundongos , Rickettsia/genética , Rickettsiales , Roedores , Rickettsiose do Grupo da Febre Maculosa/epidemiologia , Rickettsiose do Grupo da Febre Maculosa/microbiologia , Carrapatos/microbiologia
8.
Front Public Health ; 10: 956135, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36033766

RESUMO

Background: Celiac disease (CD) is a common genetically predisposed autoimmune condition affecting the gut and other organs. Disease awareness is one of the key components of early case identification. This study aimed to assess awareness about CD among primary care physicians, who are the front-liners in suspecting the diagnosis, and other medical specialists. Methods and findings: The questionnaire for this survey-based study was created based on the latest international guidelines on CD and included a consent form, 5 general questions (age, gender, etc.), and 10 specific questions concerning CD. Overall, 232 respondents from 13 country provinces (out of 14) and two republican cities were recruited for this study. Of them, 110 (47.4%) were primary care physicians and 122 (52.6%) other medical specialists, including 10 (4.3%) gastroenterologists. A scoring system was used to classify the level of awareness of participants into 3 categories, namely, poor, fair, and good. Analysis of responses revealed poor awareness in 59.4% of physicians, associated with work in republican/province/district/rural/village hospitals (p = 0.004), male gender (p = 0.006), and age of 40-50 years (p = 0.02). The most common "myths" about CD were the following: "symptoms are always obvious in children" or "in adults" (92.5 or 88.4% of respondents, respectively); "genetic mutation HLA DQ2/DQ8 causes the development of CD in all carriers of the mutation" (51.3%); "CD is a disease of children only" (12.5%); and "is triggered by dairy products" (8.6%). Genotyping of HLA DQ genes has been recommended in case of CD suspicion by every third respondent and was advocated as a "golden standard" confirmatory test by every fifth respondent. A quarter of respondents revealed their incorrect treatment strategies: gluten-free diet for 1 month, dairy-free diet, Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy, or responded that did not know how to treat. Overall, 93.5% of respondents expressed intention to learn more about CD, while the rest 6.5% thought that they knew enough, although their knowledge was poor. Conclusion: This study revealed a poor level of awareness among physicians in Kazakhstan and identified common misconceptions about CD, which potentially could lead to incorrect application of diagnostic tests, delay in diagnosis, and inefficient treatment. Development and implementation of educational programs as well as promotion of self-learning would increase awareness and unravel misconceptions.


Assuntos
Doença Celíaca , Médicos , Adulto , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Dieta Livre de Glúten , Humanos , Cazaquistão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
9.
Virus Res ; 320: 198898, 2022 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35995240

RESUMO

An active surveillance study of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in wild birds was carried out in Kazakhstan in 2018-2019. In total, 866 samples were collected from wild birds and analyzed for influenza viruses using molecular and virological tests. Genome segments of Asian, European, and Australian lineages were detected in 25 (4.6%) out of 541 waterfowl samples positive for subtype H3N8, and in two (0.6%) out of 325 H3N8 positive samples from terrestrial birds. No highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (AIV) was detected. The results indicated transmission of closely related strains or identical subtypes of AIVs by a flock-unit of migratory birds or annual cyclical pattern of subtype dominance. The simultaneous circulation of genome segments of the Asian, European and Australian genetic lineages of H3N8 AIVs in wild birds in Kazakhstan indicated the important role of Central Asia as a transmission hub of AI viruses linking the East Asian migratory flyways with European flyways and vice versa.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N8 , Vírus da Influenza A , Influenza Aviária , Orthomyxoviridae , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Austrália , Aves , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N8/genética , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Cazaquistão/epidemiologia , Filogenia
10.
BMC Psychol ; 10(1): 193, 2022 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35933418

