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1.
Infect Genet Evol ; 104: 105362, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36084837

RESUMO

Porcine kobuvirus (PKV) infection is very common in both healthy pigs and diarrhea pigs throughout the world. However, there is no proof that it causes diarrhea, and little is known about its role in diarrhea. There are only a few reports concerning porcine kobuvirus separation at present, which makes investigating its invasion and pathogenesis mechanisms difficult. This study sequenced the entire genome of a porcine kobuvirus strain termed "Wuhan2020" after it was isolated from intestinal tissue samples of healthy piglets. The analysis results revealed that it shared the most resemblance with the WUH1 strain (89.5%) and belonged to the same evolutionary branch as the Hungarian strain S-1-SUN. The PKV was located using the in situ hybridization (ISH) approach, which revealed that it was colonized in intestinal villus epithelial cells and lymphocytes in the Peyer's patch. In general, we analyzed the genetic evolution of PKV, discovered PKV susceptible cells and determined PKV localization in the intestine of infected pigs, providing a reference for future research.


Assuntos
Kobuvirus , Infecções por Picornaviridae , Doenças dos Suínos , Animais , China , Diarreia , Fezes , Genômica , Intestinos , Kobuvirus/genética , Filogenia , Infecções por Picornaviridae/veterinária , Análise de Sequência , Suínos
2.
Microb Pathog ; 170: 105703, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35934204

RESUMO

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) frequently causes diarrhea outbreaks. However, whether newly discovered enteric viruses such as porcine kobuvirus (PKV) and porcine astroviruses (PAstVs) are also correlated with diarrhea is still unclear. Diarrhea outbreaks were reported in a PEDV-vaccinated pig farm in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China from 2019 to 2020. PEDV was a common pathogen detected in fecal samples by routine RT-PCR assays. The PEDV positive fecal sample was used for pathogenic analysis due to the failure isolation of PEDV. The challenged neonatal piglets appeared watery diarrhea within one day post infection (dpi) and all died within 6 dpi. Histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations supported that PEDV is a major pathogen causing intestinal lesions. To further explore enteric viruses associated with neonatal piglet diarrhea, metagenomics sequencing was performed for the diarrheic piglets. Remarkably, PKV was the most abundant virus (58.33%) followed by PEDV (34.45%) and PAstVs (7.22%), which were also confirmed by real-time RT-PCR assays. Significant in vivo replications of PEDV and PKV could only be observed in challenged piglets whilst PAstVs maintained similar virus loads in both challenged and mock infected piglets. Overall, this study provides first pathogenic and metagenomic evidence that significant proliferations of PEDV and PKV are closely associated with severe diarrhea in neonatal piglets, while PAstVs likely play limited roles in neonatal piglet diarrhea.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Kobuvirus , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína , Doenças dos Suínos , Animais , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Kobuvirus/genética , Mamastrovirus , Metagenômica , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína/genética , Suínos
3.
Viruses ; 14(6)2022 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35746688

RESUMO

Bovine astrovirus (BoAstV) is a small non-enveloped virus with a single-stranded positive-sense RNA. In 1978, BoAstV was first found in calf diarrhea fecal samples in the United Kingdom and since then it has been reported in many other countries. It has wide tissue tropism and can infect multiple organs, including the intestine, nerves and respiratory tract. Since BoAstV is prevalent in healthy as well as clinically infected bovines, and is mostly associated with co-infection with other viruses, the pathogenic nature of BoAstV is still unclear. At present, there are no stable passage cell lines available for the study of BoAstV and animal model experiments have not been described. In addition, it has been reported that BoAstV may have the possibility of cross-species transmission. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge about BoAstV, including the epidemiology, evolution analysis, detection methods, pathogenesis and potential cross species transmission, to provide reference for further research of BoAstV.


