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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 14828, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36050423

RESUMO

Lantana camara L. is widely used in folk medicine for alleviation of inflammatory disorders, but studies that proved this folk use and that revealed the molecular mechanism of action in inflammation mitigation are not enough. Therefore, this study aimed to identify L. camara phytoconstituents using UPLC-MS/MS and explain their multi-level mechanism of action in inflammation alleviation using network pharmacology analysis together with molecular docking and in vitro testing. Fifty-seven phytoconstituents were identified in L. camara extract, from which the top hit compounds related to inflammation were ferulic acid, catechin gallate, myricetin and iso-ferulic acid. Whereas the most enriched inflammation related genes were PRKCA, RELA, IL2, MAPK 14 and FOS. Furthermore, the most enriched inflammation-related pathways were PI3K-Akt and MAPK signaling pathways. Molecular docking revealed that catechin gallate possessed the lowest binding energy against PRKCA, RELA and IL2, while myricetin had the most stabilized interaction against MAPK14 and FOS. In vitro cytotoxicity and anti-inflammatory testing indicated that L. camara extract is safer than piroxicam and has a strong anti-inflammatory activity comparable to it. This study is a first step in proving the folk uses of L. camara in palliating inflammatory ailments and institutes the groundwork for future clinical studies.


Assuntos
Lantana , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Interleucina-2 , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Farmacologia em Rede , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
2.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0270520, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35881634

RESUMO

The assessment of Visible Foliar Symptoms (VFS) is commonly adopted by forest monitoring programs to evaluate ozone impact on vegetation. The occurrence of ozone VFS may differ among individuals of the same species at the same site, and within leaves of the same individual. The aim of this study was to identify site and plant characteristics as well as functional leaf traits associated with the occurrence and severity of VFS in Viburnum lantana (an ozone-sensitive species) and at the scale of an individual site. V. lantana plants growing at one site of the ViburNeT monitoring network (Trentino, North Italy) experiencing high ozone levels were surveyed in relation to 1) sun exposure, 2) shading effect from neighbor vegetation, 3) plant height and 4) presence and severity of VFS. Leaves from three different sections of each plant were subjected to a phenotypic characterization of leaf area, dry weight, specific leaf area (SLA), chlorophyll content (ChlSPAD), percentage of VFS, and adaxial and abaxial trichome density (Tr). We showed that plants at high irradiation levels had significantly lower SLA (p<0.05), higher Tr (p<0.01) and greater ChlSPAD (p<0.01) when compared to shaded and/or west- and north-exposed plants, thus indicating a strong influence of site-specific characteristics on leaf trait plasticity. Similar differences were observed for taller vs. shorter plants and apical vs. basal branches (p<0.05). Ozone-induced VFS at leaf level were associated with lower SLA (p<0.001) and higher Tr in the abaxial leaf surface (p<0.05). Both leaf traits showed significant differences also within the south and east exposed plant category, thus suggesting the increase in leaf thickness and Tr as a potential adaptive strategy under multiple stress conditions. Our results provide evidence of a strong relationship between VFS, leaf traits and site-specific variables, offering new insights for interpreting data on the impact of ozone on vegetation.


Assuntos
Lantana , Ozônio , Viburnum , Florestas , Humanos , Ozônio/efeitos adversos , Folhas de Planta , Plantas
3.
Arch Microbiol ; 204(7): 388, 2022 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35697887

RESUMO

Mosquitoes play an important role in the spread of vector-borne diseases and their management is highly essential. Plant extracts have been explored for their mosquitocidal activity against different types of vectors. The present work aimed to determine the larvicidal and pupicidal activity of Lantana camara L. essential oil-loaded nano-emulsion formulation for the control of pests. The synthesized essential oil-loaded nano-emulsion was subjected to evaluate the antioxidant potential and mosquito larvicidal properties. GC-MS analysis revealed that the essential oil of Lantana camara L. leaf contained 12 bioactive components. Caryophyllene oxide (15.81), n-Hexadecanoic acid (4.22), Davanone (6.49) and beta-Sesquiphellandrene (2.32) are the major compounds identified. The nano-emulsion was effective against A. aegypti immature stage (larvae and pupae) and adult mosquitoes in laboratory conditions. The LC50 was found to be 18.183 ppm (I), 23.337 ppm (II), 29.731 ppm (III), 38.943 ppm (IV) instars and 45.295 ppm (pupae), respectively. The LD50 and LD90 values for adult mosquitoes were 11.947 mg/cm2 and 47.716 mg/cm2, respectively. The antioxidant activity of ascorbic acid (55.9%), glutathione (67.7%) and quercetin (48.6%) was recorded, respectively. The level of acetylcholinesterase (0.06 mM) and alkaline phosphatase (0.05 mM) activity significantly decreased from the control (0.12 mM) which revealed the efficacy of essential oil-loaded nano-emulsion to treat larvae. This study suggested that using an essential oil-loaded nano-emulsion formulation effectively controlled the mosquito vectors. It was also evidenced that the use of nano-emulsion has a great role in near future, especially in vector management.