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Burnout is a serious problem in the training and professional development of medical students. However, there is no known data on the prevalence of burnout among medical students in Kazakhstan. This study aims at investigating burnout and associated factors in a sample of students from Astana Medical University. METHODS: The study included socio-demographic and personal questions, Oldenburg Burnout Inventory for college students (OLBI-S) and Copenhagen Burnout Inventory-Students survey (CBI-S) to measure burnout. Statistical analyses included measures of descriptive statistics and regression analysis for evaluating burnout-associated factors. RESULTS: In total, 736 medical students responded. The prevalence of burnout syndrome was 28% (CBI-S) and 31% (OLBI-S). There was a significant association between the prevalence and the level of burnout and student's gender, year of study, thoughts of dropping out, suicidal ideation, satisfaction with the chosen profession and academic performance, interpersonal relationship problems, the decision to study in medical school, smoking, accommodation, parental expectations, alcohol use, extracurricular activities, part-time job, somatic symptoms, depression, and anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: The factors associated with burnout were identified, which complements and expands the existing data on academic burnout. The data obtained can help in organizing psychological assistance for medical students in Kazakhstan.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional , Estudantes de Medicina , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Esgotamento Profissional/complicações , Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Humanos , Cazaquistão/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Faculdades de Medicina , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 23(8): 2813-2819, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36037138

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Diagnosis of breast cancer is associated with high psychological distress. There is a lack of studies examining the prevalence of anxiety among newly diagnosed breast cancer patients in Kazakhstan. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess the mean prevalence and associated sociodemographic and clinical factors of anxiety symptoms in women newly diagnosed with breast cancer. It also aims to determine independent predictors of anxiety risk. METHODS: An analysis of 162 newly diagnosed breast cancer patients at the oncology institute in Almaty was performed. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire on social, demographic, and clinical information, as well as the Beck Anxiety Inventory. In addition, multiple regression analysis was used to model the relationship between anxiety risk and independent predictors. RESULTS: The average age of the patients was 54.41 years (SD=8.1; min.-max: 32-75). The majority of the patients were married (52%), employed or self-employed (51%), had children (91%), had a bachelor's or a graduate degree (50%), lived in an urban area (54%), did not drink (41%), did not smoke (67%), did not engage in physical activity (54%), and had social support (91%). A total of 48% of patients had symptoms of moderate anxiety, and 33% had symptoms of severe anxiety. Based on the multivariate analysis, factors associated with a lower risk of anxiety symptoms included higher household income (OR -2.21 (95 CI: -1.35, -3.07)) and having reliable social support (OR -2.93 (95% CI: -2.25, -3.61)). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of anxiety symptoms is very high among newly diagnosed breast cancer patients. Anxiety is more likely to develop in patients from low-income households and those without reliable social support.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Criança , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Cazaquistão/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Georgian Med News ; (326): 36-39, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35959874

RESUMO

In the world, stroke suffers 5.6-6 million people a year. Stroke deaths are predicted to rise to 6.7 million in 2015 and to 7.8 million in 2030. Stroke is the leading cause of disability worldwide. The provision of specific therapy to patients with stroke in the form of thrombolytic therapy and neurosurgical operations are recognized international standards in the provision of medical care. The advent of computed tomography (CT) in the early 1980s made it possible to further study TLT. In 2014 Joanna M WardlawVeronic, MurrayEivind, Berge Gregory, J del Zoppo searched the Cochrane Stroke Trial Registry (Last November 2013), MEDLINE (1966 to November 2013) and at EMBASE (from 1980 to November 2013). We concluded that thrombolytic therapy administered within six hours of a stroke reduces the proportion of deaths or disability. The dependence of the efficacy and safety of fibrinolytic therapy on the time of its initiation has been demonstrated in a number of large studies. A pooled analysis of the results of the NINDS, ECASS I and II, ATLANTIS studies (n = 2775) showed that the odds ratio (OR) of a favorable outcome of the disease when thrombolysis was initiated in the first 90 minutes of a stroke. Thus, time is the most important condition for the effectiveness of TLT. In addition to the time factor, it is important to take into account the age of patients during TLT. F. Mateen et al. analyzed data from the Canadian TLT registry for patients aged 80 to 89 years and 90 to 99 years. Thus, thrombolysis in patients of various age groups, including those aged 80 to 89 years and older, is equally safe and effective.


