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1.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0250346, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34242234

RESUMO

Synthetic fibers are increasingly seen to dominate microplastic pollution profiles in aquatic environments, with evidence pointing to textiles as a potentially important source. However, the loss of microfibers from textiles during laundry is poorly understood. We evaluated microfiber release from a variety of synthetic and natural consumer apparel textile samples (n = 37), with different material types, constructions, and treatments during five consecutive domestic laundry cycles. Microfiber loss ranged from 9.6 mg to 1,240 mg kg-1 of textile per wash, or an estimated 8,809 to > 6,877,000 microfibers. Mechanically-treated polyester samples, dominated by fleeces and jerseys, released six times more microfibers (161 ± 173 mg kg-1 per wash) than did nylon samples with woven construction and filamentous yarns (27 ± 14 mg kg-1 per wash). Fiber shedding was positively correlated with fabric thickness for nylon and polyester. Interestingly, cotton and wool textiles also shed large amounts of microfibers (165 ± 44 mg kg-1 per wash). The similarity between the average width of textile fibers here (12.4 ± 4.5 µm) and those found in ocean samples provides support for the notion that home laundry is an important source of microfiber pollution. Evaluation of two marketed laundry lint traps provided insight into intervention options for the home, with retention of up to 90% for polyester fibers and 46% for nylon fibers. Our observation of a > 850-fold difference in the number of microfibers lost between low and high shedding textiles illustrates the strong potential for intervention, including more sustainable clothing design.


Assuntos
Lavanderia , Têxteis/análise , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Águas Residuárias/química
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 791: 148060, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34119782

RESUMO

As global production of textiles rapidly grows, there is urgency to understand the persistence of fabrics in the marine environment, particularly from the microfibers they shed during wearing and washing. Here, we show that fabrics containing polyester (one of the most common plastics) remained relatively intact (viz., with a limited biofilm) after >200 days in seawater off the Scripps Oceanography pier (La Jolla, CA), in contrast to wood-based cellulose fabrics that fell apart within 30 days. We also show similar results under experimental aquaria (in open circuit with the pier waters) as well as bioreactor settings (in close circuit, using microbial inoculum from the North Sea, off Belgium), using nonwoven fabrics and individual fibers, respectively. The fact that fibers released from synthetic textiles remain persistent and non-biodegradable despite their small (invisible) size, highlights concern for the growing industry that uses polyester from recycled plastics to make clothing.


Assuntos
Lavanderia , Reatores Biológicos , Celulose , Plásticos , Têxteis , Madeira
3.
Wiad Lek ; 74(5): 1250-1255, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090300

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim: Characteristic of corruptive incomings laundering in the medical sphere and research of components for counteraction to this phenomenon. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: Some methods were used to ensure the completeness and complexity of scientific research: dialectical, formal, legal, epistemological, and systemstructural methods. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: It was concluded that corruptive incomings laundering in the medical sphere is becoming commonplace. New ways, means, and schemes for the commission of this crime are appearing. The authors analyze the main methods for corruptive incomings laundering in the medical sphere: during the purchase of medicines and medical equipment, during the procurements of medical preparations and medical equipment, building restoration and renovation, where health care facilities are located, price-fixing and gifting of chief medical officers. A comprehensive system of organizational, legal, and economic measures must be formed that will provide effective counteraction to the corruptive incomings laundering in the medical sphere.


Assuntos
Lavanderia , Crime , Humanos
4.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(41): 58570-58582, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34115293

RESUMO

Microplastic particles are a burgeoning population crisis in the marine environment. This research examines the emission of microfibers from three different jeans (garments) during domestic washing. The jeans types, washing temperature, washing duration, spin speed, detergent types, and addition of conditioner are the main factors for this research work. The average length and diameter of the microfibers for the 100% PET jeans (jeans-P) has 7800 ± 4000 µm and 11.9±3.2 µm and for polyester/cotton jeans (jeans-PB) has 4900 ± 2200 µm 17.4±4.8 µm, respectively. The maximum microfiber released was observed in the rigorous washing treatment (90 min, 60°C, 1400 rpm, powder detergent with the presence of conditioner). The surmised number of microfibers discharged from the 1 kg wash load of jeans-P was calculated within the extent of 2300000-4900000 microfibers, and it is varied by the washing treatments.


