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1.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 23(6): 175, 2022 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35750993

RESUMO

Onychomycosis is the most common fungal infection of the nail affecting the skin under the fingertips and the toes. Currently, available therapy for onychomycosis includes oral and topical therapies, either alone or in combination. Oral antifungal medication has been associated with poor drug bioavailability and potential gastrointestinal and systemic side effects. The objective of this study was to prepare and evaluate the luliconazole nail lacquer (LCZ-NL) for the effective treatment of onychomycosis. In the current work, LCZ-NL was formulated in combination with penetration enhancers to overcome poor penetration. A 32 full factorial formulation design of experiment (DOE) was applied for optimization of batches with consideration of dependent (drying time, viscosity, and rate of drug diffusion) and independent (solvent ratio and film former ratio) variables. The optimized formulation was selected based on drying time, viscosity, and rate of drug diffusion. The optimized formulation was further evaluated for % non-volatile content assay, smoothness of flow, water resistance, drug content, scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), in vitro drug release, ex vivo transungual permeation, antifungal efficacy, and stability study. The optimized LCZ-NL contained 70:30 solvent ratio and 1:1 film former ratio and was found to have ~ 1.79-fold higher rate of drug diffusion in comparison with LULY™. DSC and XRD studies confirmed that luliconazole retains its crystalline property in the prepared formulation. Antifungal study against Trichophyton spp. showed that LCZ-NL has comparatively higher growth inhibition than LULY™. Hence, developed LCZ-NL can be a promising topical drug delivery system for treating onychomycosis.


Assuntos
Onicomicose , Administração Tópica , Antifúngicos , Humanos , Imidazóis , Laca , Unhas , Onicomicose/tratamento farmacológico , Onicomicose/microbiologia , Solventes
2.
Molecules ; 27(11)2022 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35684562

RESUMO

Very volatile organic compounds (VVOCs) are a group of important odor pollutants affecting indoor air quality that have been shown to be harmful to human health. A 15 L environmental chamber, combined with multi-bed tube was used to collect gases. Fifteen very volatile organic compounds (VVOCs), including 12 odor compounds, were identified from veneered medium density fiberboard coated with water-based lacquer (WB-MDF) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry (GC-MS/O). The total very volatile organic compound (TVVOC) and total odor intensity (TOI) showed a decreasing trend over time, reaching equilibrium on day 28. TVVOC showed an overall slow-fast-slow emission profile, from day 3 to day 7, with a maximum decay rate of 29.7%. TOI showed the greatest rate of decline from day 1 to day 3, at approximately 12%. Alkane and alcohol VVOCs were the more abundant compounds, accounting for at least 60% and even up to 80% of the total. The major odor impression was fruity, with a highest odor rating of 6.6, followed by sweet, with an odor rating of 6.1. Although the odor impression changed from sweet to fruity over time, it seemed pleasant overall. The odor contributors were mainly alkanes, alcohols, esters, and ethers, which had relatively high odor intensities. The main odor-contributing substances were dichloromethane, ethanol, ethyl acetate, 2-methylacrylic acid methyl ester, and tetrahydrofuran. When WB-MDF is used for furniture or other decorative materials, it is strongly recommended that it be stored under ventilation for at least 28 days and the adoption of substitute solvents of lacquers, modified adhesives, and low-odor wood raw materials is recommended. These possible initiatives would contribute to the aim of building an environmentally friendly indoor environment.