Assuntos
Infecções por Astroviridae , Doenças dos Bovinos , Kobuvirus , Animais , Infecções por Astroviridae/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Fezes
4.
Front Public Health ; 10: 865605, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35517645

RESUMO

Background: Murine Kobuvirus (MuKV) is a novel picornavirus of the genus Kobuvirus, and was first identified in the feces of murine rodents in the USA in 2011. There is limited information on the transmission route of MuKV. Thus, we conducted a study to investigate virus detection rates in fecal, serum, throat, and lung tissue samples from murine rodents. Results: A total of 413 fecal samples, 385 lung samples, 269 throat swab samples, and 183 serum samples were collected from 413 murine rodents (Rattus norvegicus, Rattus tanezumi, and Rattus rattus) captured in urban Shenzhen. Kobuviruses were detected via RT-PCR. Only fecal samples were positive, with prevalence rates of 34.9% in Rattus norvegicus and 29.4% in Rattus tanezumi. Phylogenetic analysis based on partial 3D and complete VP1 sequence regions indicated that all of the MuKV sequences obtained belonged to Aichivirus A, and were genetically closely related to other MuKVs reported in China, Hungary, and the USA. Twenty-eight full-length MuKV sequences were acquired. Phylogenetic analysis of two sequences randomly selected from the two species (SZ59 and SZ171) indicated that they shared very high nucleotide and amino acid identity with one another (94.0 and 99.3%, respectively), and comparison with human Kobuvirus revealed amino acid identity values of ~80%. Additionally, a sewage-derived sequence shared high similarity with the rat-derived sequences identified in this study, with respective nucleotide and amino acid identity values from 86.5 and 90.7% to 87.2 and 91.1%. Conclusion: The results of the current study provide evidence that murine Kobuvirus is transmitted via the fecal-oral route.


Assuntos
Kobuvirus , Aminoácidos , Animais , Fezes , Kobuvirus/genética , Camundongos , Nucleotídeos , Filogenia , Ratos
5.
J Virol ; 96(7): e0008222, 2022 04 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35293769

RESUMO

Kobuviruses are an unusual and poorly characterized genus within the picornavirus family and can cause gastrointestinal enteric disease in humans, livestock, and pets. The human kobuvirus Aichi virus (AiV) can cause severe gastroenteritis and deaths in children below the age of 5 years; however, this is a very rare occurrence. During the assembly of most picornaviruses (e.g., poliovirus, rhinovirus, and foot-and-mouth disease virus), the capsid precursor protein VP0 is cleaved into VP4 and VP2. However, kobuviruses retain an uncleaved VP0. From studies with other picornaviruses, it is known that VP4 performs the essential function of pore formation in membranes, which facilitates transfer of the viral genome across the endosomal membrane and into the cytoplasm for replication. Here, we employ genome exposure and membrane interaction assays to demonstrate that pH plays a critical role in AiV uncoating and membrane interactions. We demonstrate that incubation at low pH alters the exposure of hydrophobic residues within the capsid, enhances genome exposure, and enhances permeabilization of model membranes. Furthermore, using peptides we demonstrate that the N terminus of VP0 mediates membrane pore formation in model membranes, indicating that this plays an analogous function to VP4. IMPORTANCE To initiate infection, viruses must enter a host cell and deliver their genome into the appropriate location. The picornavirus family of small nonenveloped RNA viruses includes significant human and animal pathogens and is also a model to understand the process of cell entry. Most picornavirus capsids contain the internal protein VP4, generated from cleavage of a VP0 precursor. During entry, VP4 is released from the capsid. In enteroviruses this forms a membrane pore, which facilitates genome release into the cytoplasm. Due to high levels of sequence similarity, it is expected to play the same role for other picornaviruses. Some picornaviruses, such as Aichi virus, retain an intact VP0, and it is unknown how these viruses rearrange their capsids and induce membrane permeability in the absence of VP4. Here, we have used Aichi virus as a model VP0 virus to test for conservation of function between VP0 and VP4. This could enhance understanding of pore function and lead to development of novel therapeutic agents that block entry.