Assuntos
Lavanderia , Plásticos , Microplásticos , Poliésteres , Têxteis
5.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 87(14): e0300220, 2021 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33962979

RESUMO

Laundering of textiles-clothing, linens, and cleaning cloths-functionally removes dirt and bodily fluids, which prevents the transmission of and reexposure to pathogens as well as providing odor control. Thus, proper laundering is key to controlling microbes that cause illness and produce odors. The practice of laundering varies from region to region and is influenced by culture and resources. This review aims to define laundering as a series of steps that influence the exposure of the person processing the laundry to pathogens, with respect to the removal and control of pathogens and odor-causing bacteria, while taking into consideration the types of textiles. Defining laundering in this manner will help better educate the consumer and highlight areas where more research is needed and how to maximize products and resources. The control of microorganisms during laundering involves mechanical (agitation and soaking), chemical (detergent and bleach), and physical (detergent and temperature) processes. Temperature plays the most important role in terms of pathogen control, requiring temperatures exceeding 40°C to 60°C for proper inactivation, while detergents play a role in reducing the microbial load of laundering through the release of microbes attached to fabrics and the inactivation of microbes sensitive to detergents (e.g., enveloped viruses). The use of additives (enzymes) and bleach (chlorine and activated oxygen) becomes essential in washes with temperatures below 20°C, especially for certain enteric viruses and bacteria. A structured approach is needed that identifies all the steps in the laundering process and attempts to identify each step relative to its importance to infection risk and odor production.


Assuntos
Vestuário , Higiene , Lavanderia/métodos , Microbiota , Odorantes , Humanos , Lavanderia/instrumentação , Têxteis
6.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 183: 651-659, 2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33957200

RESUMO

Electroless silver plating on fabrics can obtain conductive and antibacterial bifunctional materials which can be used as electrodes in wearable electronic products. However, these activities are deteriorated easily after washing because of the falling off of silver coating resulted from the weak adhesion. In order to improve the binding force between silver and cellulose fabrics, 3-mercaptopropytrimethoxysilane (MPTS) was applied to modify cellulose fabrics before silver electroless plating to develop the durable conductive fabrics with excellent antibacterial. The silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) deposition process was observed via field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), thermal properties were evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). A dense and uniform silver layer was formed on the fabric. The initial electrical resistance of the conductive fabric was 0.04 Ω/sq and lowered than 2 Ω/sq after 200 washing cycles. The antibacterial efficiency of the fabric after 200 washing cycles remained 92.82%, compared to 100% with the fabric before washing. Moreover, the inhibition rate was determined by optical density of bacteria suspension at 260 nm and further substantiated by releasing of Ag+ from the fabric. The conductive fabrics were applied as wearable electrodes to capture electrocardiogram (ECG) signals of human in static states and running states.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Celulose/química , Eletrocardiografia/instrumentação , Eletrodos , Prata/química , Têxteis , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Adulto , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Celulose/farmacologia , Impedância Elétrica , Desenho de Equipamento , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Lavanderia , Masculino , Compostos de Organossilício/química , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Corrida , Prata/farmacologia , Propriedades de Superfície
7.
Microbiologyopen ; 10(2): e1174, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33970541

RESUMO

Human body malodour is a complex phenomenon. Several types of sweat glands produce odorless secretions that are metabolized by a consortium of skin-resident microorganisms to a diverse set of malodorous substances. Isovaleric acid, a sweaty-smelling compound, is one major malodorous component produced by staphylococci with the skin-derived amino acid L-leucine as a substrate. During wearing, fabrics are contaminated with sweat and microorganisms and high humidity propagates growth and microbial malodour production. Incomplete removal of sweat residues and microorganisms from fabrics during laundry with bleach-free detergents and at low temperatures elevate the problem of textile malodour. This study aimed to analyze the inhibitory effect of the antimicrobial 4,4' dichloro 2-hydroxydiphenyl ether (DCPP) on the formation of isovaleric acid on fabrics. Therefore, GC-FID- and GC-MS-based methods for the analysis of isovaleric acid in an artificial human sweat-mimicking medium and in textile extracts were established. Here, we show that antimicrobials capable to deposit on fabrics during laundry, such as DCPP, are effective in growth inhibition of typical malodour-generating bacteria and prevent the staphylococcal formation of isovaleric acid on fabrics in a simple experimental setup. This can contribute to increased hygiene for mild laundry care approaches, where bacterial contamination and malodour production represent a considerable consumer problem.