Assuntos
Lantana , Óleos Voláteis , Acetilcolinesterase , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Larva , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta
4.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0263605, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35544538

RESUMO

Poisonous plants cause tremendous economic losses to the livestock industry. These economic losses are deterioration in their health, decreased productivity, deformed offspring, and reduced longevity. The current study is the first comprehensive report on poisonous plants of Azad Jammu and Kashmir which systematically documents the phytotoxicological effect and mode of action in livestock. The information was gathered from 271 informants including 167 men and 104 women through semi-structured interviews and literature search through available databases. The data collected through interviews was analyzed with quantitative tools viz. the factor informant consensus and fidelity level. A total of 38 species of flowering plants belonging to 23 families and 38 genera were reported. Family Asteraceae (5 spp) was the most dominant, followed by Solanaceae (4 spp), Fabaceae (4 spp), Euphorbiaceae (4 spp) and Convolvulaceae (3 spp). Among all the species collected, herbs were the dominant life form (22 spp, 57.89%), trailed by shrubs (11 spp, 28.95%), and trees (5 spp, 13.16%). Whole plant toxicity was reported to be the highest (15 spp, 39.47%), followed by leaf toxicity (12 spp, 31.58%), seed toxicity (4 spp, 7.89%), fruit toxicity (3 spp, 10.53%), latex toxicity (2 spp, 5.26%), flowers toxicity (1 spp, 2.63%), and berries toxicity (1 spp, 2.63%). The most toxic route of administration was found oral (39 spp, 40.63%), followed by intraperitoneal (24 spp, 25%), and intravenous (21 spp, 21.88%). The most commonly affected organ was found liver (20.41%), followed by gastrointestinal tract (20.341%), CNS (16.33%), skin (14.29%), kidneys (12.24%), lungs (4.04%), reproductive organs (2.04%), spleen (1.75%), blood (1.75%), heart (1.75%), urinary tract (1.75%), and pancreas (1.75%). The maximum Fic value was found for dermatological disorders (0.91), followed by the endocrine system (0.90), gastrointestinal (0.82), neurology (0.77), nephrology (0.67), cardiovascular (0.67), urinary (0.67), respiratory (0.60), sexual (0.60) disorders. Senecio vulgaris, and Ageratum conyzoides were the most important plants with fidelity level (0.95) and (0.87). Nerium oleander, Lantana camara, Leucaena leucocephala, and Ricinus communis were the important poisonous plant with maximum fidelity level (100%). Ricinus communis with reported lowest LD50 (<20 mg/kg) was the top-ranked poisonous plant followed by Lantana camara and Justicia adhatoda (25-50 mg/kg), Nerium Oleander (157.37 mg/kg), and Datura innoxia (400 mg/kg). We found that knowledge about poisonous plants is less prevailing in the rural areas of Azad Kashmir compared to the knowledge about medicinal plants and poisonous nature of reported plants is due to production of toxic substances and presence of essential oils.


Assuntos
Fabaceae , Lantana , Nerium , Plantas Medicinais , Etnobotânica , Etnofarmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Conhecimento , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional , Fitoterapia , Plantas Tóxicas , Ricinus
5.
New Phytol ; 235(3): 898-906, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35590489

RESUMO

The majority of plant colours are produced by anthocyanin and carotenoid pigments, but colouration obtained by nanostructured materials (i.e. structural colours) is increasingly reported in plants. Here, we identify a multilayer photonic structure in the fruits of Lantana strigocamara and compare it with a similar structure in Viburnum tinus fruits. We used a combination of transmission electron microscopy (EM), serial EM tomography, scanning force microscopy and optical simulations to characterise the photonic structure in L. strigocamara. We also examine the development of the structure during maturation. We found that the structural colour derives from a disordered, multilayered reflector consisting of lipid droplets of c.105 nm that form a plate-like structure in 3D. This structure begins to form early in development and reflects blue wavelengths of light with increasing intensity over time as the structure develops. The materials used are likely to be lipid polymers. Lantana strigocamara is the second origin of a lipid-based photonic structure, convergently evolved with the structure in Viburnum tinus. Chemical differences between the lipids in L. strigocamara and those of V. tinus suggest a distinct evolutionary trajectory with implications for the signalling function of structural colours in fruits.