Assuntos
Kobuvirus , Animais , Capsídeo/metabolismo , Proteínas do Capsídeo/metabolismo , Humanos , Kobuvirus/genética , Kobuvirus/metabolismo , Internalização do Vírus
6.
Vet Microbiol ; 266: 109366, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35176608

RESUMO

Swine are an important food source worldwide and producers may not always be aware of the variety of the pathogens infecting their herds, particularly viruses. In this study, 12 enteric viruses were monitored in a total of 181 diarrheic and healthy piglets; namely porcine astrovirus groups 1-5 (poAstV1-5), rotavirus A and C (RVA-RVC), caliciviruses (CaVs), porcine kobuvirus (PoK), hepatitis E virus (HEV), and torque teno sus virus 1 and k2 (TTsuV1-k2). All animals were sampled before 3 weeks of age, and then at 5, 12 and 20 weeks of age. In addition to the 12 targeted viruses, the virome of 12 piglets at 4 different life stages was characterized using a high-throughput sequencing approach. The presence of CaV (sapovirus), poAstV-3 or poAstV-5 was found to be a risk factor for neonatal diarrhea. Co-infections with RVC and poAstV-2, poAstV-3, and poAstV-4 and CaV co-infected with PoK or poAstV-4 were also found to be risk factors for diarrhea in piglets. RVC, PoK, poAstV-3 and poAstV-4 were the most prevalent viruses in piglets below 3 weeks of age. PoAstV-2, poAstV-4, TTsuV1 and TTsuVk2 were found to be the most prevalent viruses infecting piglets of 20 weeks of age. The enteric virome composition varied between healthy and diarrheic piglets. The alpha and beta diversity of the enteric viromes varied from under 3 weeks of age to 20 weeks and was mainly supported by phages. Overall, this study sheds new light on enteric virome dynamics and the virome's relationship with neonatal diarrhea.


Assuntos
Kobuvirus , Doenças dos Suínos , Animais , Diarreia/veterinária , Fezes , Filogenia , Suínos , Viroma
7.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0260161, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35030164

RESUMO

Many enteric viruses are found in pig farms around the world and can cause death of animals or important production losses for breeders. Among the wide spectrum of enteric viral species, porcine Sapelovirus (PSV), porcine Kobuvirus (PKoV) and porcine Astrovirus (PAstV) are frequently found in pig feces. In this study we investigated sixteen pig farms in Corsica, France, to evaluate the circulation of three enteric viruses (PKoV, PAstV-1 and PSV). In addition to the three viruses studied by RT-qPCR (908 pig feces samples), 26 stool samples were tested using the Next Generation Sequencing method (NGS). Our results showed viral RNA detection rates (i) of 62.0% [58.7-65.1] (n = 563/908) for PSV, (ii) of 44.8% [41.5-48.1] (n = 407/908) for PKoV and (iii) of 8.6% [6.8-10.6] (n = 78/908) for PAstV-1. Significant differences were observed for all three viruses according to age (P-value = 2.4e-13 for PAstV-1; 2.4e-12 for PKoV and 0.005 for PSV). The type of breeding was significantly associated with RNA detection only for PAstV-1 (P-value = 9.6e-6). Among the 26 samples tested with NGS method, consensus sequences corresponding to 10 different species of virus were detected. This study provides first insight on the presence of three common porcine enteric viruses in France. We also showed that they are frequently encountered in pigs born and bred in Corsica, which demonstrates endemic local circulation.


Assuntos
Kobuvirus
8.
Rev Argent Microbiol ; 54(2): 100-105, 2022.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34148730

RESUMO

We describe a case of neurotropic bovine astrovirus-associated encephalitis in a Jersey dairy cow from the department of San José, Uruguay. This represents the second case of this condition reported in the Southern Hemisphere. The cow was the only one affected in a herd of 70 cows, showing neurological signs with a 2-day clinical course, before dying spontaneously. Histopathological examination revealed lymphocytic, histiocytic, and plasmacytic meningoencephalitis with neuronal necrosis, without detectable inclusion bodies. Other infectious agents, including Rabies virus(Lyssavirus), Bovine alphaherpesvirus-1 and Bovine alphaherpesvirus-5(Varicellovirus), Bovine viral diarrhea virus(Pestivirus), West Nile virus(Flavivirus), Listeria monocytogenes, Histophilus somni and other bacteria, were not detected in the brain. We propose that given the recent discovery of neurotropic astroviruses in various mammalian species, including humans, cases of astrovirus encephalitis may have gone undetected in South America. We briefly discuss the differential pathologic diagnosis of infectious bovine encephalitis.