Assuntos
Corynebacterium/efeitos dos fármacos , Corynebacterium/metabolismo , Hemiterpenos/análise , Ácidos Pentanoicos/análise , Prolina/análogos & derivados , Piridinas/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/metabolismo , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Hemiterpenos/biossíntese , Humanos , Lavanderia , Leucina/metabolismo , Odorantes , Oligopeptídeos , Prolina/farmacologia , Pele/microbiologia , Têxteis/microbiologia
8.
J Oleo Sci ; 70(4): 521-530, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33814513

RESUMO

In this study, the interaction between the temperature and the pH of soil containing fatty acids with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) aqueous solution was investigated to elucidate their synergistic effect in cleaning. A tergotometer was used for the cleaning test, and the cleaning results were analyzed by the probability density functional method, using the calculated parameter, µ rl , as an index of the cleaning power. The increase in µ rl by one of the factors was defined as ΔX or ΔY and the increase in µ rl by the both factors was defined as Δ(X + Y). It is assumed that there is a synergistic effect when Δ(X + Y) > ΔX + ΔY. The cleaning of fatty acid stains followed the addition rule pertaining to mechanical force and the pH effect. However, synergy was observed between the temperature and the pH effect. This was also supported by the plot of µ rl vs 1/T and observations using a phase-contrast microscope.


Assuntos
Detergentes , Ácidos Graxos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Lavanderia , Dodecilsulfato de Sódio , Tensoativos , Temperatura , Soluções , Água
9.
mSphere ; 6(2)2021 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33910996

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) persists on stainless steel and plastic for up to 7 days, suggesting that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) could be spread by fomite transmission. There is limited research on the stability of SARS-CoV-2 on textiles, with the risk of textiles acting as fomites not being well understood. To date, there does not appear to be any published research on the stability of coronaviruses during laundering, which is required to determine the efficacy of current laundering policies in the decontamination of health care textiles. The aim of this study was to investigate the environmental stability of human coronaviruses HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-229E on different textile fiber types and the persistence of HCoV-OC43 on textiles during domestic and industrial laundering. This study demonstrated that human coronaviruses (5 log10 50% tissue culture infective doses [TCID50]) remain infectious on polyester for ≥72 h, cotton for ≥24 h, and polycotton for ≥6 h; HCoV-OC43 was also able to transfer from polyester to PVC or polyester after 72 h. Under clean conditions, HCoV-OC43 was not detectable on cotton swatches laundered with industrial and domestic wash cycles without temperature and detergent (≥4.57-log10-TCID50 reduction), suggesting that the dilution and agitation of wash cycles are sufficient to remove human coronaviruses from textiles. In the presence of interfering substances (artificial saliva), ≤1.78 log10 TCID50 HCoV-OC43 was detected after washing domestically without temperature and detergent, unlike industrial laundering, where the virus was completely removed. However, no infectious HCoV-OC43 was detected when washed domestically with detergent.IMPORTANCE Synthetic textiles such as polyester could potentially act as fomites of human coronaviruses, indicating the importance of infection control procedures during handling of contaminated textiles prior to laundering. This study provides novel evidence that human coronaviruses can persist on textiles for up to 3 days and are readily transferred from polyester textile to other surfaces after 72 h of incubation. This is of particular importance for the domestic laundering of contaminated textiles such as health care uniforms in the United Kingdom and United States, where there may be a risk of cross-contaminating the domestic environment. It was demonstrated that human coronaviruses are removed from contaminated textiles by typical domestic and commercial wash cycles, even at low temperatures without detergent, indicating that current health care laundering policies are likely sufficient in the decontamination of SARS-CoV-2 from textiles.