Assuntos
Fibrinolíticos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Terapia Trombolítica , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Canadá , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Cazaquistão , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Trombolítica/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 847: 157562, 2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35901895

RESUMO

Kazakhstan is part of the Eurasian Steppes, the world's largest contiguous grassland system. Kazakh grassland systems are largely understudied despite being historically important for agropastoral practices. These grasslands are considered vulnerable to anthropogenic activities and climatic variability. Few studies have examined vegetation dynamics in Central Asia owing to the complex impacts of moisture, climatic and anthropogenic forcings. A comprehensive analysis of spatiotemporal changes of vegetation and its driving factors will help elucidate the causes of grassland degradation. Here, we investigated the individual and pairwise interactive influences of various social-environmental system (SES) drivers on greenness dynamics in Kazakhstan. We sought to examine whether there is a relationship between peak season greenness and its drivers - spring drought, preceding winter freeze-thaw cycles, percent snow cover and snow depth - for Kazakhstan during 2000-2016. As hypothesized, snow depth and spring drought accounted for 60 % and 52 % of the variance in the satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) in Kazakhstan. The freeze-thaw process accounted for 50 % of NDVI variance across the country. In addition, continuous thawing during the winter increased vegetation greenness. We also found that moisture and topographic factors impacted NDVI more significantly than socioeconomic factors. However, the impacts of socioeconomic drivers on vegetation growth were amplified when they interacted with environmental drivers. Terrain slope and soil moisture had the highest q-values or power of determinant, accounting for ~70 % of the variance in NDVI across the country. Socioeconomic drivers, such as crop production (59 %), population density (48 %), and livestock density (26 %), had significant impacts on vegetation dynamics in Kazakhstan. We found that most of the pairwise interactive influences of the drivers exhibited bi-factor enhancement, and the interaction between soil moisture and elevation was the largest (q = 0.92). Our study revealed the optimal ranges and tipping points of SES drivers and quantified the impacts of various driving factors on NDVI. These findings can help us identify the factors causing grassland degradation and provide a scientific basis for ecological protection in semiarid regions.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Monitoramento Ambiental , Ecossistema , Cazaquistão , Estações do Ano , Neve , Solo
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35886338

RESUMO

Kazakhstan is known as a country with a complex radioecological situation resulting from different sources such as a natural radiation background, extensive activities of the industrial system of the former Soviet Union and a well-known testing of nuclear power weapons occurred in the Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS) area. The present study focuses on the assessment of the background of dicentric chromosomes in Kazakhstan's population, which is the starting point in the dose assessment of irradiated people, since the baseline level of spontaneous dicentrics can vary significantly in different populations. In this context, aiming to determine the background frequency of chromosome aberrations in the population of Kazakhstan, considering the heterogeneity of natural radiation background levels of its large territory, a selection of 40 control subjects living in four cities of North, South, West and East Kazakhstan was performed. The cytogenetic study on the selected groups showed fairly low background frequency values of chromosome aberrations (0.84 ± 0.83 per 1000 cells), comparable with other data in the literature on general populations, reporting background frequency values between 0.54 and 2.99 per 1000 cells. The obtained results should be taken into account when constructing the dose-effect calibration curve used in cytogenetic biodosimetry, as a "zero" dose point, which will reduce the uncertainty in quantifying the individual absorbed dose in emergency radiological situations.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Biológico , Guerra Nuclear , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Humanos , Cazaquistão/epidemiologia , U.R.S.S.
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35897300

RESUMO

Water stress in countries within a drainage basin exacerbates the water quantity conflict in transboundary rivers. However, few studies considered the invisible effect of virtual water transfer on water quantity conflict by intensifying water stress. Therefore, this study, with Ili River as the case, collects data on Virtual Water Trade (VWT) from 1990 to 2015, uses water stress index (WSI) to assess water stress values under two scenarios (with or without virtual water transfer), and takes Grey Verhulst Model to predict two scenarios water stress values respectively. Next, based on the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) Algorithm, this study compares the water quantity conflict intensity of the two scenarios, and further explores the invisible effect of virtual water transfer on the conflicts among transboundary rivers. Results show: (1) During the study period (1990-2015), water stress in China and Kazakhstan along the banks of Ili River increased in general. (2) China was basically a net exporter of virtual water during 1990-1995, and Kazakhstan became a net exporter after 1995. (3) During 2020-2025, water conflict value of Ili River without virtual water transfer is 0.458, while the value rises to 0.622 with virtual water transfer, indicating that virtual water transfer between China and Kazakhstan has an invisible enhancement on the water quantity conflict of Ili River. (4) The intensified water quantity conflict is mainly caused by the more and more serious water stress in Kazakhstan. On such basis, it is more urgent for Kazakhstan to restructure its economy and trade.