Assuntos
Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Humanos , Laca , Odorantes , Olfatometria , Água
3.
Mycoses ; 65(4): 392-401, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34752667

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Onychomycosis is a difficult-to-treat fungal nail infection whose treatment can involve systemic or topical antifungal approaches. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of terbinafine 10% nail lacquer in distal-lateral subungual onychomycosis (DLSO). PATIENTS/METHODS: Patients with mild-to-moderate DLSO were randomised (3:3:1) to receive double-blind topical terbinafine 10% (n = 406) or its vehicle (n = 410) administered once daily for 4 weeks and then once weekly for 44 weeks, or open-label topical amorolfine 5% (n = 137) for 48 weeks, with a 12-week follow-up period. The primary efficacy endpoint, complete cure rate at Week 60, was a composite of negative potassium hydroxide (KOH) microscopy, negative culture for dermatophytes and no residual clinical involvement of the target big toenail. RESULTS: Complete cure rates at Week 60 in the terbinafine, vehicle and amorolfine groups were 5.67%, 2.20% and 2.92%, respectively (odds ratio (OR) vs vehicle = 2.68; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.22-5.86; p = .0138). Statistically significant differences in responder (negative KOH and negative culture and ≤10% residual clinical involvement) and mycological cure rates (negative KOH and negative culture) at Week 60 were obtained between terbinafine and vehicle. Terbinafine was well-tolerated with no systemic adverse reactions identified; the most common topical adverse reactions were erythema and skin irritation. CONCLUSIONS: Terbinafine 10% nail lacquer was an effective treatment for mild-to-moderate onychomycosis improving both clinical and mycological criteria compared with vehicle. Furthermore, there may be some benefits compared to the currently available topical agent, amorolfine 5%. Treatment was well-tolerated and safe.


Assuntos
Dermatoses do Pé , Onicomicose , Antifúngicos/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Dermatoses do Pé/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Laca , Morfolinas , Unhas , Onicomicose/tratamento farmacológico , Terbinafina/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 21(1): 443, 2021 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34952568

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myopic axial elongation may be due to an equatorial enlargement of Bruch's membrane (BM), leading to a prolate eye shape and increasing strain with BM and the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) layer at the posterior pole. The increased BM strain may cause an enlargement of Bruch's membrane opening (BMO) of the optic nerve head, with the subsequent development and enlargement of parapapillary gamma zone as BM-free parapapillary zone. The increased strain within BM and RPE may also cause lacquer cracks (LCs) as linear breaks in the RPE and / or BM. Studies suggested that a more marked gamma zone enlargement is associated with lower prevalence of LCs or macular BM defects. Here report on the disappearance of a LC during a 10-year follow-up of a highly myopic eye, concurrent with a marked increase in gamma zone. CASE PRESENTATION: A 56-year-old woman showed in her right eye (axial length measured 30.69 mm) a LC, vertically oval optic disc, and parapapillary gamma zone in 2001. When re-examined in 2006, gamma zone had enlarged, while the LC was no longer detectable. In 2011, the LC was not visible neither upon ophthalmoscopy and or upon optical coherence tomography (OCT), while gamma zone had further enlarged. The gamma zone enlargement occurred in a direction perpendicular to the direction of the former LC. CONCLUSIONS: The observation suggest that a LC can decrease in width, in temporal association with an enlargement of gamma zone. It fits with the notion that an enlargement of the BMO (i.e., enlarging gamma zone) may lead to a relaxation of the BM strain and subsequently to a decrease in the width of the LC.


Assuntos
Miopia , Disco Óptico , Comprimento Axial do Olho , Lâmina Basilar da Corioide , Feminino , Humanos , Laca , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
6.
Klin Monbl Augenheilkd ; 238(10): 1098-1100, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34327688

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To report a case of multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS) associated with acute progression of lacquer cracks in high myopia. CASE REPORT: A 41-year-old female patient with high myopia developed typical signs, symptoms, and disease course of MEWDS in her right eye. At the same time, the same eye showed progression of lacquer cracks when compared to images taken 2 months prior. Retinal imaging findings characteristic of MEWDS were most obvious on fundus autofluorescence, whereas alterations on color fundus photography, optical coherence tomography, fluorescein, and indocyanine green angiography were very mild, probably because of the myopia-related fundus pathology. CONCLUSION: We present a case of MEWDS co-occurring with acute progression of lacquer cracks. This adds to the increasing evidence that impaired integrity of the retinal pigment epithelium-Bruch's membrane complex may be a factor in causing MEWDS, possibly by exposing otherwise isolated antigens. The anatomy in a highly myopic eye may make it challenging to diagnose MEWDS-associated fundus changes.


