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1.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 755715, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34660350

RESUMO

The current methods of treating toxoplasmosis have a number of side effects, and these therapies are only effective against the acute stage of the disease. Thus, development of new low toxicity and efficient anti-Toxoplasma drugs is extremely important. Natural products are important sources for screening new drugs; among them, essential oils (EOs) have efficacy in anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-insect, and other aspects. In this study, 16 EOs were screened for their anti-T. gondii activity. Lavandula angustifolia essential oil (La EO)was found to have an anti-parasitic effect on T. gondii. The cytotoxicity of La EO was firstly evaluated using the MTT assay on human foreskin fibroblast (HFF) cells, and then the anti-T. gondii activity was evaluated by plaque assay. Finally, the invasion experiment and electron microscope observation were used to study the mechanism of La EO in anti-toxoplasma activity. The results indicated that the CC50 of La EO was 4.48 mg/ml and that La EO had activity against T. gondii and the inhibition was in a dose-dependent manner under safe concentrations. La EO was able to reduce T. gondii invasion, which may be due to its detrimental effect on changes of the morphology of tachyzoites. These findings indicated that La EO could be a potential drug for treating toxoplasmosis.


Assuntos
Lavandula , Óleos Voláteis , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose , Fibroblastos , Humanos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Toxoplasmose/tratamento farmacológico
2.
Molecules ; 26(18)2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34577081

RESUMO

The quality control of essential oils (EO) principally aims at revealing the presence of adulterations and at quantifying compounds that are limited by law by evaluating EO chemical compositions, usually in terms of the normalised relative abundance of selected markers, for comparison to reference values reported in pharmacopoeias and/or international norms. Common adulterations of EO consist of the addition of cheaper EO or synthetic materials. This adulteration can be detected by calculating the percent normalised areas of selected markers or the enantiomeric composition of chiral components. The dilution of the EO with vegetable oils is another type of adulteration. This adulteration is quite devious, as it modifies neither the qualitative composition of the resulting EO nor the marker's normalised percentage abundance, which is no longer diagnostic, and an absolute quantitative analysis is required. This study aims at verifying the application of the two above approaches (i.e., normalised relative abundance and absolute quantitation) to detect EO adulterations, with examples involving selected commercial EO (lavender, bergamot and tea tree) adulterated with synthetic components, EO of different origin and lower economical values and heavy vegetable oils. The results show that absolute quantitation is necessary to highlight adulteration with heavy vegetable oils, providing that a reference quantitative profile is available.


Assuntos
Citrus/química , Lavandula/química , Melaleuca/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Controle de Qualidade , Monoterpenos Acíclicos/análise , Contaminação de Medicamentos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Isomerismo , Monoterpenos/análise , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Óleos Vegetais/análise , Óleos Vegetais/química , Padrões de Referência , Óleo de Melaleuca/análise , Óleo de Melaleuca/química
3.
Molecules ; 26(18)2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34576924

RESUMO

Interest in the use of essential oils (EOs) in the biomedical and food industries have seen growing over the last decades due to their richness in bioactive compounds. The challenges in developing an EO extraction process that assure an efficient levels of monoterpenes with impact on biological activities have driven the present study, in which the EO extraction process of rosemary, lavender and citrus was performed by simultaneous hydrodistillation-steam distillation, and the influence of EO composition on biological activities, namely antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, anti-acetylcholinesterase, anti-tyrosinase, antibacterial, and antibiofilm activity, were evaluated. The EO yields of combinations were generally higher than the individual plants (R. officinalis (Ro), L. angustifolia (La), and C. aurantium (Ca)) extracted by the conventional hydrodistillation. The EOs obtained by this process generally had a better capacity for scavenging the free radicals, inhibiting α-glucosidase, and acetylcholinesterase activities than the individual EOs. The combination of EOs did not improve the ability for scavenging peroxide hydrogen or the capacity for inhibiting lipoxygenase activity. The antioxidant activity or the enzyme inhibition activity could not only be attributed to their major compounds because they presented lower activities than the EOs. The chemical composition of the combination Ro:La:Ca, at the ratio 1/6:1/6:2/3, was enriched in 1,8-cineole, linalool, and linalyl acetate and resulted in lower MIC values for all tested strains in comparison with the ratio 1/6:2/3:1/6 that was deprived on those components. The biofilm formation of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria was impaired by the combination Ro:La:Ca at a sub-inhibitory concentration.