Assuntos
Desidratação , Rios , China , Humanos , Cazaquistão , Rios/química
16.
Ann Med ; 54(1): 1988-1993, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35833752

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the age at recognition and presentation for surgery for congenital and developmental cataract at Kazakh Eye Research Institute in Kazakhstan. METHODS: A retrospective review of children aged 0-18 years, who presented with congenital and developmental cataract between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2020. All medical records were reviewed. Gender, age at recognition, age at surgery, laterality, residential location (rural/urban) were recorded. RESULTS: The study population included 897 patients of children presented with congenital and developmental cataract over a 10-year study period, 58% of them were boys and 44.6% were from rural areas. Cataract was bilateral in 621 (69.2%) and unilateral in 276 (30.8%) of patients. Median age at recognition for patients with congenital/developmental cataract was 12 months. Median age at surgery for congenital/developmental cataract was 51 months. Only 14.7% of children underwent surgery within first year of life. The urban citizens underwent surgery earlier than patients from rural areas. The median delay in presentation for surgery was 15 months. CONCLUSION: The average age at cataract surgery in the population of Kazakhstan is much older than in developed countries. It is essential to study barriers that associated with delayed presentation to build strategies to overcome them.Key messagesIt is known that cataract surgery in children early in life provides favourable visual outcome.Children with congenital and developmental cataract in Kazakhstan experience delay in surgical treatment.Children from rural areas undergo cataract surgery later than urban citizens.


Assuntos
Extração de Catarata , Catarata , Catarata/congênito , Catarata/epidemiologia , Criança , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Cazaquistão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acuidade Visual
17.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0272008, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35895743

RESUMO

COVID-19 exposure in Central Asia appears underestimated and SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence data are urgently needed to inform ongoing vaccination efforts and other strategies to mitigate the regional pandemic. Here, in a pilot serologic study we assessed the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibody-mediated immunity in a multi-ethnic cohort of public university employees in Karaganda, Kazakhstan. Asymptomatic subjects (n = 100) were recruited prior to their first COVID-19 vaccination. Questionnaires were administered to capture a range of demographic and clinical characteristics. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected for SARS-CoV-2 RT-qPCR testing. Serological assays were performed to detect spike (S)-reactive IgG and IgA and to assess virus neutralization. Pre-pandemic samples were used to validate the assay positivity thresholds. S-IgG and -IgA seropositivity rates among SARS-CoV-2 PCR-negative participants (n = 100) were 42% (95% CI [32.2-52.3]) and 59% (95% CI [48.8-69.0]), respectively, and 64% (95% CI [53.4-73.1]) of the cohort tested positive for at least one of the antibodies. S-IgG titres correlated with virus neutralization activity, detectable in 49% of the tested subset with prior COVID-19 history. Serologically confirmed history of COVID-19 was associated with Kazakh ethnicity, but not with other ethnic minorities present in the cohort, and self-reported history of respiratory illness since March 2020. Overall, SARS-CoV-2 exposure in this cohort was ~15-fold higher compared to the reported all-time national and regional COVID-19 prevalence, consistent with recent studies of excess infection and death in Kazakhstan. Continuous serological surveillance provides important insights into COVID-19 transmission dynamics and may be used to better inform the regional public health response.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Anticorpos Antivirais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Teste para COVID-19 , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Humanos , Imunoglobulina A , Imunoglobulina G , Cazaquistão/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Vacinação
18.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 87: 101854, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35779358

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to isolate and identify strains of infectious disease pathogens and to determine their antibacterial drug resistance. From 2018-2020, 5322 samples of biological material from animals and birds, products of animal origin were taken at retail outlets, livestock enterprises in Kostanay and North Kazakhstan regions. In the study territories of 20 districts and 4 cities were covered. Phenotypic resistance analysis of the recovered isolates of Salmonella spp. showed a high level of resistance to antibiotics of the tetracyclines (82/137) and nitrofurans (81/137) groups. S. aureus isolates had increased resistance to the ß-lactams (124/131) and macrolides (96/131) groups. As a result, the largest number of genes encoding resistance was found to the ß-lactams, aminoglycosides, tetracyclines and macrolides groups. The study was carried out within the framework of the project AR05131447 "Monitoring of antibiotic resistance of pathogens of enteropathogenic zooanthroponosis diseases in the Northern Kazakhstan".