Assuntos
COVID-19/transmissão , Resfriado Comum/transmissão , Coronavirus Humano 229E/efeitos dos fármacos , Coronavirus Humano OC43/efeitos dos fármacos , Detergentes/farmacologia , Têxteis/virologia , Linhagem Celular , Fibra de Algodão/virologia , Fômites/virologia , Humanos , Lavanderia , Poliésteres , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Med Sci Law ; 61(3): 198-207, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573465

RESUMO

In some cases of sexual assault that are not reported to judicial authorities within a certain time, it is important to detect and identify seminal stains on laundered fabrics. In this study, we aimed to reveal the effect of the time from staining to laundering on the detectability and identification of seminal stains on laundered clothes. A total of 180 pieces of fabric (four different colours and five different types) were stained with seminal fluids, and three different lag times (12 hours, 1 week and 1 month) from staining to laundering were used. Three different laundering protocols were applied to these fabrics after staining. The built-in camera of the Mobile Multispectral UV-VIS-IR Imaging System® was used to take photos (1260 in total) of the stains with seven different wavelength and filter options, and the obtained images were evaluated. The Seratec® PSA Semiquant test was used to analyse the presence of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in the seminal stains laundered after different lag times. We observed that in examining with the forensic light source (FLS) system, the time from staining to laundering affected the detectability of seminal stains on pieces of cloth. The best fluorescence was obtained in the examination of semen-stained fabric with FLS, particularly when the fabric was not laundered for one month after staining. On the other hand, the time from staining to laundering had a more limited effect on PSA test positivity than on the results of the examination with FLS.


Assuntos
Vestuário , Lavanderia , Antígeno Prostático Específico/análise , Sêmen/química , Fluorescência , Humanos , Sêmen/diagnóstico por imagem , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 165: 112030, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33561711

RESUMO

The presence and biodegradability of textile microfibers shed during laundering or use is an important environmental issue. In this research, the influence of common textile finishes on the persistence of cotton fibers in an aerobic aquatic environment was assessed. The biodegradation of cotton knitted fabrics with different finishes, silicone softener, durable press, water repellent, and a blue reactive dye was evaluated. The rate of biodegradation decreased with durable press and water repellant finishing treatments. In terms of the final extent of biodegradation, there was no significant difference between the samples. All samples reached more than 60% biodegradation in 102 days. The biodegradation rates were in agreement with observed trends of the same samples for cellulase mediated hydrolysis and cellulase adsorption experiments, indicating the finishes impact the initial adsorption of enzymes excreted by the microorganisms and the initial rates of biodegradation, however despite this the cellulosic material maintains its biodegradability.


Assuntos
Lavanderia , Adsorção , Vestuário , Corantes , Fibra de Algodão , Poliésteres , Têxteis
12.
Ergonomics ; 64(6): 755-767, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33393449

RESUMO

Firefighter hoods must provide protection from elevated temperatures and products of combustion (e.g. particulate) while simultaneously being wearable (comfortable and not interfering with firefighting activities). The purpose of this study was to quantify the impact of (1) hood design (traditional knit hood vs particulate-blocking hood), (2) repeated laundering, and (3) hood removal method (traditional vs overhead doffing) on (a) protection from soot contamination on the neck, (b) heat stress and (c) wearability measures. Using a fireground exposure simulator, 24 firefighters performed firefighting activities in realistic smoke and heat conditions using a new knit hood, new particulate-blocking hood and laundered particulate-blocking hood. Overall, soot contamination levels measured from neck skin were lower when wearing the laundered particulate-blocking hoods compared to new knit hoods, and when using the overhead hood removal process. No significant differences in skin temperature, core temperature, heart rate or wearability measures were found between the hood conditions. Practitioner Summary: The addition of a particulate-blocking layer to firefighters' traditional two-ply hood was found to reduce the PAH contamination reaching the neck but did not affect heat stress measurements or thermal perceptions. Modifying the process for hood removal resulted in a larger reduction in neck skin contamination than design modification. Abbreviations: ANOVA: analysis of variance; B: new particulate-blocking hood and PPE (PPE configuration); FES: fireground exposure simulator; GI: gastrointestinal; K: new knit hood and PPE (PPE configuration); L: laundered particulate-blocking hood and PPE (PPE configuration); LOD: limit of detection; MLE: maximum likelihood estimation; NFPA: National fire protection association; PAH: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon; PPE: personal protective equipment; SCBA: self-contained breathing apparatus; THL: total heat loss; TPP: thermal protective performance.