Assuntos
Miopia , Doenças Retinianas , Síndrome dos Pontos Brancos , Adulto , Feminino , Angiofluoresceinografia , Fundo de Olho , Humanos , Laca , Miopia/complicações , Miopia/diagnóstico , Doenças Retinianas/diagnóstico , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica
7.
Molecules ; 26(2)2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33467697

RESUMO

Lacquer sap has been used by humans from antiquitywhen it was treated as a luxury item because of its desirable physical properties. In modern times, although access barriers are lower, lacquer is still considered to be rare and valuable. Thus, low quality, inexpensive Vietnamese and Myanmarese lacquers and cashew nutshell liquid are frequently added to the costly Toxicodendron vernicifluum lacquer sap from Korea, China, and Japan. However, these blended lacquers can diminish the quality of artisan works. The Toxicodendron vernicifluum lacquer saps mixed with other natural lacquers were characterized using time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). ToF-SIMS provided the chemical structure of the lacquer monomer, copolymerized dimers, trimers, etc. HPLC provided quantitative analysis of the components of a randomly mixed lacquer. These techniques can be used to control the quality of commercial lacquer sap for the Asian lacquer industry and the traditional conservation of ancient objects.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/análise , Laca/análise , Toxicodendron/química , Árvores/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massa de Íon Secundário/métodos
8.
J Med Microbiol ; 70(3)2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33502306

RESUMO

Introduction. Onychomycosis infections currently show a significant increase, affecting about 10 % of the world population. Trichophyton rubrum is the main agent responsible for about 80 % of the reported infections. The clinical cure for onychomycosis is extremely difficult and effective new antifungal therapy is needed.Hypothesis/Gap Statement. Ex vivo onychomycosis models using porcine hooves can be an excellent alternative for evaluating the efficacy of new anti-dermatophytic agents in a nail lacquer.Aim. Evaluation of the effectiveness of a nail lacquer containing a quinoline derivative on an ex vivo onychomycosis model using porcine hooves, as well as the proposal of a plausible antifungal mechanism of this derivative against dermatophytic strains.Methodology. The action mechanism of a quinoline derivative was evaluated through the sorbitol protection assay, exogenous ergosterol binding, and the determination of the dose-response curves by time-kill assay. Scanning electron microscopy evaluated the effect of the derivative in the fungal cells. The efficacy of a quinoline-derivative nail lacquer on an ex vivo onychomycosis model using porcine hooves was evaluated as well.Results. The quinoline derivative showed a time-dependent fungicidal effect, demonstrating reduction and damage in the morphology of dermatophytic hyphae. In addition, the ex vivo onychomycosis model was effective in the establishment of infection by T. rubrum.Conclusion. Treatment with the quinoline-derivative lacquer showed a significant inhibitory effect on T. rubrum strain in this infection model. Finally, the compound presents high potential for application in a formulation such as nail lacquer as a possible treatment for dermatophytic onychomycosis.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Arthrodermataceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Dermatoses do Pé/microbiologia , Casco e Garras/microbiologia , Onicomicose/tratamento farmacológico , Quinolinas/farmacologia , Administração Tópica , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Dermatoses do Pé/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Laca , Onicomicose/microbiologia , Suínos
9.
Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed ; 37(3): 183-191, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33145834

