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1.
Dermatol Clin ; 40(1): 103-108, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34799031

RESUMO

Language is used to convey thought, but it also influences thought and perception, in turn affecting health care delivery. In this review, we seek to highlight ways in which dermatologists can incorporate inclusive language into practice. By using patient-centered and patient-affirming language, avoiding labels, and naming medical conditions with terminology rooted in pathophysiology rather than outmoded, racist convention or eponyms, dermatologists can strengthen therapeutic relationships and improve patient care.


Assuntos
Dermatologia , Dermatologistas , Humanos , Idioma
2.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 213: 105256, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384946

RESUMO

Evidence is mixed regarding whether and why bilingual children might be advantaged in the development of executive functions. Five preregistered hypotheses regarding sources of a bilingual advantage were tested with data from 102 Spanish-English bilingual children and 25 English monolingual children who were administered a test of executive attention, the flanker task, at 7, 8, and 9 years of age. Measures of the children's early and concurrent bilingual exposure and their concurrent English and Spanish skill were available from a larger longitudinal study in which these children participated. Tests of the preregistered hypotheses yielded null findings: The bilingual children's executive attention abilities were unrelated to their amount of early exposure to mixed input, to balance in their early dual language exposure, to balance in their concurrent exposure, to their degree of bilingualism, or to their combined Spanish + English vocabulary score. English vocabulary score was a positive significant correlate of executive attention among the bilingual children, but those bilingual children above the group median in English vocabulary did not outperform the monolingual children when the comparison was adjusted for nonverbal IQ. These findings suggest that a language learning ability may explain the association between bilingualism and executive function. Because the best statistical approach to testing for effects on differences is a matter of dispute, all analyses were conducted with both a difference score and a residual gain score as the outcome variable. The central findings, but not all findings, were the same with both approaches.


Assuntos
Multilinguismo , Atenção , Criança , Humanos , Idioma , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Estudos Longitudinais
3.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 213: 105255, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388641

RESUMO

Past research documents a bilingual advantage in the domain of executive functions (EFs). However, controversial debates have questioned the robustness of those behavioral differences. The current study aimed to better understand the underlying cognitive prerequisites in bilingual students as compared with monolingual students and focused on two processes: the role of verbal processes, on the one hand, and mental effort during task execution, on the other. The use of self-regulatory speech has been found to be related to performance in tasks requiring EFs. For bilinguals who have grown up with two language systems from an early age, those relations are not fully understood. Furthermore, results from neuroimaging studies have shown that bilinguals might exhibit less mental effort in EF tasks. We investigated both processes in German-speaking monolingual elementary school students (n = 33; Mage = 8.78 years) and German-Russian bilingual elementary school students (n = 34; Mage = 8.88 years) solving a planning task. Results showed that monolinguals were impaired by a verbal secondary task in comparison with a motor control condition, whereas bilinguals performed in both tasks at an equal level, indicating a differential role of self-regulatory speech in both language groups. Analyses of changes in pupil diameter revealed less mental effort during task execution for bilingual children as compared with monolingual children. The current study adds to the existing literature by supplying further evidence for cognitive differences between monolingual and bilingual children.


Assuntos
Multilinguismo , Criança , Cognição , Função Executiva , Humanos , Idioma , Federação Russa
4.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 213: 105210, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450462

RESUMO

Understanding fractions and decimals requires not only understanding each notation separately, or within-notation knowledge, but also understanding relations between notations, or cross-notation knowledge. Multiple notations pose a challenge for learners but could also present an opportunity, in that cross-notation knowledge could help learners to achieve a better understanding of rational numbers than could easily be achieved from within-notation knowledge alone. This hypothesis was tested by reanalyzing three published datasets involving fourth- to eighth-grade children from the United States and Finland. All datasets included measures of rational number arithmetic, within-notation magnitude knowledge (e.g., accuracy in comparing fractions vs. fractions and decimals vs. decimals), and cross-notation magnitude knowledge (e.g., accuracy in comparing fractions vs. decimals). Consistent with the hypothesis, cross-notation magnitude knowledge predicted fraction and decimal arithmetic when controlling for within-notation magnitude knowledge. Furthermore, relations between within-notation magnitude knowledge and arithmetic were not notation specific; fraction magnitude knowledge did not predict fraction arithmetic more than decimal arithmetic, and decimal magnitude knowledge did not predict decimal arithmetic more than fraction arithmetic. Implications of the findings for assessing rational number knowledge and learning and teaching about rational numbers are discussed.