Assuntos
Infecções por Astroviridae , Astroviridae , Doenças dos Bovinos , Encefalite , Kobuvirus , Animais , Infecções por Astroviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Astroviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Astroviridae/veterinária , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Encefalite/diagnóstico , Encefalite/veterinária , Feminino , Mamíferos
9.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 69(3): 1649-1655, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33788413

RESUMO

Kobuviruses are known to infect the gastrointestinal tract of different animal species. Since its discovery in 2003, bovine kobuvirus (BKV) has been identified in faecal samples from diarrhoeic cattle in many countries, but only recently in North America. Although its possible role as an agent of calf diarrhoea remains to be determined, evidence is mounting. Our study reports for the first time the detection of BKV in faecal samples from diarrhoeic calves raised in Quebec, Canada. BKV was more commonly identified than eight known and common enteric calf pathogens. Further sequence analysis revealed that Canada BKV strain 1,043,507 was more closely correlated with the US BKV IL35164 strain than other BKV strains with complete genome. Continued surveillance and genomic characterization are needed to monitor BKV in the cattle around the world.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Kobuvirus , Infecções por Picornaviridae , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/veterinária , Fezes , Kobuvirus/genética , Filogenia , Infecções por Picornaviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Picornaviridae/veterinária , Quebeque/epidemiologia
10.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 09 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34696337

RESUMO

Calf diarrhea is one of the common diseases involved in the process of calf feeding. In this study, a sample of calf diarrhea that tested positive for bovine coronavirus and bovine astrovirus was subjected to high-throughput sequencing. The reassembly revealed the complete genomes of bovine norovirus, bovine astrovirus, bovine kobuvirus, and the S gene of bovine coronavirus. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the ORF2 region of bovine astrovirus had the lowest similarity with other strains and gathered in the Mamastrovirus unclassified genogroup, suggesting a new serotype/genotype could appear. Compared with the most closely related strain, there are six amino acid mutation sites in the S gene of bovine coronavirus, most of which are located in the S1 subunit region. The bovine norovirus identified in our study was BNoV-GIII 2, based on the VP1 sequences. The bovine kobuvirus is distributed in the Aichi virus B genus; the P1 gene shows as highly variable, while the 3D gene is highly conserved. These findings enriched our knowledge of the viruses in the role of calf diarrhea, and help to develop an effective strategy for disease prevention and control.


Assuntos
Diarreia/etiologia , Genoma Viral/genética , Animais , Astroviridae/genética , Bovinos/virologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Coronavirus/genética , Diarreia/virologia , Fezes/virologia , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Kobuvirus/genética , Norovirus/genética , Filogenia , Vírus/genética
11.
J Gen Virol ; 102(9)2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486970

RESUMO

Recently, murine kobuvirus (MuKV), a novel member of the family Picornaviridae, was identified in faecal samples of Rattus norvegicus in China. The limited information on the circulation of MuKV in other murine rodent species prompted us to investigate its prevalence and conduct a genetic characterization of MuKV in Rattus losea, Rattus tanezumi and Rattus norvegicus in China. Between 2015 and 2017, 243 faecal samples of these three murine rodent species from three regions in southern China were screened for the presence of MuKV. The overall prevalence was 23.0% (56/243). Three complete MuKV polyprotein sequences were acquired, and the genome organization was determined. Phylogenetic analyses suggested that our sequences were closely related to Chinese strains and belong to the species Aichivirus A in the genus Kobuvirus. Additional studies are required to understand the true prevalence of MuKV in murine rodent populations in China.


Assuntos
Fezes/virologia , Kobuvirus/genética , Infecções por Picornaviridae/veterinária , Ratos/virologia , Doenças dos Roedores/virologia , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Genoma Viral , Kobuvirus/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Infecções por Picornaviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Picornaviridae/virologia , Poliproteínas/genética , Prevalência , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Proteínas Virais/genética
12.
Arch Virol ; 166(9): 2591-2596, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244861

RESUMO

Between 2016 and 2018, the prevalence of porcine kobuvirus (PKoV) and porcine astrovirus (PAstV) in Korean wild boars (n = 845) was 28.0% and 10.7%, respectively. Coinfection by both viruses was detected in 5.1% of boars. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 134 PKoV isolates belonged to diverse lineages within the species Aichivirus C; however, one strain (WKoV16CN-8627) clustered with bovine kobuvirus (Aichivirus B). Forty-seven PAstVs belonged to lineage PAstV4, and only one strain (WAst17JN-10931) was a novel addition to lineage PAstV2. The two viruses were more prevalent in boars weighing ≤ 60 kg than in boars weighing > 61 kg.