Assuntos
Lantana , Viburnum , Cor , Frutas/química , Lantana/química , Lipídeos/análise , Viburnum/química
6.
Epilepsy Behav ; 129: 108611, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35193072

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures. Lantana camara (Verbenaceae) is a plant used in Cameroonian traditional medicine to treat dementia, epilepsy, and sleeping disorders. Hence, this study aimed to assess the antiepileptic-like effects of an aqueous extract of L. camara leaves on seizures induced by kainate in mice, and possible mechanisms of action. METHODS: Mice were divided into two groups: a normal control group treated with 0.9% saline (10 ml/kg, i.p.), and a kainate group treated with kainate (10 mg/kg, i.p.). All mice that developed status epilepticus were individually observed for spontaneous seizures. Eighteen days after the induction of status epilepticus, mice that exhibited spontaneous seizures were further divided into 6 groups of 7 mice each and treated as follows: a kainate group treated with 0.9% saline (10 ml/kg, p.o.), two positive control groups either treated with sodium valproate (300 mg/kg, p.o.) or with piracetam (200 mg/kg, p.o.), and three test groups received the extract (230, 460, and 917 mg/kg, p.o.). The control group was treated with 0.9% saline (10 ml/kg, p.o.). These treatments lasted 14 days and the animals were observed 6 h per day for behavioral seizures. Subsequently, the animals were evaluated for anxiety disorders and memory impairment. Animals were then sacrificed and the hippocampus or prefrontal cortex was collected for histological and biochemical analyses. Furthermore, the dilacerates of the hippocampi were stored for white blood cell count. RESULTS: The aqueous extract of L. camara (460 mg/kg) remarkably decreased (p < 0.001) the number and duration of seizures compared to sodium valproate. Also, it significantly increased the level of GABA both in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex and protected these organs from oxidative stress. Furthermore, the extract (230 mg/kg) induced the highest reduction in the number of white blood cells in the hippocampus. Finally, the extract (917 mg/kg) significantly attenuated neuronal loss in the CA1, CA2, and CA3 regions of the hippocampus. All these compared to the negative control. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the aqueous extract of L. camara has an antiepileptic-like effect comparable to that of sodium valproate. This, therefore, warrants further investigation into the effect of bioactive molecules present in the extract using in vitro and in vivo models of epilepsy.


Assuntos
Lantana , Animais , Ansiedade , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Humanos , Ácido Caínico/toxicidade , Lantana/química , Camundongos , Estresse Oxidativo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Convulsões/induzido quimicamente , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico
7.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 37(1): 554-562, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35152818

RESUMO

Aiming at finding natural sources of antidiabetics agents, 15 extracts from Brazilian medicinal plants of the Atlantic Forest and Amazon region were tested against α-glucosidase enzyme. Plants were selected based on the taxonomic relationships with genera including several species with antidiabetic activity. In this screening, the extracts obtained from the flowers of Hyptis monticola and the leaves of Lantana trifolia and Lippia origanoides resulted endowed with promising anti-α-glucosidase activity. The extracts from H. monticola and from L. origanoides collected in two different areas, were characterised by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the identification of several enzyme inhibiting compounds, among them the mechanism of action of naringenin and pinocembrin was investigated. The two L. origanoides extracts showed differences in bioactivity and in the phytochemical profiles. The fractionation of the extract from H. monticola led to a partial loss of the inhibitory effect.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , Hyptis/química , Lantana/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , alfa-Glucosidases/metabolismo , Brasil , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Flores/química , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/isolamento & purificação , Espectrometria de Massas , Estrutura Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta/química , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/enzimologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
8.
Pest Manag Sci ; 78(5): 1800-1805, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35019229