Assuntos
Bombeiros , Lavanderia , Exposição Ocupacional , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Fumaça/efeitos adversos
13.
Biol Lett ; 17(1): 20200700, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33435848

RESUMO

Humans have worn clothing for thousands of years, and since its invention, clothing has evolved from its simple utilitarian function for survival to become an integral part of society. While much consideration has been given to the broad environmental impacts of the textile and laundering industries, little is known about the impact wearing clothing has had on the human microbiome, particularly that of the skin, despite our long history with clothing. This review discusses the history of clothing and the evolution of textiles, what is and is not known about microbial persistence on and degradation of various fibres, and what opportunities for the industrial and environmental application of clothing microbiology exist for the future.


Assuntos
Lavanderia , Microbiota , Vestuário , Humanos , Têxteis
14.
J Appl Microbiol ; 130(4): 1012-1022, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32916010

RESUMO

AIMS: To repurpose a silver-based antimicrobial textile coating product (Micro-Fresh 1911) as a dual-function antimicrobial laundry additive and textile coating. METHODS AND RESULTS: Survival of Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus aureus type and clinical isolates in a domestic 40°C wash was assessed with and without soiling and biological detergent. Washing with 2% w/v silver additive (wash phase) reduced E. coli and S. aureus by 7·14-8·08 log10 and no cross-contamination was observed. Under dirty conditions, 0·5% silver additive in the rinse phase of a wash with biological detergent reduced E. coli and S. aureus by 7·98-8·40 log10 (0·00-1·42 log10 cross contamination). BS EN ISO 20645:2004 and BS EN ISO 20743:2013 methods were used to assess the antimicrobial activity of polycotton washed with 2% w/v silver additive against S. aureus and E. coli. The treated polycotton was antimicrobial against E. coli and S. aureus type and clinical isolates and remains active after at least one further wash cycle at 40 or 73°C. CONCLUSIONS: The silver additive exhibits antimicrobial activity in a 40°C domestic wash, preventing cross contamination onto clean textiles and depositing an antimicrobial coating onto polycotton. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: The survival of micro-organisms on healthcare uniforms during domestic laundering presents a potential risk of contaminating the home, cross-contamination of other clothing within the wash and transmitting potential pathogens back into healthcare settings via contaminated uniforms. Silver may be useful as an antimicrobial laundry additive to decontaminate healthcare laundry washed at low temperatures in domestic and industrial settings, to therefore reduce the potential risk of transmitting micro-organisms within the domestic and clinical environments.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Descontaminação/métodos , Lavanderia/métodos , Prata/farmacologia , Têxteis/análise , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Atenção à Saúde , Detergentes/química , Detergentes/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Prata/química , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Têxteis/microbiologia
15.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(15): 18518-18522, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935209

RESUMO

Microplastics have been recognized as emerging pollutants with potential ecotoxicological impact. The contribution of washing machine use to microplastics emission at the household level is still not completely understood. This study aims to characterize microplastic emissions in laundry water from household washing machines from Greater Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia). Microplastics were found between 6.9E-3 and 0.183 g/m3 in laundry water at household level. Microplastic shapes of fiber and fragment consist of polyester, nylon, and acrylic with average length of 2258.59 µm and were also identified in these laundry water samples. Questionnaire survey findings demonstrated fabric properties and washing parameters both likely contribute to microplastic emissions in laundry water and, ultimately, wastewater treatment plant influent. The impact of fabric properties and washing parameter factors on microplastic emission in laundry water at the household level merits further investigation. The findings of this study demonstrated the potential of laundry water as a microplastic source at the household level within a developing country.