Assuntos
Idioma , Aprendizagem , Criança , Finlândia , Humanos , Matemática , Estados Unidos
5.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 213: 105271, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481343

RESUMO

Overimitation is hypothesized to foster the spread of conventional information within populations. The current study tested this claim by assigning 5-year-old children (N = 64) to one of two study populations based on their overimitation (overimitators [OIs] vs. non-overimitators [non-OIs]). Children were presented with conventional information in the form of novel games lacking instrumental outcomes, and we observed children's adoption, transmission, and modification of this information across two study phases. Results reveal little variation across study populations in the number of game elements that were adopted and transmitted. However, OIs were more likely to use normative language than non-OIs when transmitting game information to their peers. Furthermore, non-OIs modified the games more frequently in the initial study phase, suggesting an inverse relationship between children's overimitation and their tendency to modify conventional information. These findings indicate subtle yet coherent links between children's overimitation and their tendency to transmit and modify conventional information.


Assuntos
Comportamento Imitativo , Idioma , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Grupo Associado
6.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 75(1): 169-190, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34289762

RESUMO

Various studies within the Good-Enough Approach observe that people often make errors in answering comprehension questions after reading garden-path sentences such as While Anna dressed the baby played in the crib. Recently, it has been claimed that readers form a full syntactic analysis of these sentences, but they do not completely prune the original misanalysis. This article presents evidence that these findings do not hold for all garden-path sentences. The main finding of the Good-Enough Approach-that the comprehension questions targeting the initial misanalysis yield significantly higher rates of incorrect answers after garden-path sentences, in comparison with after control sentences-was replicated here in three self-paced reading experiments on Czech. However, these experiments show a similar pattern of results for other comprehension questions, such as questions targeting an analysis that is not syntactically licensed at any point of processing. These results point out that certain garden-path structures may be very hard to process and that the process of garden-path repair might not be successful at all. Based on these results and the results of previous studies, the idea of a range of difficulty levels for garden-path structures is proposed.


Assuntos
Compreensão , Idioma , Humanos , Leitura
7.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 75(1): 148-155, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34427486

RESUMO

Lexical stress in multisyllabic words is consistent in some languages (e.g., first syllable in Finnish), but it is variable in others (e.g., Spanish, English). To help lexical processing in a transparent language like Spanish, scholars have proposed a set of rules specifying which words require an accent mark indicating lexical stress in writing. However, recent word recognition using that lexical decision showed that word identification times were not affected by the omission of a word's accent mark in Spanish. To examine this question in a paradigm with greater ecological validity, we tested whether omitting the accent mark in a Spanish word had a deleterious effect during silent sentence reading. A target word was embedded in a sentence with its accent mark or not. Results showed no reading cost of omitting the word's accent mark in first-pass eye fixation durations, but we found a cost in the total reading time spent on the target word (i.e., including re-reading). Thus, the omission of an accent mark delays late, but not early, lexical processing in Spanish. These findings help constrain the locus of accent mark information in models of visual word recognition and reading. Furthermore, these findings offer some clues on how to simplify the Spanish rules of accentuation.


Assuntos
Fixação Ocular , Idioma , Humanos , Redação
8.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2390: 207-232, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731471

RESUMO

Artificial intelligence (AI) offers new possibilities for hit and lead finding in medicinal chemistry. Several instances of AI have been used for prospective de novo drug design. Among these, chemical language models have been shown to perform well in various experimental scenarios. In this study, we provide a hands-on introduction to chemical language modeling. A technique based on recurrent neural networks is discussed in detail, together with a step-by-step guide to applying this AI method for focused compound library design. The program code is freely available at URL: github.com/ETHmodlab/de_novo_design_RNN .


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Idioma , Desenho de Fármacos , Modelos Químicos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Estudos Prospectivos
9.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 75(1): 118-129, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34428974

RESUMO

How interpreting training may enhance semantic integration in general language processing (instead of language processing during interpreting) was not clear, and its neural correlates remained unexplored. Two groups of university students with different amounts of interpreting training experience (more-IE and less-IE) performed a second language (L2) reading task, in which the target sentence ended with three types of lateralized words: expected words, words of related semantic violation (related violation), and words of unrelated semantic violation (unrelated violation). N400 responses elicited by the final words were used to index semantic integration. Two major findings suggested potential contributions of interpreting training to L2 semantic integration. First, the more-IE group exhibited smaller N400 amplitudes than the less-IE group for expected words, and no group differences were obtained for the two violations. Second, N400 amplitudes for related violations were generally smaller than those for unrelated violations in the right visual field, and this difference was more fully captured (more broadly distributed over the scalp) in the more-IE group than in the less-IE group. Therefore, smaller N400 amplitudes for expected words but not for violations, and broader scalp distribution of the differences between related and unrelated violations constitute the neural correlates for the potential contributions of interpreting training to general L2 semantic integration. The results also suggest possible connections between different types of language experience.