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lantana lace bug, Teleonemia scrupulosa Stål (Hemiptera: Tingidae), is an important insect pest of lantana (Lantana camara L.). The adults and nymphs feed on the leaves, gradually deteriorating the quality of leaf tissue, as the affected leaves appear brown and desiccated. Infestations of T. scrupulosa reduce the market value of container plants in nurseries and the aesthetic value of ornamental landscapes. Because T. scrupulosa typically is managed using neonicotinoids and concerns related to the nontargeted effects of neonicotinoids on pollinators are mounting, practitioners are seeking alternative options to manage T. scrupulosa infestations. Insect growth regulators (IGRs) elicit transovarial activity, where adults exposed to IGRs produce nonviable eggs, but this effect has not been documented for T. scrupulosa. RESULTS: A significantly lower number of T. scrupulosa nymphs was produced when adults were sprayed topically with novaluron and pyriproxyfen than nontreated adults. The number of T. scrupulosa nymphs produced was not significantly different when adults were exposed to a lower dose (0.125×) and a maximum dose (1.0×) of novaluron. CONCLUSION: Novaluron and pyriproxyfen elicited transovarial effects on T. scrupulosa when adults were exposed to these IGRs. Evidence of transovarial effects was demonstrated when T. scrupulosa adults were exposed to lower doses (≤0.125×) than the maximum label dose, as densities of nymphs were similar between the lower doses and the maximum label dose of novaluron.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Heterópteros , Lantana , Animais , Hormônios Juvenis/farmacologia , Neonicotinoides , Ninfa
9.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 289: 115003, 2022 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35051606

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: One of the most popular plants used to treat diseases in Brazil is Lantana fucata. Like most herbal medicines, its consumption is based on popular knowledge, which, despite being considered effective, may cause side effects. AIM OF THE STUDY: Since the scientific data on the pharmacological properties of L. fucata are still incipient, this research aimed to evaluate the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of different types of extracts (infusion, aqueous and hydroalcoholic), characterizing them chemically. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cytotoxicity assay was performed by the A. cepa model. The cytotoxicity parameters studied were number of dividing cells and percentage mitotic index (%MI). RESULTS: The result of the A. cepa assay showed that there was a decrease in the number of dividing cells and the percentage mitotic index as concentrations increased, for all extracts, indicating cytotoxicity. However, the hydroalcoholic extract was the most cytotoxic. Chromatography analysis allowed the characterization of secondary metabolites in the extracts, which were very similar. However, a greater abundance of flavonoids and triterpenoids was observed in the hydroalcoholic extract, suggesting that these compounds are responsible for its greater toxicity. CONCLUSIONS: Since the highest doses of extracts showed to have a cytotoxic effect, it is suggested that the ingestion of this species occurs in a moderate way.


Assuntos
Lantana/química , Cebolas/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Brasil , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Flavonoides/toxicidade , Testes de Mutagenicidade , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta , Metabolismo Secundário , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Triterpenos/toxicidade
10.
Nat Prod Res ; 36(4): 1115-1117, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33342292

RESUMO

The present study aims at evaluating potential of the ethanol extracts of L. camara leaves (LE), flowers (FlE) and roots (RE) in the treatment of renal calculi and characterising the secondary metabolites in the active extract. The results revealed that the FlE had significantly reduced the levels of kidney parameters (calcium, creatinine, urea, and uric acid) against ethylene glycol (EG) injuries, and restored the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase and lipid peroxide malondialdehyde to the normal level. In addition, FlE significantly attenuated iNOS tissue expression caused by EG. The results obtained in this study suggest the potential value of the L. camara L. flowers as an antiurolithiatic agent.


Assuntos
Lantana , Animais , Flores , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
11.
Chemosphere ; 291(Pt 1): 132721, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34743869

RESUMO

Biochar has been widely recognized as an environmentally efficient adsorbent for removing heavy metals. However, considering the weak adsorption performance of the original biochar to the oxygen-containing anion, the adsorption of vanadium by biochar has rarely been investigated. This study proposes that H3PO4 activated biochar made from an invasive plant species growing near mines is a novel material to be investigated for V(V) recovery and reuse. As a noxious, invasive plant, Lantana camara L. (LC) has become widely naturalized around the world. Biochar was prepared from LC by pyrolysis at different conditions (200 °C, 350 °C, 500 °C, and 650 °C). The adsorption effect of biochar with and without P pretreatment on V(V) in aqueous solution was compared. The results show that biochar prepared from LC impregnated with H3PO4 (MLBC) had the highest adsorption capacity at 500 °C, and the maximal adsorption capacity fitted by Langmuir model was 77.38 mg g-1, which was considerably higher than that of untreated biochar (LBC, 5.89 mg g-1). The adsorption procedure was substantially fitted by the Langmuir isotherm and the pseudo-second-order kinetic. Additionally, the interaction of V(V) on MLBC is pH-dependent, and slightly acidic conditions are more favorable for adsorption. The characterization results indicated that electrostatic interaction, complexation reaction, and redox reaction were the primary mechanisms. After three cycles of adsorption, the final maximal adsorption capacity of MLBC remained at 76.03% of that of the virgin sample, demonstrating that MLBC had a recyclable capability to eliminate and restore V(V) from aqueous solutions.