Assuntos
Lavanderia , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Monitoramento Ambiental , Malásia , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Têxteis , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
16.
Enferm Clin ; 31 Suppl 1: S89-S93, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32723622

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In January 2020, an outbreak of pneumonia caused by a zoonotic virus (SARS-CoV-2) appeared in China. The main route of transmission is considered to be the inhalation of large respiratory drops, by deposition in the mucosa and hands or contaminated fomites. The objective is to identify the interventions to be performed during hospitalization for the correct and safe handling of clothing and hygiene of patients and health professionals. METHOD: Scoping review carried out without chronological or language delimitation in the PUBMED and Cochrane databases. Tracking standards and recommendations of national and international government entities to answer the research question on the safe handling of clothing and skin hygiene in patients and in health professionals to avoid Covid-19 infection. The data analysis was carried out in 2stages: in the first, identification and categorization of the studies, and in the second, content analysis as an informative and classifying criterion. RESULTS: 14 documents have been selected, mainly from government entities. The recommendations are structured in 5 sections on the management of clothing and skin hygiene of infected patients and health professionals in the hospital setting. CONCLUSION: The clothing of patients and healthcare personnel are transmitting vehicles of the disease. Its correct treatment helps to improve the control of the same and the correct use of the resources available at the moment. Proper skin hygiene, especially hand cleansing, is one of the basic pillars for infection prevention and control. We highlight the similarity of some of the guidelines collected and provided by the different agencies consulted.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vestuário , Higiene das Mãos/métodos , Pessoal de Saúde , SARS-CoV-2 , Higiene da Pele/métodos , Roupas de Cama, Mesa e Banho/normas , Roupas de Cama, Mesa e Banho/virologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Vestuário/normas , Guias como Assunto , Higiene das Mãos/normas , Humanos , Lavanderia/métodos , Lavanderia/normas , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/normas , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/virologia , Roupa de Proteção/normas , Roupa de Proteção/virologia , Higiene da Pele/normas
17.
Enferm Clin (Engl Ed) ; 31: S94-S99, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32425484

RESUMO

Aim: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected countries on all continents where containment and isolation measures have been systematically applied. This review aims to synthesize the available evidence on the management of home isolation due to COVID-19 infection. Method: A scoping review has been carried out using the Trip Database, PUBMED, CINAHL, COCHRANE and Scopus controlled language without any limits. From all the documents located, information was extracted on the date of publication, country of publication, type of study, assessment of the level of evidence and degree of recommendation, and results of interest to answer the research question. Critical reading of the selected documents has been carried out, but without using it as an exclusion criterion but rather informative. Results: 163 records were located and 14 were selected. The recommendations have been grouped into 10 topics around all the daily management of home care. Conclusions: The scarcity of robust evidence on isolation from COVID-19 infection is objective. Most of the documents are reviews carried out after the consensus of experts at the international level.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Isolamento de Pacientes/métodos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Processos Climáticos , Tosse/prevenção & controle , Desinfetantes , Higiene das Mãos , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Humanos , Higiene , Lavanderia/métodos , Máscaras , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Distanciamento Físico , Quarentena/métodos , Apoio Social , Fatores de Tempo , Populações Vulneráveis
18.
Environ Pollut ; 272: 115998, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33199065

RESUMO

The influence of common textile finishes on cotton fabrics on the generation of microfibers during laundering was assessed. Microfiber release was determined to be in the range of 9000-14,000 particles per gram of cotton fabric. Cotton knitted fabrics treated with softener and durable press generate more microfibers (1.30-1.63 mg/g fabric) during laundering by mass and number than untreated fabric (0.73 mg/g fabric). The fabrics treated with softener generated the longest average microfiber length (0.86 mm), whereas durable press and water repellent treatments produced the shortest average microfiber length (0.62 and 0.63 mm, respectively). In general, the changes in the mechanical properties of the fibers and fabrics due to the finishing treatments are the main factor affecting the microfiber release. The abrasion resistance of the fabrics decreases for durable press treatments and water repellent treatments due to the brittleness in the structure originated by the crosslinking treatment. In the case of the softener treatment, the fabric surface is soft and smooth decreasing the friction coefficient between fibers favoring the fibers loosening from the textile and resulting in a high tendency for fuzz formation and microfiber release. These findings are useful for the textile industry in the design and selection of materials and treatments for the reduction of synthetic or natural microfiber shedding from textiles.