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Methylene blue-mediated photodynamic therapy as an antimicrobial has been reported to improve onychomycosis. OBJECTIVES: To compare the short-term efficacy of methylene blue-mediated photodynamic therapy (MB-PDT) and 5% amorolfine nail lacquer (AMO) for toenail onychomycosis using higher intensity and shorter total treatment period than previously reported. METHODS: Twenty-seven toenails with onychomycosis were randomized to receive either six biweekly sessions of MB-PDT or AMO for twelve weeks. Dermoscopic photography was used for onychomycosis severity index assessment under a dermoscopic inspection (d-OSI) at baseline, weeks 6, 10, 14 and 22 as well as microscopic and microbiological tests. Adverse events were recorded. RESULTS: All subjects completed the study. Causative organisms found were exclusively non-dermatophytes including Fusarium spp., Asperillus spp.,and yeasts. Fifteen toenails received MB-PDT, whilst 12 received AMO. D-OSI showed greater improvement in MB-PDT than in AMO groups at weeks 6, 10, 14 as well as 22, with median changes of -2, -3, -4 (P = .055). and - 3 respectively in the MB-PDT group. The AMO group displayed the median d-OSI change of 0 throughout the study period. Mycological cure rate at 22 weeks in MB-PDT and AMO group was 73.3% and 66.67% (P > .05). Clinical cure rate at 22 weeks in MB-PDT (26.7%) was higher than AMO (16.7%), (P > .05). All patients only felt comfortably warm during the MB-PDT treatment. No major adverse events were found in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: MB-PDT appeared to be more efficacious for non-dermatophyte onychomycosis than AMO particularly in a limited period and moderately severe onychomycosis.


Assuntos
Onicomicose , Fotoquimioterapia , Antifúngicos , Humanos , Laca , Azul de Metileno , Morfolinas , Unhas , Onicomicose/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Lasers Med Sci ; 36(1): 147-152, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32557000

RESUMO

Onychomycosis is a fungal infection of the nail. The aim of this randomized controlled clinical trial was to compare the efficacy of 2940-nm Er:YAG laser treatment combined with a 5% amorolfine lacquer versus amorolfine monotherapy for treating onychomycosis. In this study, patients with onychomycosis of the great toenail were randomly assigned to a combination therapy group and a monotherapy group. In the combination therapy group, the included toenails were treated with a fractional 2940-nm Er:YAG laser at weeks 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, and 12, combined with a 5% amorolfine lacquer twice a week for 12 weeks, while in the monotherapy group, the included toenails were treated with only a 5% amorolfine lacquer twice a week for 12 weeks. The onychomycosis severity index (OSI) score and the mycological clearance rate (MCR) of the included toenails were assessed at baseline, week 12, and week 24. At weeks 12 and 24, the great toenails with mild and moderate onychomycosis in the combination therapy group showed obvious improvement and a greater decrease in OSI than those in the monotherapy group. At week 24, the toenails with mild and moderate onychomycosis in the combination therapy group also showed a better MCR. For the toenails with severe onychomycosis, little improvement was observed in either group at week 12 or week 24. In conclusion, fractional 2940-nm Er:YAG laser treatment combined with a 5% amorolfine lacquer is more effective than amorolfine monotherapy in short-term improvement of onychomycosis.


Assuntos
Laca , Lasers de Estado Sólido/uso terapêutico , Morfolinas/uso terapêutico , Onicomicose/tratamento farmacológico , Onicomicose/cirurgia , Adulto , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Morfolinas/farmacologia , Unhas/efeitos dos fármacos , Unhas/microbiologia , Satisfação do Paciente , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Contact Dermatitis ; 84(4): 240-246, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33184864

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Contact allergy from acrylic compounds is a "hot topic". Knowledge on the exact chemical composition of acrylic products is superficial. AIMS: To retrospectively describe patients with allergic reactions to acrylic compounds. METHODS: We included patients who had been tested with acrylate patch test series and displayed allergic reactions to at least one acrylic compound. Chemical analyses were often performed when safety data sheets of implicated products failed to reveal acrylic compounds to which the patient tested positive. RESULTS: In 2010-2019 a total of 55 patients met the inclusion criteria. Eight cases of allergic contact dermatitis were due to anaerobic sealants, seven to dental products, three to windscreen glues, seven to eyelash glues and/or nail products in the beauty sector, three to UV-cured printing inks, two to paints/lacquers, and one to polyester resin system. The origin of these contact allergies was occupational with the exception of four beauty sector workers who had developed eyelid symptoms from eyelash extensions glued onto their own eyelashes. We invariably detected methacrylate monomers in 15 chemical analyses of 12 different anaerobic sealants. CONCLUSIONS: Safety data sheets of anaerobic sealants often lack warnings for skin sensitization, although these products regularly contain sensitizing methacrylates.