Assuntos
Idioma , Semântica , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Leitura
10.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 75(1): 130-147, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34092150

RESUMO

The development of verbal fluency is associated with the maturation of executive function skills, such as the ability to inhibit irrelevant information, shift between tasks, and hold information in working memory. Some evidence suggests that multilinguistic upbringing may underpin disadvantages in verbal fluency and lexical retrieval, but can also afford executive function advantages beyond the language system including possible beneficial effects in older age. This study examined the relationship between verbal fluency and executive function in 324 individuals across the lifespan by assessing the developmental trajectories of English monolingual and multilingual children aged 7-15 years (N = 154) and adults from 18 to 80 years old (N = 170). The childhood data indicated patterns of improvement in verbal fluency and executive function skills as a function of age. Multilingual and monolingual children had comparable developmental trajectories in all linguistic and non-linguistic measures used in the study with the exception of planning, for which monolingual children showed a steeper improvement over the studied age range relative to multilingual children. For adults, monolinguals and multilingual participants had comparable performance on all measures with the exception of nonverbal inhibitory control and response times on the Tower of London task: monolinguals showed a steeper decline associated with age. Exploratory factor analysis indicated that verbal fluency was associated with working memory and fluid intelligence in monolingual participants but not in multilinguals. These findings raise the possibility that early acquisition of an additional language may impact on the development of the functional architecture serving high-level human cognition.


Assuntos
Função Executiva , Multilinguismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Idioma , Testes de Linguagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
11.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 75(1): 30-42, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34184565

RESUMO

Proponents of good-enough processing suggest that readers often (mis)interpret certain sentences using fast-and-frugal heuristics, such that for non-canonical sentences (e.g., The dog was bitten by the man) people confuse the thematic roles of the nouns. We tested this theory by examining the effect of sentence canonicality on the reading of a follow-up sentence. In a self-paced reading study, 60 young and 60 older adults read an implausible sentence in either canonical (e.g., It was the peasant that executed the king) or non-canonical form (e.g., It was the king that was executed by the peasant), followed by a sentence that was implausible given a good-enough misinterpretation of the first sentence (e.g., Afterwards, the peasant rode back to the countryside) or a sentence that was implausible given a correct interpretation of the first sentence (e.g., Afterwards, the king rode back to his castle). We hypothesised that if non-canonical sentences are systematically misinterpreted, then sentence canonicality would differentially affect the reading of the two different follow-up types. Our data suggested that participants derived the same interpretations for canonical and non-canonical sentences, with no modulating effect of age group. Our findings suggest that readers do not derive an incorrect interpretation of non-canonical sentences during initial parsing, consistent with theories of misinterpretation effects that instead attribute these effects to post-interpretative processes.


Assuntos
Compreensão , Idioma , Heurística , Humanos , Leitura
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 150217, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520910

RESUMO

Co-pyrolysis technology of urban solid waste and biomass has broad application prospects in alleviating energy crisis and environmental pollution. In this study, thermogravimetric-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TG-FTIR) was used to study the co-pyrolysis characteristics of coal gangue (CG) and coffee industry residue (CIR). CG and CIR were uniformly mixed according to the mass ratios of 1: 0, 7:3, 5:5, 3:7, and 0:1. Then the samples were heated and pyrolyzed in an atmosphere with a nitrogen flow rate of 60 mL/min. As the proportion of CG increased, the comprehensive pyrolysis index (CPI) showed an exponential decrease. FTIR detected that the gas produced by pyrolysis of CG-CIR contained hydroxyl compounds, hydrocarbons, CO2, CO, Phenols, and NH3. CG-CIR co-pyrolysis had obvious interaction. By using Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS) and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO) methods, the relationship between activation energy (Eα) and kinetic parameters and conversion degree was studied. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to determine the principal reaction of CG-CIR pyrolysis. ANN 21 was the best model for predicting the pyrolysis of CG-CIR.