Assuntos
Lantana , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adsorção , Carvão Vegetal , Cinética , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
12.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 291: 115038, 2022 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35151836

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Red sage (Lantana camara L.) (Verbenaceae) is a widely spread plant that was traditionally used in Brazil, India, Kenya, Thailand, Mexico, Nigeria, Australia and Southeast Asia for treating several ailments including rheumatism and leprosy. Despite its historical role in relieving respiratory diseases, limited studies progressed to the plant's probable inhibition to respiratory viruses especially after the striking spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to investigate the inhibitory activity of different L. camara cultivars to SARS-CoV-2, that was not previously inspected, and clarify their mechanisms of action in the metabolomics viewpoint, and to determine the biomarkers that are related to such activity using UPLC-MS/MS coupled to in vitro-studies and chemometric analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Chemical profiling of different cultivars was accomplished via UPLC-MS/MS. Principle component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal projection to latent structures (OPLS) models were built using SIMCA® (multivariate data analysis software). Cytotoxicity and COVID-19 inhibitory activity testing were done followed by TaqMan Real-time RT-PCR (Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction) assay that aimed to study extracts' effects on RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and E-genes expression levels. Detected biomarkers from OPLS analysis were docked into potential targets pockets to investigate their possible interaction patterns using Schrodinger® suite. RESULTS: UPLC-MS/MS analysis of different cultivars yielded 47 metabolites, most of them are triterpenoids and flavonoids. PCA plots revealed that inter-cultivar factor has no pronounced effect on the chemical profiles of extracts except for L. camara, cultivar Drap d'or flowers and leaves extracts as well as for L. camara cv Chelsea gem leaves extract. Among the tested extracts, flowers and leaves extracts of L. camara cv Chelsea gem, flowers extracts of L. camara cv Spreading sunset and L. camara cv Drap d'or showed the highest selectivity indices scoring 12.3, 10.1, 8.6 and 7.8, respectively, indicating their relative high safety and efficacy. Leaves and flowers extracts of L. camara cv Chelsea gem, flowers extracts of L. camara cv Spreading sunset and L. camara cv Drap d'or were the most promising inhibitors to viral plaques exhibiting IC50 values of 3.18, 3.67, 4.18 and 5.01 µg/mL, respectively. This was incremented by OPLS analysis that related their promising COVID-19 inhibitory activities to the presence of twelve biomarkers. Inhibiting the expression of RdRp gene is the major mechanism behind the antiviral activity of most extracts at almost all concentration levels. Molecular docking of the active biomarkers against RdRp revealed that isoverbascoside, luteolin-7,4'-O-diglucoside, camarolic acid and lantoic acid exhibited higher docking scores of -11.378, -10.64, -6.72 and -6.07 kcal/mol, respectively, when compared to remdesivir (-5.75 kcal/mol), thus these four compounds can serve as promising anti-COVID-19 candidates. CONCLUSION: Flowers and leaves extracts of four L. camara cultivars were recognized as rich sources of phytoconstituents possessing anti-COVID-19 activity. Combination of UPLC-MS/MS and chemometrics is a promising approach to detect chemical composition differences among the cultivars and correlate them to COVID-19 inhibitory activities allowing to pinpoint possible biomarkers. Further in-vitro and in-vivo studies are required to verify their activity.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Lantana , Biomarcadores/análise , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Lantana/química , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , SARS-CoV-2 , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
13.
mBio ; 12(6): e0073021, 2021 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34781749