Assuntos
Acrilatos/efeitos adversos , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/diagnóstico , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/etiologia , Dermatite Ocupacional/diagnóstico , Dermatite Ocupacional/etiologia , Adesivos/efeitos adversos , Cosméticos/efeitos adversos , Cianoacrilatos/efeitos adversos , Materiais Dentários/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Tinta , Laca/efeitos adversos , Metilmetacrilatos/efeitos adversos , Pintura/efeitos adversos , Testes do Emplastro , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 14856, 2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908215

RESUMO

The problem of indoor odors can greatly affect a room's occupants. To identify odorants and comprehensively evaluate emissions from wooden materials, emissions and odors from Choerospondias axillaris (Roxb.) Burtt et Hill with different moisture content percentages and lacquer treatments were investigated in this study. Thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy/olfactometry was used to analyze the release characteristics. In total, 11 key odor-active compounds were identified as moisture content gradually decreased, concentrating between 15 and 33 min. Total volatile organic compounds, total very volatile organic compounds, and total odor intensity decreased as moisture content decreased. In addition, 35 odor-active compounds, including aromatics, alkenes, aldehydes, esters, and alcohols, were identified in the odor control list. Polyurethane (PU), ultraviolet (UV), and waterborne coatings had a good inhibitory effect on eight odor characteristics, but some scents arose after lacquer treatment. For equilibrium moisture content, the major characteristics of Choerospondias axillaris were fragrant (9.4) and mint-like (3.0) compared with the fragrant (8.2), fruity (7.8), and pleasant (5.8) characteristics of PU coating; the flowery (5.9), fragrant (5.0), glue-like (4.3), and pineapple-like (4.3) characteristics of UV coating; and the antiseptic solution (3.6), fragrant (2.9), cigarette-like (2.8), and fruity (2.5) characteristics of waterborne coating. Based on multicomponent evaluation, a Choerospondias axillaris board with waterborne coating was suggested for use indoors.


Assuntos
Anacardiaceae/química , Odorantes/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Madeira/química , China , Humanos , Laca , Percepção Olfatória
13.
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol ; 258(12): 2661-2669, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32648154

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the clinical features of simple hemorrhage (SH) and myopic choroidal neovascularization (mCNV) lesions in pathologic myopia (PM) accompanied with lacquer cracks (LCs). METHODS: Altogether 105 PM subjects were recruited with fifty-eight eyes categorized as group LC + SH and sixty eyes as group LC + mCNV. LCs were categorized into stellate and linear subtypes. Eye fundus photography, optical coherence tomography, fluorescein angiography, and indocyanine green angiography were performed. Clinical demographic data, PM maculopathy, peripapillary atrophy, and macular choroidal thickness (mCT) were documented. RESULTS: Significant differences in age, gender, BCVA, and PM atrophies were observed between LC + SH and LC + mCNV groups. The stellate LC was more common in elder subjects with more severe chorioretinal atrophy and thinner mCT compared with linear LCs (P < 0.05). The mCT in group LC + SH was significantly larger than group LC + CNV (P < 0.001), especially in temporal, inferior, and superior locations of macula. The mCT showed correlation with age (P < 0.001)with a decreasing rate of 0.696 µm/year. CONCLUSIONS: SH tended to initially occur in younger subjects with linear LCs. mCNV was more common in elder subjects with severe chorioretinal atrophy. Stellate LCs were associated with the worse PM lesions.