Assuntos
Kobuvirus/classificação , Kobuvirus/isolamento & purificação , Mamastrovirus/classificação , Mamastrovirus/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Sus scrofa/virologia , Animais , Infecções por Astroviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Astroviridae/virologia , Bovinos , DNA Viral , Diarreia/virologia , Fezes/virologia , Genótipo , Kobuvirus/genética , Mamastrovirus/genética , Prevalência , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia
14.
Virus Res ; 299: 198437, 2021 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33901591

RESUMO

Viruses are the primary cause of acute gastroenteritis in children all over the world. Understanding the emergence and genetic variation of these viruses may help to prevent infections. Aichivirus (AiV) is a member of the Kobuvirus genus, which currently contains six officially recognized species: Aichivirus A-F. The species AiV A contains six types including Aichivirus 1 (AiV 1) and eventually, three genotypes have been identified in the human AiV 1 (named A to C). The present study describes the identification and sequencing of the polyprotein gene of a human AiV 1 strain PAK419 via NGS in Pakistani children with acute gastroenteritis. Our study strain PAK419 was classified as AiV 1 genotype A, most commonly found in Japan and Europe, and closely related to non-Japanese and European strains on the phylogenetic tree. PAK419 showed 95-98 % nucleotide sequence identity with strains isolated from Ethiopia (ETH/2016/P4), Australia (FSS693) and China (Chshc7). On phylogenetic observation PAK419 formed a distinct cluster in the AiV 1 genotype A with the above mentioned and other human AiV strains detected around the world (Germany, Brazil, Japan, Thailand, Korea and Vietnam). The data clearly showed that Pakistani AiV strains and human strains identified from all over the world are distinct from Aichivirus strains found in bovine, swine, canine, feline, caprine, ferret, bat, and environmental samples. The distinguishing characteristics of the AiV genome showed a lower probability of inter-genotypic recombination events, which may support the lack of AiV serotypes. PAK419 also had a high content of C nucleotide (37.4 %), as found in previous studies, which could also restrict the possible genetic variation of AiV. This study demonstrate the power of NGS in uncovering unknown gastroenteric etiological agents circulating in the population.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite , Kobuvirus , Infecções por Picornaviridae , Animais , Gatos , Bovinos , Cães , Fezes , Furões , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Cabras , Humanos , Kobuvirus/genética , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Infecções por Picornaviridae/veterinária , Suínos
15.
Viruses ; 13(4)2021 03 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805214

RESUMO

Enteric viruses are the leading cause of diarrhea in children globally. Identifying viral agents and understanding their genetic diversity could help to develop effective preventive measures. This study aimed to determine the detection rate and genetic diversity of four enteric viruses in Gabonese children aged below five years. Stool samples from children <5 years with (n = 177) and without (n = 67) diarrhea were collected from April 2018 to November 2019. Norovirus, astrovirus, sapovirus, and aichivirus A were identified using PCR techniques followed by sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. At least one viral agent was identified in 23.2% and 14.9% of the symptomatic and asymptomatic participants, respectively. Norovirus (14.7%) and astrovirus (7.3%) were the most prevalent in children with diarrhea, whereas in the healthy group norovirus (9%) followed by the first reported aichivirus A in Gabon (6%) were predominant. The predominant norovirus genogroup was GII, consisting mostly of genotype GII.P31-GII.4 Sydney. Phylogenetic analysis of the 3CD region of the aichivirus A genome revealed the presence of two genotypes (A and C) in the study cohort. Astrovirus and sapovirus showed a high diversity, with five different astrovirus genotypes and four sapovirus genotypes, respectively. Our findings give new insights into the circulation and genetic diversity of enteric viruses in Gabonese children.