RESUMO

The acquisition of nutritional obligate primary endosymbionts (P-symbionts) allowed phloemo-phageous insects to feed on plant sap and thus colonize novel ecological niches. P-symbionts often coexist with facultative secondary endosymbionts (S-symbionts), which may also influence their hosts' niche utilization ability. The whitefly Bemisia tabaci is a highly diversified species complex harboring, in addition to the P-symbiont "Candidatus Portiera aleyrodidarum," seven S-symbionts whose roles remain poorly understood. Here, we compare the phenotypic and metabolic responses of three B. tabaci lines differing in their S-symbiont community, reared on three different host plants, hibiscus, tobacco, or lantana, and address whether and how S-symbionts influence insect capacity to feed and produce offspring on those plants. We first show that hibiscus, tobacco, and lantana differ in their free amino acid composition. Insects' performance, as well as free amino acid profile and symbiotic load, were shown to be plant dependent, suggesting a critical role for the plant nutritional properties. Insect fecundity was significantly lower on lantana, indicating that it is the least favorable plant. Remarkably, insects reared on this plant show a specific amino acid profile and a higher symbiont density compared to the two other plants. In addition, this plant was the only one for which fecundity differences were observed between lines. Using genetically homogeneous hybrids, we demonstrate that cytotype (mitochondria and symbionts), and not genotype, is a major determinant of females' fecundity and amino acid profile on lantana. As cytotypes differ in their S-symbiont community, we propose that these symbionts may mediate their hosts' suitable plant range. IMPORTANCE Microbial symbionts are universal in eukaryotes, and it is now recognized that symbiotic associations represent major evolutionary driving forces. However, the extent to which symbionts contribute to their hosts' ecological adaptation and subsequent diversification is far from being fully elucidated. The whitefly Bemisia tabaci is a sap feeder associated with multiple coinfecting intracellular facultative symbionts. Here, we show that plant species simultaneously affect whiteflies' performance, amino acid profile, and symbiotic density, which could be partially explained by differences in plant nutritional properties. We also demonstrate that, on lantana, the least favorable plant used in our study, whiteflies' performance is determined by their cytotype. We propose that the host plant utilization in B. tabaci is influenced by its facultative symbiont community composition, possibly through its impact on the host dietary requirements. Altogether, our data provide new insights into the impact of intracellular microorganisms on their animal hosts' ecological niche range and diversification.


Assuntos
Hemípteros/fisiologia , Hibiscus/parasitologia , Lantana/parasitologia , Tabaco/parasitologia , Aminoácidos/química , Animais , Comportamento Alimentar , Fertilidade , Hemípteros/classificação , Hibiscus/química , Hibiscus/fisiologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Lantana/química , Lantana/fisiologia , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Oviposição , Simbiose , Tabaco/química , Tabaco/fisiologia
14.
Neotrop Entomol ; 50(6): 959-965, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669161

RESUMO

Interaction between two biological control agents released against Lantana camara L. (sensu lato) (Verbenaceae) was studied in replicated semi-field plots. Caged plants under semi-field conditions were inoculated with Uroplata girardi Pic (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and Ophiomyia camarae Spencer (Diptera: Agromyzidae), either alone or in combination, to investigate the extent to which co-infestation of the two agents affects the reproductive capacity and growth of their host. At the end of the trial, both single and combined attacks by the two agents had no effect on stem diameter, stem height, and canopy width. However, uncaged control plants were heavily attacked by Teleonemia scrupulosa Stål (Hemiptera: Tingidae), and therefore became significantly shorter than all the caged plants in all the treatments. When confined alone, feeding damage by O. camarae resulted in higher reduction of fruit and flower biomass relative to that caused by U. girardi alone. However, when confined alone, U. girardi caused higher reductions in leaf density and fruit biomass than when combined with O. camarae. Single attack by O. camarae caused higher reduction in flower biomass than simultaneous attack by both agents. Above-ground biomass of all single and combined treatment plants were significantly lower than those of the caged control plants. Uncaged control plants exposed to heavy attack by T. scrupulosa did not produce flowers and fruits, and their above-ground biomass was significantly lower than those of caged control plants. Overall, the study showed that simultaneous attack by the two herbivores alters their herbivory, thereby affecting reproductive capacity and growth of their host.


Assuntos
Besouros , Lantana , Animais , Agentes de Controle Biológico , Herbivoria , Folhas de Planta
15.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 280: 114461, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333103