Assuntos
Neovascularização de Coroide , Miopia Degenerativa , Idoso , Neovascularização de Coroide/diagnóstico , Neovascularização de Coroide/etiologia , Angiofluoresceinografia , Hemorragia , Humanos , Laca , Miopia Degenerativa/complicações , Miopia Degenerativa/diagnóstico , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica
14.
Molecules ; 25(13)2020 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32635240

RESUMO

Naftifine is used to treat fungal skin infections as it inhibits dermatophytes, which are the cause of onychomycosis. However, naftifine's ability to permeate the human nail barrier has not been investigated, thus, the antimycotic potential is not clearly established. This work aims to evaluate the effect of penetration enhancing factors on the accumulation of naftifine hydrochloride through human nail clippings. Naftifine polymeric nail lacquers with Eudragit RL100 were developed as a suitable delivery system. Low penetration of naftifine into nail has been determined as less than 10% of applied drug dose accumulated in the nail layers. Incorporation of thioglycolic acid into formulations resulted in increased accumulation of antifungal agent in the nail layers by 100% compared with a control group. Salicylic acid did not effect naftifine accumulation in the human nail. The permeation of naftifine through the nail increased by threefold when the thioglycolic acid-containing formulation was applied and the nail was pretreated with a fractional CO2 laser. Structural changes of the nail barrier, induced by fractional CO2 laser, were visualized by microscopy. The results suggest, that naftifine nail penetration could be significantly increased when physical and chemical enhancing factors are applied.


Assuntos
Alilamina/análogos & derivados , Antifúngicos/administração & dosagem , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Casco e Garras/efeitos dos fármacos , Unhas/efeitos dos fármacos , Onicomicose/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Tópica , Adulto , Alilamina/administração & dosagem , Alilamina/farmacocinética , Animais , Antifúngicos/farmacocinética , Bovinos , Feminino , Casco e Garras/metabolismo , Humanos , Laca , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Unhas/metabolismo , Onicomicose/metabolismo , Distribuição Tecidual
15.
Mycoses ; 63(8): 869-875, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32406142

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) is a mass spectrometry-based technique, which can be applied for compound-specific imaging of pharmaceuticals in tissues samples. MALDI-MSI technology is widely used to visualise penetration and distribution profile through different tissues but has never been used with nail tissue. OBJECTIVES: This study used MALDI-MSI technology to visualise distribution profile and penetration into ex vivo human mycosis-infected toenails of three antifungal active ingredients amorolfine, ciclopirox and naftifine contained in topical onychomycosis nail treatment preparations, marketed as Loceryl® , Ciclopoli® and Exoderil® . METHODS: Three mycosis-infected toenails were used for each treatment condition. Six and twenty-four hours after one single topical application of antifungal drugs, excess of formulation was removed, nails were cryo-sectioned at a thickness of 20 µm, and MALDI matrix was deposited on each nail slice. Penetration and distribution profile of amorolfine, ciclopirox and naftifine in the nails were analysed by MALDI-MSI. RESULTS: All antifungal actives have been visualised in the nail by MALDI-MSI. Ciclopirox and naftifine molecules showed a highly localised distribution in the uppermost layer of the nail plate. In comparison, amorolfine diffuses through the nail plate to the deep layers already 6 hours after application and keeps diffusing towards the lowest nail layers within 24 hours. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows for the first-time distribution and penetration of certain antifungal actives into human nails using MALDI-MSI analysis. The results showed a more homogeneous distribution of amorolfine to nail and a better penetration through the infected nails than ciclopirox and naftifine.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Onicomicose/diagnóstico por imagem , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/métodos , Administração Tópica , Alilamina/administração & dosagem , Alilamina/análogos & derivados , Alilamina/farmacologia , Alilamina/uso terapêutico , Antifúngicos/administração & dosagem , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Ciclopirox/administração & dosagem , Ciclopirox/farmacologia , Ciclopirox/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Laca , Morfolinas/administração & dosagem , Morfolinas/farmacologia , Morfolinas/uso terapêutico , Unhas/microbiologia , Unhas/patologia , Onicomicose/tratamento farmacológico
16.
J Mycol Med ; 30(2): 100938, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111505