Assuntos
Citrus , Destilação , Lavandula , Rosmarinus , Vapor , Antibacterianos
4.
Molecules ; 26(18)2021 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34577152

RESUMO

Lavender, otherwise known as Lavandula angustifolia Mill., is widely used in landscaping, and its oil is a valuable raw material used in many industries. Therefore, new varieties of this plant are bred. The essential oil composition obtained from fresh flowers of thirteen new Ukrainian cultivars of L. angustifolia were analysed by GC-MS, and eighty-two components were identified. Linalool and linalyl acetate were principal constituents of all of the samples, and ranged from 11.4% to 46.7% and 7.4% to 44.2%, respectively. None of the studied samples fulfilled the requirements of Ph. Eur. and ISO 3515:2002. The main reason was a high content of α-terpineol (0.5-4.5%) and/or terpinene-4-ol (1.2-18.7%). Our results are in line with multiple researchers showing that the studied lavender oils do not comply with the industry standards despite their authenticity. We also investigated the effect of the growth year on the chemical composition of five tested cultivars grown on the same plots and noticed a considerable variability between years. The obtained experimental data did not show a significant inter-year trend for the content changes of the major components. Our results allow us to deeply characterize the new cultivars and evaluate their oil for a possible use in the industry, or to designate them for future selective breeding.


Assuntos
Lavandula , Óleos Voláteis , Ucrânia
5.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500747

RESUMO

The chemical composition of essential oils (EOs) from dried and fresh flowers of Lavandula angustifolia L. (lavender), named LA 2019 and LA 2020, respectively, grown in central Italy was analyzed and compared by GC and GC-MS. For both samples, 61 compounds were identified, corresponding to 97.9% and 98.1% of the total essential oils. Explorative data analysis, performed to compare the statistical composition of the samples, resulted in a high level of global similarity (around 93%). The compositions of both samples were characterized by 10 major compounds, with a predominance of Linalool (35.3-36.0%), Borneol (15.6-19.4%) and 1,8-Cineole (11.0-9.0%). The in vitro antibacterial activity assay by disk diffusion tests against Bacillus subtilis PY79 and Escherichia coli DH5α showed inhibition of growth in both indicator strains. In addition, plate counts revealed a bactericidal effect on E. coli, which was particularly noticeable when using oil from the fresh lavender flowers at the highest concentrations. An in vitro antifungal assay showed that the EOs inhibited the growth of Sclerotium rolfsii, a phytopathogenic fungus that causes post-harvest diseases in many fruits and vegetables. The antioxidant activity was also assessed using the ABTS free radical scavenging assay, which showed a different antioxidant activity in both EOs. In addition, the potential application of EOs as a green method to control biodeterioration phenomena on an artistic wood painting (XIX century) was evaluated.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Flores/química , Lavandula/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Bacillus subtilis/efeitos dos fármacos , Basidiomycota/efeitos dos fármacos , Benzotiazóis/antagonistas & inibidores , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estrutura Molecular , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Ácidos Sulfônicos/antagonistas & inibidores
6.
Plant Biol (Stuttg) ; 23(6): 992-999, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516720

RESUMO

Available studies are far from giving a complete figure for the germination requirements of many Mediterranean Basin species. In this study, we investigated the germination properties of Lavandula stoechas L. (Lamiaceae) in response to different light and temperature regimes. We performed comprehensive experiments to test the effect of fixed and alternating temperatures, dark versus light conditions, and thermodormancy or thermoinhibition on several germination properties in three populations of L. stoechas from southwestern Turkey. Germination patterns showed a substantial variation among populations. Germination percentage was higher in the light conditions than in the dark at most temperatures, and alternating temperatures substituted light for the germination. The requirement of L. stoechas seeds to light for germination gradually increased through lower and higher temperatures than 15 °C. High temperature (30 °C) reduced the germination percentage to zero. However, in the presence of light, seeds were able to germinate after transferring to the optimum temperature (thermoinhibition), but this was not the case in darkness (thermodormancy). Seed germination in L. stoechas was stimulated by light, suggesting that germination has a phytochrome-mediated response. Our study makes an inference to the fire-environment interactions in the germination of Mediterranean seeder species by showing that both light and alternating temperatures stimulate germination in L. stoechas, a species well-known with its fire-related germination. Comprehensive germination studies are required for a better understanding of the early life-stage adaptations of plants to Mediterranean conditions, and for developing more robust strategies for conservation and ecosystem restoration.