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Lantana canescens is popularly known in Brazil as "cidreirinha" or "chumbinho-branco". It is found in Pantanal biome and its flowers and leaves are used in traditional medicine to treat pain and inflammation. Information about this species is limited to the activity of isolated essential oils. Studies with different extracts, composition, and biological properties are still scarce. AIM OF THIS STUDY: The objective of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperalgesic activity of the hydroethanolic extract of L. canescens aerial parts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The hydroethanolic extract L. canescens aerial parts (HELc) was analyzed using HPLC-DAD-EM. Male and female Swiss mice weighing 18-25 g were used in the in vivo assays. Acute toxicity was assessed (2000 mg/kg); anti-inflammatory activity through paw edema, mast cell degranulation and peritonitis, and anti-hyperalgesic activity through abdominal writhing assays induced by acetic acid and formalin sensitization, were evaluated using the doses of 3, 30 and 300 mg/kg. RESULTS: The phytochemical characterization of HELc confirmed the presence of glycosylated iridoids (theveside, theviridoside), verbascosides and flavonoids. The HELc did not present toxicity in the evaluated dose. HELc reduced formation of paw edema, degranulation of peritoneal mast cells and infiltration of polymorphonuclear cells into the animals peritoneal cavity. In addition, HELc decreased the number of abdominal writhing induced by acetic acid and the time of paw licking in the evaluation of formalin sensitization. CONCLUSIONS: These results confirm the anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperalgesic effects of hydroethanolic extract of L. canescens, validating the use of this plant in folk medicine.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Lantana/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Brasil , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Hiperalgesia/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Mastócitos/patologia , Medicina Tradicional , Camundongos , Peritonite/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda
16.
Am J Bot ; 108(8): 1354-1373, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34418063

RESUMO

PREMISE: Lantana and Lippia (Verbenaceae) are two large Linnean genera whose classification has been based on associated fruit traits: fleshy vs. dry fruits and one vs. two seed-bearing units. We reconstruct evolutionary relationships and the evolution of the two fruit traits to test the validity of these traits for classification. METHODS: Previous studies of plastid DNA sequences provided limited resolution for this group. Consequently, seven nuclear loci, including ITS, ETS, and five PPR loci, were sequenced for 88 accessions of the Lantana/Lippia clade and three outgroups. RESULTS: Neither Lantana nor Lippia is monophyletic. Burroughsia, Nashia, Phyla, and several Aloysia species are included within the clade comprising Lantana and Lippia. We provide a hypothesis for fruit evolution and biogeographic history in the group and their relevance for classification. CONCLUSIONS: Fleshy fruits evolved multiple times in the Lantana/Lippia clade and thus are not suitable taxonomic characters. Several sections of Lantana and Lippia and the small genera are monophyletic, but Lippia section Zappania is broadly paraphyletic, making circumscription of genera difficult. Lippia sect. Rhodolippia is a polyphyletic group characterized by convergence in showy bracts. Species of Lantana sect. Sarcolippia, previously transferred to Lippia, are not monophyletic. The clade originated and diversified in South America, with at least four expansions into both Central America and the Caribbean and two to Africa. The types species of Lantana and Lippia occur in small sister clades, rendering any taxonomy that retains either genus similar to its current circumscription impossible.


Assuntos
Lantana , Lippia , Verbenaceae , Teorema de Bayes , Lippia/genética , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Verbenaceae/genética
17.
Daru ; 29(2): 311-320, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34415547

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The enzyme Cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2) catalyze the formation of prostaglandin, a mediator of the inflammatory pathway. Inflammation related pathological conditions may be alleviated by targeting the Cox enzymes.COX-2 inhibitors that are currently available in the market causes undesirable side effects. Our present study focuses on the in-silico inhibition of COX -2 enzyme by the phytocompounds from Albizia amara and Phyla nodiflora. METHODS: The phytochemicals present in Albizia amara and Phyla nodiflora were analyzed for their COX-2 inhibition potential. Eight compounds from Albizia amara and eleven compounds from Phyla nodiflora obtained from GC-MS analysis was used for the current study. Molecular docking was performed using AutoDock vina. The crystal structure of COX-2 (PDB ID: 5IKR) was obtained from Protein data bank. PyMol was used to remove any solvent, organic and inorganic molecules. Energy minimization of the protein was carried out using SPDBV software. Geometrical optimizations of the ligands were performed using Avogadro software. Celecoxib was used as the positive control. ADMET properties of the compounds were analyzed using SwissADME and ProtoxII online servers. Molecular mechanics/generalized born surface area (MM/GBSA) calculations were performed to evaluate the binding efficiency. Molecular dynamics of the protein and protein-ligand complex was studied for about 100 ns using Desmond package of Schrodinger suite. RESULTS: Among the eighteen compounds, Squalene present in both the plants showed a better binding energy of -7.7 kcal/mol, when compare to other phytocompounds present in the extract. The control celecoxib showed a binding energy of about - 9.4 kcal/mol. The toxicity and ADMET properties of squalene indicated that it is non-toxic and followed Lipinski's rule. Molecular Dynamics (MD) analysis showed that the binding of squalene to the enzyme was stable. CONCLUSION: Squalene could potentially inhibit COX2 and o wing to its properties, squalene can be formulated in gels/creams and could be possibly used for external edema and inflammation.