RESUMO

Onychomycosis are fungal nail infections comprising of about 50% of onychopathies and are commonly caused by dermatophytes. The treatment of this dermatomycosis requires a long period of time and is associated with high rates of recurrence. In view of the need to evaluate the antifungal performance of promising preclinical compounds, we developed, in this study, a practical and accessibleex vivo model for establishing a Trichophyton rubrum onychomycosis framework using porcine hooves. This model has as its main advantage the similar structural and three-dimensional characteristics that the porcine hooves have with the human nail. The proposed model allowed to evaluate the antifungal activity of a new antifungal compound and a reference drug (terbinafine), both already incorporated into a nail lacquer for topical use. Treatments with compound 3-selenocyanate-indole (Se4a) and with terbinafine incorporated into this nail lacquer completely inhibited fungal growth, corresponding to the profile of in vitro activity observed against T. rubrum. This study concludes that the ex vivo porcine hoof model is an effective alternative method for preclinical screening of drugs or new topical compounds developed to combat onychomycosis. Further studies are needed to compare the permeability of porcine hooves with human nails permeability.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/administração & dosagem , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Casco e Garras/patologia , Onicomicose/tratamento farmacológico , Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos , Suínos , Administração Tópica , Animais , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Cianatos/química , Casco e Garras/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Laca , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Modelos Biológicos , Onicomicose/patologia , Permeabilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Selênio/química , Terbinafina/administração & dosagem , Terbinafina/farmacologia , Trichophyton/efeitos dos fármacos , Trichophyton/crescimento & desenvolvimento
17.
Oncol Nurs Forum ; 47(2): 155-164, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078608

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine whether nurses wearing nail polish pose a greater infection risk to patients than nurses who are not wearing nail polish. SAMPLE & SETTING: 89 direct patient care oncology nurses at a large midwestern National Cancer Institute-designated comprehensive cancer center. METHODS & VARIABLES: The investigators assigned participants' three middle fingers of their dominant hand to three groups. RESULTS: Comparison of colony-forming units revealed that one-day-old polish exhibited fewer gram-positive microorganisms than the unpolished nail (p = 0.04). The four-day-old polish showed significantly more microorganisms than the one-day-old polish (p = 0.03). The same trend was demonstrated for gram-negative microorganisms, but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.3 and p = 0.17, respectively). IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING: The results should be interpreted and applied to expert nursing practice in the care of vulnerable patient populations. Each institution and practitioner should make their own decisions and interpretation of evidence into practice.


Assuntos
Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Profissional para o Paciente/prevenção & controle , Laca/efeitos adversos , Laca/microbiologia , Unhas/microbiologia , Enfermagem Oncológica/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Meio-Oeste dos Estados Unidos
18.
J Cosmet Dermatol ; 19(9): 2333-2338, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31925917

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies of the laser treatment of nondermatophyte mold (NDM) onychomycosis are limited. Long-pulsed neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) 1064-nm laser has been introduced as an adjuvant dermatophyte onychomycosis treatment. AIMS: To investigate the efficacy and safety of long-pulsed Nd:YAG 1064-nm laser for NDM onychomycosis treatment, compared with topical amorolfine nail lacquer alone and a combination treatment. PATIENTS/METHODS: This randomized controlled trial was conducted at the Nail Clinic, Siriraj Hospital. Patients diagnosed with NDM were included and randomly assigned to three treatment groups: laser at 1 month interval (1064-nm Nd:YAG at a fluence of 35 J/cm2 , pulse width 30 ms, and pulse rate 1.0 Hz); topical amorolfine nail lacquer alone; and a combination treatment. RESULTS: Sixty patients completed the study. The patients treated with the laser, amorolfine, and the combination achieved mycological cure rates of 35%, 60%, and 65%, respectively (P = .05), while 10%, 30%, and 30% of the patients in the respective groups were clinically cured. The mean durations to the mycological cures in the patients treated with laser, amorolfine, and the combination were 5.9, 4.8, and 5.2 months, respectively. By comparison, the corresponding mean durations to the clinical cures were 6.9, 6.5, and 5.9 months. Both the times to the mycological cures and the clinical cures did not differ significantly between the groups (P = .290 and P = .309, respectively). There were no serious complications with the laser treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Laser alone achieved only a 30% mycological cure rate for NDM onychomycosis. The combination treatment yielded similar outcomes to the topical treatment alone.