Assuntos
Germinação , Lavandula , Luz , Temperatura , Ecossistema , Lavandula/fisiologia , Dormência de Plantas , Sementes
7.
Planta ; 254(3): 54, 2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410495

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: The expression of full-length cDNAs encoding lavender AGAMOUS-like (LaAG-like) and SEPALLATA3-like (LaSEP3-like) transcription factors induces early flowering and impacts the leaf morphology at a strong expression level in Arabidopsis. Lavandula angustifolia is widely cultivated as an ornamental plant due to its attractive flower structure, and as a source of valuable essential oils for use in cosmetics, alternative medicines, and culinary products. We recently employed RNA-Seq and transcript profiling to describe a number of transcription factors (TFs) that potentially control flower development in this plant. In this study, we investigated the roles of two TFs, LaAGAMOUS-like (LaAG-like) and LaSEPALLATA3-like (LaSEP3-like), that exhibited substantial homology to Arabidopsis thaliana floral development genes, AGAMOUS and SEPALLATA3, respectively, in flowering initiation in Arabidopsis. We stably and constitutively expressed LaAG-like and LaSEP3-like cDNAs in separate Arabidopsis plants. All transgenic plants flowered earlier than the wild-type controls. However, plants that modestly overexpressed the gene were phenotypically normal, while those that strongly expressed the transgene developed curly leaves. We also assessed the expression of five endogenous flowering time regulating genes, from which high expression of Flowering Locus T (AtFT) mRNA in both LaAG-like (type-I and -II) and LaSEP3-like (type-I), and Leafy (AtLFY) mRNAs in LaSEP3-like (type-I) transgenic plants were detected, compared to wild-type controls. Our results suggest that with controlled expression, lavender AG-like and SEP3-like genes are potentially useful for the regulation of flowering time in commercial lavender species, and could be used for plant improvement studies through molecular genetics and targeted breeding programs.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Lavandula , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Lavandula/metabolismo , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Proteínas Repressoras
8.
Poult Sci ; 100(9): 101344, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358952

RESUMO

The unprecedented rate of global warming requires more immaculate strategies to fight the heat stress and its detrimental effects on poultry sector. Nutritional strategies, particularly herbal extracts, play a crucial importance in this scenario. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a novel selected mixture (hereafter refers to as Stress-Bio-Max, SBM) comprising St John's wort, lavender, Melissa officinalis extracts, betaine, and Vit C on heat-stressed broilers. A total of 300 male broiler chicks were allocated to 4 treatments: T1, Control (no SBM in drinking water); T2, 0.25 mL/L of SBM in drinking water; T3, 0.5 and T4, 1 mL/L of SBM, which applied since d 32. The birds underwent heat stress (40 ± 1) daily from d 35 to 42 of the experiment (2 pm-8 pm). The results show the superior weight gain of T2 and T3 from d 7 to 42 compared to other groups, 72.5 and 72.7 g/d, respectively (P < 0.05). Corticosterone level was higher on d 35 in T1 (4.674 ng/mL, P < 0.05) and lower in T2 and T3 (2.64 and 2.952 ng/mL, respectively, P < 0.05); T2 and T3 also caused the lowest concentrations of corticosterone on d 40 (5.198 and 6.458 ng/mL, respectively, P < 0.05). The superior triiodothyronine levels belonged to T2 (0.935 ng/mL, P < 0.05) on d 35 and T2 and T3 on d 40 (0.699 and 0.582 ng/mL, respectively, P < 0.05). T2, T3, and T4 caused a rise in glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities (P < 0.05). A significant higher amount of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) belonged to the groups treating with SBM (P < 0.05). The SBM in T2 and T3 resulted in the lowest levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Results from this study indicate that SBM may alleviate the negative impacts associated with heat stress in broiler chickens.


Assuntos
Hypericum , Lavandula , Melissa , Animais , Ácido Ascórbico , Betaína , Galinhas , Resposta ao Choque Térmico
9.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443525

RESUMO

The epidemiology of yeast infections and resistance to available antifungal drugs are rapidly increasing, and non-albicans Candida species and rare yeast species are increasingly emerging as major opportunistic pathogens. In order to identify new strategies to counter the threat of antimicrobial resistant microorganisms, essential oils (EOs) have become an important potential in the treatment of fungal infections. EOs and their bioactive pure compounds have been found to exhibit a wide range of remarkable biological activities. We investigated the in vitro antifungal activity of nine commercial EOs such as Thymus vulgaris (thyme red), Origanum vulgare (oregano), Lavandula vera (lavender), Pinus sylvestris (pine), Foeniculum vulgare (fennel), Melissa officinalis (lemon balm), Salvia officinalis (sage), Eugenia caryophyllata (clove) and Pelargonium asperum (geranium), and some of their main components (α-pinene, carvacrol, citronellal, eugenol, γ-terpinene, linalool, linalylacetate, terpinen-4-ol, thymol) against non-albicans Candida strains and uncommon yeasts. The EOs were analyzed by GC-MS, and their antifungal properties were evaluated by minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration parameters, in accordance with CLSI guidelines, with some modifications for EOs. Pine exhibited strong antifungal activity against the selected non-albicans Candida isolates and uncommon yeasts. In addition, lemon balm EOs and α-pinene exhibited strong antifungal activity against the selected non-albicans Candida yeasts. Thymol inhibited the growth of all uncommon yeasts. These data showed a promising potential application of EOs as natural adjuvant for management of infections by emerging non-albicans Candida species and uncommon pathogenic yeasts.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/química , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Candida/patogenicidade , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/patogenicidade , Candidíase/tratamento farmacológico , Candidíase/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Fúngica/efeitos dos fármacos , Foeniculum/química , Humanos , Lavandula/química , Melissa/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Óleos Voláteis/química , Origanum/química , Pinus sylvestris/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Salvia officinalis/química , Syzygium/química , Thymus (Planta)/química
10.
Complement Ther Med ; 60: 102758, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34229085