Assuntos
Infecções por Enterovirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Enterovirus/virologia , Enterovirus/classificação , Enterovirus/genética , Variação Genética , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia/virologia , Enterovirus/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Gabão/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Kobuvirus/genética , Kobuvirus/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Norovirus/genética , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Rotavirus/genética , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Sapovirus/genética , Sapovirus/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Sequência de DNA
16.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 52(1): 343-347, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827197

RESUMO

Pygmy hogs (Porcula salvania) are the smallest and rarest wild suid. It is categorized as a Critically Endangered species as per the Red List of the International Union for Conservation of Nature. This study reports the first detection of a single-stranded RNA virus species, Aichivirus C, belonging to the genus Kobuvirus (KobV) and the family Picornaviridae, in pygmy hogs. KobV species are identified as a cause of acute gastroenteritis among children in India. As of now, there exists no report on the detection of KobV in animals from India. We used a detection assay based on reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for KobV screening in pygmy hogs from a conservation center in India. The 3D polymerase gene-based molecular analysis revealed KobV presence in the Indian wild suid, pygmy hogs. Of the 15 samples tested, three were found positive for picornaviruses and were negative for rotavirus A, rotavirus C, astrovirus, picobirnavirus and caliciviruses. Nucleotide-based sequence analysis of the partial 3D polymerase gene revealed close identity with porcine KobV from the Czech Republic (JX232619, 90.6%-91.6%) and Hungary (NC_011829, 89.8%-91.6%), wherein one of the current study strains clustered with the Czech Republic JX232619 strain in the phylogenetic tree. Further investigation of the role of KobV in health and disease of pygmy hogs is warranted.


Assuntos
Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Kobuvirus/isolamento & purificação , Suínos/virologia , Animais , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino
17.
Viruses ; 13(5)2021 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33922604

RESUMO

Swine enteric viral infections are responsible for substantial economic losses in the pork industry worldwide. Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PEDV) is one of the main causative agents of diarrhea in lactating pigs, and reports of PEDV coinfection with other enteric viruses highlight the importance of viral interactions for disease presentation and outcomes. Using next-generation sequencing (NGS) and sequence analyses from samples taken from piglets with acute diarrhea, we explored the possible interactions between PEDV and other less reported pathogens. PEDV coinfection with porcine kobuvirus (PKV) was detected in 36.4% (27/74) of samples. Full genomes from porcine coronavirus and kobuvirus were obtained, as was a partial porcine sapovirus genome (PSaV). The phylogenetic results show the clustering of these strains corresponding to the geographical relationship. To our knowledge, this is the first full genome and isolation report for porcine kobuvirus in México, as well as the first phylogenetic analysis for porcine sapovirus in the country. The NGS approach provides a better perspective of circulating viruses and other pathogens in affected production units.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Kobuvirus/genética , Kobuvirus/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína/genética , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Diarreia/virologia , Fezes/virologia , Genoma Viral , Kobuvirus/classificação , México/epidemiologia , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Filogenia , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína/classificação , Sapovirus/genética , Análise de Sequência , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia
18.
Food Microbiol ; 98: 103784, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33875212

RESUMO

Aichi virus (AiV) is an enteric virus that affects humans and is prevalent in sewage waters. Effective strategies to control its spread need to be explored. This study evaluated grape seed extract (GSE) for: a) antiviral potential towards AiV infectivity at 37 °C and room temperature (RT); b) antiviral behavior in model foods (apple juice (AJ) and 2% fat milk) and also simulated gastric environments; and c) potential application as a wash solution on stainless steel surfaces. GSE at 0.5 mg/mL decreased AiV suspensions containing ~4.75 log PFU/mL to titer levels that were not detected after 30 s at both 37 °C and RT. Infectious AiV titers were not detected after 5 min treatment with 1 mg/mL GSE at 37 °C in AJ. GSE at 2 mg/mL and 4 mg/mL in 2% fat milk decreased AiV after 24 h by 1.18 and 1.57 log PFU/mL (4.75 log PFU/mL to 2.86 and 3.25 log PFU/mL), respectively. As a surface wash, GSE at 1 mg/mL after 30 s decreased AiV to undetectable levels under clean conditions. With organic load (mimicking unclean conditions), 2 and 4 mg/mL GSE reduced AiV after 5 min by 1.13 and 1.71 log PFU/mL, respectively. Overall, GSE seems to be a promising antiviral agent against AiV at low concentrations and short contact times.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Extrato de Sementes de Uva/farmacologia , Kobuvirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Bovinos , Contaminação de Equipamentos/prevenção & controle , Contaminação de Equipamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Contaminação de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos/instrumentação , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/virologia , Kobuvirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Leite/virologia , Modelos Biológicos , Aço Inoxidável/análise
19.
J Food Sci ; 86(9): 4110-4118, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33929042