Assuntos
Lasers de Estado Sólido , Onicomicose , Alumínio , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Laca , Morfolinas , Neodímio , Onicomicose/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento , Ítrio
19.
Dermatol Ther ; 32(5): e13028, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344296

RESUMO

We evaluated in a randomized, assessor-blinded, study the efficacy of a hydroxypropyl chitosan-based nail lacquer (HPC-NL) alone or in combination with oral biotin (HPC-NL + B) in the treatment of brittle nail syndrome (BNS). Fifty subjects (21 men; mean age 64 years) with BNS were enrolled. Twenty-six were randomly assigned to HPC-NL and 24 to the HPC-NL and biotin, 10 mg/daily (+B). Topical and oral treatments lasted for 4 consecutive months. The primary outcome was the evolution of the Onychodystrophy Global Severity Score (OGSS) assessing nail dystrophy, lamellar and longitudinal splitting, dyschromia, and pitting. At baseline, the OGSS, mean (SD), was 8.4 (2.1) in the HPC-NL group and 11.8 (2.3) in the HPC-NL + B group. The OGSS was significantly reduced during treatments in both groups. At Month 4, OGSS was reduced by 57% (HPC-NL) and 62% (HPC-NL + B). At the end of study period, the percentage of subjects with an OGSS reduction of ≥50% in comparison with baseline was 53% in the HPC-NL group and 80% in the HPC-NL + B group (p = .05). Both treatments were well tolerated. In subjects with BNS, HPC-NL alone is associated with a clinically relevant improvement of nail appearance. The combination of HPC-NL and oral biotin is associated with further clinical improvement.


Assuntos
Biotina/administração & dosagem , Quitosana/administração & dosagem , Doenças da Unha/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Administração Tópica , Quelantes/administração & dosagem , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Laca , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças da Unha/diagnóstico , Unhas/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Método Simples-Cego , Resultado do Tratamento , Complexo Vitamínico B/administração & dosagem
20.
J Chromatogr A ; 1601: 327-334, 2019 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31128881

RESUMO

Polyester-polyurethane lacquer, used to cover the inner surface of metallic food contact materials, may transfer non-intentionally added substances (NIAS) to the food. The identification of such a diversity of compounds, considered as migrating substances, requires taking advantage of complementary analytical platforms. Therefore, four types of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS) couplings were investigated and compared for their abilities to identify migrating substances after acetonitrile extraction of two commercialised lacquers. In parallel, various ionisation sources, i.e. electron ionisation (EI) (70 eV and soft energies) and atmospheric-pressure chemical ionisation (APCI) as well as various mass analysers, i.e. quadrupole, time-of-flight (low and high resolution) and Orbitrap, were tested. Comparison of mass spectra with a commercial library for EI ionisation source led to the identification of two NIAS compounds, isophorone diisocyanate and 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate. Additionally, many cyclic oligoesters (four monomer units) were unambiguously identified according to supplier's declaration on starting materials used, primarily based on the molecular ion observed by APCI mode and characteristic fragment ions. High resolution mass analysers also enhanced confidence level in such NIAS identification. One- and two-dimensional GC were also investigated for separation assessment. Although GC × GC did not reveal additional NIAS, its use provided a valuable mapping of oligomers according to monomers composition. These results were compared to our previously published LC-MS study, carried out on the same lacquer samples. This study shows that LC and GC, along with their related ionisation techniques and their own selectivity, are complementary approaches, revealing different classes of compounds covering a wide range of volatility and polarity.


Assuntos
Embalagem de Alimentos/normas , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Poliésteres/química , Poliuretanos/química , Pressão Atmosférica , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Laca
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