Assuntos
Carvão Mineral , Pirólise , Biomassa , Carvão Mineral/análise , Café , Cinética , Idioma , Termodinâmica , Termogravimetria
13.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 213: 105270, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487976

RESUMO

Developmental studies have shown that infants exploit ordinal information to extract and generalize repetition-based rules from a sequence of items. Within the visual modality, this ability is constrained by the spatial layout within which items are delivered given that a left-to-right orientation boosts infants' rule learning, whereas a right-to-left orientation hinders this ability. Infants' rule learning operates across different domains and can also be transferred across modalities when learning is triggered by speech. However, no studies have investigated whether the transfer of rule learning occurs across different domains when language is not involved. Using a visual habituation procedure, we tested 7-month-old infants' ability to extract rule-like patterns from numerical sequences and generalize them to non-numerical sequences of visual shapes and whether this ability is affected by the spatial orientation. Infants were first habituated to left-to-right or right-to-left oriented numerical sequences instantiating an ABB rule and were then tested with the familiar rule instantiated across sequences of single geometrical shapes and a novel (ABA) rule. Results showed a transfer of learning from number to visual shapes for left-to-right oriented sequences but not for right-to-left oriented ones (Experiment 1) even when the direction of the numerical change (increasing vs. decreasing) within the habituation sequences violated a small-left/large-right number-space association (Experiment 2). These results provide the first demonstration that visual rule learning mechanisms in infancy operate at a high level of abstraction and confirm earlier findings that left-to-right oriented directional cues facilitate infants' representation of order.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Fala , Humanos , Lactente , Idioma , Percepção Espacial
14.
Psychol Methods ; 26(4): 398-427, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34726465

RESUMO

Technology now makes it possible to understand efficiently and at large scale how people use language to reveal their everyday thoughts, behaviors, and emotions. Written text has been analyzed through both theory-based, closed-vocabulary methods from the social sciences as well as data-driven, open-vocabulary methods from computer science, but these approaches have not been comprehensively compared. To provide guidance on best practices for automatically analyzing written text, this narrative review and quantitative synthesis compares five predominant closed- and open-vocabulary methods: Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC), the General Inquirer, DICTION, Latent Dirichlet Allocation, and Differential Language Analysis. We compare the linguistic features associated with gender, age, and personality across the five methods using an existing dataset of Facebook status updates and self-reported survey data from 65,896 users. Results are fairly consistent across methods. The closed-vocabulary approaches efficiently summarize concepts and are helpful for understanding how people think, with LIWC2015 yielding the strongest, most parsimonious results. Open-vocabulary approaches reveal more specific and concrete patterns across a broad range of content domains, better address ambiguous word senses, and are less prone to misinterpretation, suggesting that they are well-suited for capturing the nuances of everyday psychological processes. We detail several errors that can occur in closed-vocabulary analyses, the impact of sample size, number of words per user and number of topics included in open-vocabulary analyses, and implications of different analytical decisions. We conclude with recommendations for researchers, advocating for a complementary approach that combines closed- and open-vocabulary methods. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Linguística , Vocabulário , Emoções , Humanos , Idioma , Personalidade
15.
J Am Psychoanal Assoc ; 69(4): 693-714, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34727734

RESUMO

Jouissance is one of Jacques Lacan's most impenetrable concepts. Yet it is essential to Lacan's view of sex. The term is sometimes translated as "enjoyment," but this misses key features of the concept, notably its "traumatic," excessive character. This excess points to a structural negativity within the subject (i.e., the real), an original split that cannot be remedied. In this first of a series of three papers, it is proposed that "surplus prediction error"-as understood within contemporary neuropsychoanalysis-is a neural correlate for jouissance. In part 1, jouissance is explicated within Lacanian metapsychology, primarily in reference to Lacan's real and symbolic registers. Jouissance is an excess enjoyment, outside of the binding, representational capacities of language. The real is the negativity or antagonism within the symbolic, the limit of language and meaning, the point where jouissance emerges. To clarify the relationships among these terms, their positions are traced in some of Freud's major concepts, including drive, infantile sexuality, repetition, and the unconscious. A basic understanding of jouissance is necessary for the rest of this Lacanian neuropsychoanalytic project.