Assuntos
Lavanderia , Corantes , Fenômenos Físicos , Poliésteres , Têxteis
19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(13): 16253-16263, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33340055

RESUMO

Microplastic fibres released in synthetic cloth washing have been shown to be a source of microplastics into the environment. The annual emission of polyester fibres from household washing machines has earlier been estimated to be 150,000 kg in a country with a population of 5.5 × 106 (Finland). The objectives of this study were (1) to quantify the emissions of synthetic textile fibres discharged from five sequential machine washes (fibre number and length) and tumble dryings (fibre mass) and (2) to determine the collection efficiency of two commercial fibre traps. The synthetic fabrics were five types of polyester textiles, one polyamide and one polyacryl. The number of fibres released from the test fabrics in the first wash varied in the range from 1.0 × 105 to 6.3 × 106 kg-1. The fibre lengths showed that the fleece fabrics released, on average, longer fibres than the technical sports t-shirts. The mass of fibres ranged from 10 to 1700 mg/kg w/w in the first drying. Fibre emissions showed a decreasing trend both in sequential washes and dryings. The ratio of the fibre emissions in machine wash to tumble drying varied between the fabrics: the ratio was larger than one to polyester and polyamide technical t-shirts whereas it was much lower to the other tested textiles. GuppyFriend washing bag and Cora Ball trapped 39% and 10% of the polyester fibres discharged in washings, respectively.


Assuntos
Lavanderia , Microplásticos , Finlândia , Plásticos , Têxteis
20.
Environ Res ; 194: 110616, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321140

RESUMO

Firefighter uniforms protect firefighters from exposure to potentially harmful chemicals including a range of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs). Contaminated uniforms can become a secondary source of firefighters' exposure to these chemicals. There is inconsistency on the removal efficiency of SVOCs during the cleaning, laundering and field decontamination of firefighting uniforms. Therefore, this study aims to assess how effective decontamination and laundering processes are in reducing firefighter uniforms as a vector for transport and exposure to SVOCs. Firefighters who had attended a controlled house fire and simulated container burns had their uniforms sampled pre- and post-laundering. Clean station wear was laundered with contaminated uniforms and after a load of contaminated uniforms to assess inter and intra load contamination. Surface wipes were collected from uniforms across 12 fire stations, after they had returned from a laundering provider. Concentrations of 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), six organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) and seven polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in the collected samples. The concentrations of ∑13 PAHs in firefighters uniforms ranged between 0.063 and 43 µg g-1, while concentration of ∑6 OPFRs were between 0.061 and 90 µg g-1 with ∑7 PBDEs concentrations being measured between 0.00054 and 0.97 µg g-1.The highest concentrations of ∑13 PAHs were measured on the outer layers of gloves at an average of 19 µg g-1, with the highest ∑6 OPFRs concentrations being measured in the middle layers of gloves at an average of 31 µg g-1. The highest ∑7 PBDEs concentrations were measured on the shell layers of turnout jackets at 0.42 µg g-1. The significant reduction in ∑13 PAHs after laundering or decontamination was only found in 3 of the 16 sampled areas from firefighting uniforms. No significant differences were found in the between pre- and post-laundering concentrations of ∑6 OPFRs or ∑7 PBDEs in firefighting uniforms. The current laundering techniques do not appear to effectively remove PAHs, OPFRs and PBDEs at the measured concentrations from firefighters' uniforms. Further research is required to assess if chemical exposure though firefighting uniforms poses a health risk to firefighters and to develop methods for the removal of SVOCs from firefighting uniforms.


Assuntos
Bombeiros , Retardadores de Chama , Lavanderia , Exposição Ocupacional , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Vestuário , Descontaminação , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise
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