Assuntos
Enterobacteriaceae , Staphylococcus aureus , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Cazaquistão/epidemiologia , Macrolídeos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/veterinária , Tetraciclinas , beta-Lactamas
19.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0269474, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35657822

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Very little is known about the prevalence of refractive errors among children in Kazakhstan. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of refractive errors and risk factors of myopia among schoolchildren in Almaty, Kazakhstan. METHODS: In the cross-sectional study of 2293 secondary school students (age 6-16), we examined cycloplegic autorefraction and offered a questionnaire in three age groups: 1st grade (N = 769), 5th grade (N = 768) and 9th grade (N = 756). The questionnaire covered main risk factors such as parental myopia, screen time, time outdoors, sports activities, near work, gender, grade, and school shift. Adjusted logistic regression analysis was applied to test the association of risk factors with myopia. RESULTS: The mean spherical equivalent (SER) was -0.54 ± 1.51 diopters (D). The overall prevalence of refractive errors was 31.6% (95% confidence interval (CI) 29.7; 33.5); myopia 28.3% (95% CI 26.5; 30.1); hyperopia 3.4% (95% CI 2.7-4.1) and astigmatism 2.8% (95% CI 2.1; 3.5). In the multivariate adjusted regression analysis, higher class level (5th grade (odds ratio (OR) 1.78; 95% CI 1.26; 2.52) and 9th grade (OR 3.34; 95% CI 2.31; 4.82)) were associated with myopia, whereas outdoors activity more than 2 hours a day (OR 0.64; 95% CI 0.46; 0.89) and sports (OR 0.70; 95% CI 0.52; 0.93) were associated with a lower incidence of myopia. CONCLUSIONS: Myopia is a leading refractive error in schoolchildren in Almaty, Kazakhstan. Myopia prevention measures, including more time outdoors, should guide public health interventions in this population.


Assuntos
Miopia , Erros de Refração , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Lactente , Cazaquistão/epidemiologia , Miopia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Erros de Refração/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
20.
J Prev Med Public Health ; 55(3): 273-279, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35678001

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to present the baseline results of a pilot project conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of lung cancer screening using low-dose chest computed tomography (CT) in regions with excessive radon levels in the Republic of Kazakhstan. METHODS: In total, 3671 participants were screened by low-dose chest CT. Current, former, and never-smokers who resided in regions with elevated levels of radon in drinking water sources and indoor air, aged between 40 and 75 with no history of any cancer, and weighing less than 140 kg were included in the study. All lung nodules were categorized according to the American College of Radiology Lung Imaging Reporting and Data System (Lung-RADS 1.0). RESULTS: Overall, 614 (16.7%) participants had positive baseline CT findings (Lung-RADS categories 3 and 4). Seventy-four cancers were detected, yielding an overall cancer detection rate of 2.0%, with 10.8% (8/74) stage I and a predominance of stage III (59.4%; 44/74). Women never-smokers and men current smokers had the highest cancer detection rates, at 2.9% (12/412) and 6.1% (12/196), respectively. Compared to never-smokers, higher odds ratios (ORs) of lung cancer detection were found in smokers (OR,2.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.52 to 4.05, p<0.001) and former smokers (OR, 2.32; 95% CI, 1.06 to 5.06, p=0.003). The most common histologic type of cancer was adenocarcinoma (58.1%). CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of low-dose CT screening for lung cancer in regions with elevated radon levels is an effective method for both smokers and never-smokers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Radônio , Adulto , Idoso , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Cazaquistão/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Fumar/epidemiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
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