Assuntos
Idioma , Teoria Psicanalítica , Humanos , Sexualidade
16.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2021: 2158184, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34737773

RESUMO

COVID-19 has claimed several human lives to this date. People are dying not only because of physical infection of the virus but also because of mental illness, which is linked to people's sentiments and psychologies. People's written texts/posts scattered on the web could help understand their psychology and the state they are in during this pandemic. In this paper, we analyze people's sentiment based on the classification of tweets collected from the social media platform, Twitter, in Nepal. For this, we, first, propose to use three different feature extraction methods-fastText-based (ft), domain-specific (ds), and domain-agnostic (da)-for the representation of tweets. Among these three methods, two methods ("ds" and "da") are the novel methods used in this study. Second, we propose three different convolution neural networks (CNNs) to implement the proposed features. Last, we ensemble such three CNNs models using ensemble CNN, which works in an end-to-end manner, to achieve the end results. For the evaluation of the proposed feature extraction methods and CNN models, we prepare a Nepali Twitter sentiment dataset, called NepCOV19Tweets, with 3 classes (positive, neutral, and negative). The experimental results on such dataset show that our proposed feature extraction methods possess the discriminating characteristics for the sentiment classification. Moreover, the proposed CNN models impart robust and stable performance on the proposed features. Also, our dataset can be used as a benchmark to study the COVID-19-related sentiment analysis in the Nepali language.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Aprendizado Profundo , Humanos , Idioma , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 285: 94-99, 2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34734857

RESUMO

Electronic Medical Records (EMR) contain a lot of valuable data about patients, which is however unstructured. There is a lack of labeled medical text data in Russian and there are no tools for automatic annotation. We present an unsupervised approach to medical data annotation. Morphological and syntactical analyses of initial sentences produce syntactic trees, from which similar subtrees are then grouped by Word2Vec and labeled using dictionaries and Wikidata categories. This method can be used to automatically label EMRs in Russian and proposed methodology can be applied to other languages, which lack resources for automatic labeling and domain vocabularies.


Assuntos
Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Semântica , Curadoria de Dados , Humanos , Idioma , Processamento de Linguagem Natural
18.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2021: 9732156, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34804151

RESUMO

With the development of information technology, band expansion technology is gradually applied to college English listening teaching. This technology aims to recover broadband speech signals from narrowband speech signals with a limited frequency band. However, due to the limitations of current voice equipment and channel conditions, the existing voice band expansion technology often ignores the high-frequency and low-frequency correlation of the audio, resulting in excessive smoothing of the recovered high-frequency spectrum, too dull subjective hearing, and insufficient expression ability. In order to solve this problem, a neural network model PCA-NN (principal components analysis-neural network) based on principal component image analysis is proposed. Based on the nonlinear characteristics of the audio image signal, the model reduces the dimension of high-dimensional data and realizes the effective recovery of the high-frequency detailed spectrum of audio signal in phase space. The results show that the PCA-NN, i.e., neural network based on principal component analysis, is superior to other audio expansion algorithms in subjective and objective evaluation; in log spectrum distortion evaluation, PCA-NN algorithm obtains smaller LSD. Compared with EHBE, Le, and La, the average LSD decreased by 2.286 dB, 0.51 dB, and 0.15 dB, respectively. The above results show that in the image frequency band expansion of college English listening, the neural network algorithm based on principal component analysis (PCA-NN) can obtain better high-frequency reconstruction accuracy and effectively improve the audio quality.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Humanos , Idioma , Análise de Componente Principal , Fala
19.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 287: 55-56, 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34795079

RESUMO

The important information about a patient is often stored in a free-form text to describe the events in the patient's medical history. In this work, we propose and evaluate a hybrid approach based on rules and syntactical analysis to normalise temporal expressions and assess uncertainty depending on the remoteness of the event. A dataset of 500 sentences was manually labelled to measure the accuracy. On this dataset, the accuracy of extracting temporal expressions is 95,5%, and the accuracy of normalization is 94%. The event extraction accuracy is 74.80%. The essential advantage of this work is the implementation of the considered approach for the non-English language where NLP tools are limited.


Assuntos
Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Processamento de Linguagem Natural , Humanos , Idioma , Federação Russa
20.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 287: 153-157, 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34795101

RESUMO

Clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) implementing cancer clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) have the potential to improve the compliance of decisions made by multidisciplinary tumor boards (MTB) with CPGs. However, guideline-based CDSSs do not cover complex cases and need time for discussion. We propose to learn how to predict complex cancer cases prior to MTBs from breast cancer patient summaries (BCPSs) resuming clinical notes. BCPSs being unstructured natural language textual documents, we implemented four semantic annotators (ECMT, SIFR, cTAKES, and MetaMap) to assess whether complexity-related concepts could be extracted from clinical notes. On a sample of 24 BCPSs covering 35 complexity reasons, ECMT and MetaMap were the most efficient systems with a performance rate of 60% (21/35) and 49% (17/35), respectively. When using the four annotators in sequence, 69% of complexity reasons were extracted (24/35 reasons).


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Sistemas de Apoio a Decisões Clínicas , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Processamento de Linguagem Natural , Semântica
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