Assuntos
Albizzia/química , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/farmacologia , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Lantana/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Esqualeno/farmacologia , Celecoxib/química , Celecoxib/farmacologia , Cristalografia por Raios X , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/química , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Modelos Moleculares , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Ligação Proteica , Esqualeno/química
18.
Bioresour Technol ; 340: 125652, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34332446

RESUMO

A study was designed to isolate cellulolytic bacteria from termite-gut and soil, optimizing their cellulase production to enhance biogas generation, using Lantana camara as a substrate. Out of 57 bacteria screened, two isolates DSB1 and DSB12, showed significant cellulolytic activity. 16S rRNA based methods identified these isolates as Microbacterium sp. and Arthrobacter sp. respectively. Maximum cellulase activity of 1.26 ± 0.044 U/ml and 1.31 ± 0.052 U/ml for DSB1 and DSB12 was observed at pH 7 and 7.2 under 35°C and 37°C, respectively. The L. camara biomass substrate with cow dung as an inoculum, bioaugmented with DSB1 and DSB12 separately, was tested for biogas production, producing 950 l/kg and 980 l/kg VS biogas with 57% and 60% methane, respectively. DSB1 and DSB12 revealed as potent cellulase producers that can be harnessed in the anaerobic digester for biomass conversion practices for enhanced biogas production.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Lantana , Anaerobiose , Animais , Bactérias , Bovinos , Metano , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
19.
J Mycol Med ; 31(3): 101171, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34224939

RESUMO

In recent decades, fungal infections have been increasing, as well as the indiscriminate use of large-scale antifungal. The objective of the present study was to characterize the chemical components of L. montevidensis leaf essential oil (EOLm) and evaluate its antifungal potential and fluconazole modulating activity against Candida strains. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and its chemical components were determined by Gas Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometry. The antifungal activity was determined by the microdilution method to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration. The modulatory activity of fluconazole by the oil (EOLm) was evaluated against the four Candida strains. Our results demonstrated a predominance of ß-Caryophyllene (34.96%) and Germacrene D (25.49%), while (E)-Caryophyllene (0.08%) and δ-Cadinene (0.13%) were the minor constituents. For the antifungal activity, it was evidenced that the EOLm did not inhibit the growth of Candida albicans (CA LM 77 and CA INQS 40006) and Candida tropicalis (CT INCQS 40042 and CT LM 23), but, potentiated the effect of fluconazole in particular against C. tropicalis, although the FIC index indicates indifferent modulation for all strains tested. This study strongly suggests that administration of the fluconazole in combination with plant essential oils can provide a new opportunity to improve the outcome of the drug effect.


Assuntos
Lantana , Óleos Voláteis , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Candida albicans , Candida tropicalis , Fluconazol/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia
20.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0239690, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33974622

RESUMO

The Himalayan region is one of the global biodiversity hotspots. However, its biodiversity and ecosystems are threatened due to abiotic and biotic drivers. One of the major biotic threats to biodiversity in this region is the rapid spread of Invasive Alien Species (IAS). Natural forests and grasslands are increasingly getting infested by IAS affecting regeneration of native species and decline in availability of bio-resources. Assessing the current status of IAS and prediction of their future spread would be vital for evolving specific species management interventions. Keeping this in view, we conducted an in-depth study on two IASs, viz., Ageratina adenophora and Lantana camara in the Indian part of Kailash Sacred Landscape (KSL), Western Himalaya. Intensive field surveys were conducted to collect the presence of A. adenophora (n = 567) and L. camara (n = 120) along an altitudinal gradient between 300 and 3000 m a.s.l. We performed Principal Component Analysis to nullify the multi-colinearity effects of the environmental predictors following MaxEnt species distribution model in the current and future climatic scenarios for both the species. All current and future model precision (i.e., Area Under the Curve; AUC) for both species was higher than 0.81. It is predicted that under the current rate of climate change and higher emission (i.e., RCP 8.5 pathway), A. adenophora will spread 45.3% more than its current distribution and is likely to reach up to 3029 m a.s.l., whereas, L. camara will spread 29.8% more than its current distribution range and likely to reach up to 3018 m a.s.l. Our results will help in future conservation planning and participatory management of forests and grasslands in the Kailash Sacred Landscape-India.


Assuntos
Ageratina/fisiologia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Lantana/fisiologia , Biodiversidade , Mudança Climática , Humanos , Índia , Espécies Introduzidas , Modelos Biológicos
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