RESUMO

Aichi virus (AiV) that results in gastroenteritis worldwide, is spread through contaminated shellfish and water. The resistance/tolerance of AiV to common inactivation processes along with the absence of commercially available vaccines makes it necessary to study its thermal inactivation kinetics. This research evaluated the heat inactivation of AiV in cell-culture media using 2-ml sterile glass vials by the linear and Weibull models. Heat treatments of AiV titers of 7 log plaque forming units (PFU)/ml were conducted thrice in a water-bath at 50, 54, and 58 °C for up to 90 min. Plaque assays for each dilution in duplicate were used to determine infectious virus titers. Linear model D-values for AiV at 50 ± 1 °C (± = standard error) (come-up time = 68 s), 54 ± 0.7 °C (130 s), and 58 ± 0.6°C (251 s) were 43.3 ± 4.23 (R2 = 0.40, RMSE = 0.56), 5.69 ± 0.28 (R2 = 0.80, RMSE = 0.43), and 1.20 ± 0.63 min (R2 = 0.69, RMSE = 0.39), respectively, and the linear model z-value was 5.14 ± 0.39°C (R2 = 0.99, RMSE = 0.08). For the same temperatures, the Weibull model td = 1 values were 20.98 ± 8.8 (R2 = 0.62, RMSE = 0.46, α (scale parameter) = 2.30, ß (shape parameter) = 0.38), 3.84 ± 0.69 (R2 = 0.85, RMSE = 0.38, α = 1.08, ß = 0.66), and 0.87 ± 0.10 min (R2 = 0.80, RMSE = 0.32, α = 0.22, ß = 0.61), respectively and the z-value (using Td = 1 ) was 5.79 ± 0.22 °C (R2 = 1.0, RMSE = 0.03). A better fit was obtained with the Weibull model for log reductions versus time with higher R2 and lower RMSE values. Application of AiV inactivation parameters can help reduce the risk of AiV outbreaks.


Assuntos
Microbiologia de Alimentos , Temperatura Alta , Kobuvirus , Inativação de Vírus , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Cinética , Kobuvirus/fisiologia , Frutos do Mar/virologia , Fatores de Tempo
20.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(2): 280-288, 2021 03 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33690212

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Salivirus (SalV) represents an emerging problem in public health especially during the recent years. In this study, the Bayesian evolutionary history and the spread of the virus through the different countries have been reported. METHODOLOGY: a database of 81 sequences of SalV structural VP1 fragment were downloaded from GenBank, aligned and manually edited by Bioedit Software. ModelTest v. 3.7 software was used to estimate the simplest evolutionary model fitting the sequence dataset. A Maximum-Likelihood tree has been generated using MEGA-X to test the "clockliness" signal using TempEst 1.5.1. The Bayesian phylogenetic tree was built by BEAST. Homology modelling was performed by SWISS-Model and protein variability evaluated by ConSurf server. RESULTS: the phylogenetic tree showed a clade of SalV A2 and three main clades of SalV A1, revealing several infections in humans in South Korea, India, Tunisia, China, Nigeria, Ethiopia and USA. The Bayesian maximum clade credibility tree and the time of the most common recent ancestor dated back the root of the tree to the year 1788 with the probable origin in USA. Selective pressure analysis revealed two positive selection sites, His at 100th and Leu at 116th positions that at the homology modelling resulted important to guarantee protein stability and variability. This could contribute to the development of new mutations modifying the clinical features of this evolving virus. CONCLUSIONS: Bayesian phylogenetic and phylodynamic represented a useful tool to follow the transmission dynamic of SalV and to prevent new epidemics worldwide.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados de Ácidos Nucleicos , Evolução Molecular , Kobuvirus/genética , Filogenia , Infecções por Picornaviridae/virologia , Teorema de Bayes , Saúde Global , Humanos , Kobuvirus/classificação , Infecções por Picornaviridae/transmissão , Homologia de Sequência do Ácido Nucleico
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