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Burns are a source of pain, which cannot be fully treated with medications. OBJECTIVES: This study aims is to test the effectiveness of lavender oil inhalation aromatherapy applied before dressing change on vital signs and pain levels of children with burns. DESIGN: This randomized controlled study was held between May 2018 and May 2019. A total of 108 children who met the inclusion criteria were studied in three groups: Lavender-15 Group inhaled lavender oil for 15 min before dressing (n:36), Lavender-60 Group inhaled lavender oil for 60 min before dressing (n:36), and Control Group inhaled jojoba (placebo) oil for 15 min before dressing (n:36). Baseline pain levels and vital signs of the children were measured before inhalation. Pain levels and vital signs of the children were re-measured at the 1st and 30th minutes after dressing. RESULTS: There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of pain levels (p = 0.750) and vital signs before dressing. In post-dressing measurements, the number of respiration (after 1 min p = 0.000, after 30 min p = 0.000), heart rate (after 1 min p = 0.000, after 30 min p = 0.000), mean arterial blood pressure (after 1 min p = 0.010, after 30 min p = 0.000) and pain levels (after 1 min p = 0.000, after 30 min p = 0.000) were lower in the Lavender groups compared to the placebo group. DISCUSSION: The result of this research reveals that inhalation aromatherapy which applied before dressing in children with burns affects the reduction of pain levels and stabilization of vital signs.


Assuntos
Aromaterapia , Queimaduras , Lavandula , Óleos Voláteis , Queimaduras/complicações , Queimaduras/tratamento farmacológico , Criança , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Óleos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Óleos Vegetais/uso terapêutico
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34274641

RESUMO

A static headspace gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (HS-GC/MS) method was developed and optimized with the aim to be applied in the analysis of lavender essential oil. To obtain a comprehensive profile of the essential oil, the optimum HS-GC/MS method parameters were selected based on a Design of Experiments (DοE) process. Plackett-Burman experimental design was applied by utilizing seven parameters of the HS injection system. Incubation equilibration temperature and time, agitator's vortex speed, post injection dwell time, inlet temperature, split ratio and injection flow rate were screened to select the optimum conditions on the basis of the number and the intensity of the identified compounds. Other parameters, such as sample volume and dilution solvent ratio, were also examined to achieve a comprehensive profile in a chromatographic run of 55 min. With the obtained optimum method, more than 40 volatile compounds were identified in lavender's essential oils from different geographical regions in Greece. The method can be utilized for the quality assessment of lavender's essential oil and provide information on its characteristic aroma and discrimination among species based on the acquired GC-MS profiles.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Lavandula/química , Óleos Voláteis , Óleos Vegetais , Grécia , Modelos Lineares , Odorantes/análise , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/classificação , Óleos Vegetais/análise , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/classificação , Projetos de Pesquisa
12.
Complement Ther Clin Pract ; 44: 101430, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34217127

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to determine massage lavender essential oil on neuropathic pain and quality of life in diabetic patients. METHODS: A randomized three-group control trial with the pre-post design was performed from 2019 to 2020 on 75 diabetic neuropathic patients. The patients were randomly allocated into aromatherapy (n = 26), placebo (n = 26), and control (n = 26) groups. Patients in the intervention group used 2.5 cc of 3% lavender oil on their feet as a gentle massage for 10 min every night before bedtime for a month. Data collected using the Visual analog scale (VAS), Douleur Neuropathic 4 (DN4) and Quality of Life Questionnaire (SF36). RESULTS: The mean difference of pain scores in short-term and long-term in the aromatherapy group was significantly reduced compared to the placebo and control groups (P < 0.001). In addition, after four weeks, a significant increase was found in the QoL domains in the aromatherapy group (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Aromatherapy massage with lavender oil helped reduce neuropathic pain two to four weeks after the intervention and improved the patients' QoL without causing any side effects. Thus, nurses are recommended to use it as a complementary method to reduce neuropathic pain and improve patients' QoL.


Assuntos
Aromaterapia , Diabetes Mellitus , Neuropatias Diabéticas , Lavandula , Neuralgia , Óleos Voláteis , Humanos , Massagem , Neuralgia/tratamento farmacológico , Óleos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Óleos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Qualidade de Vida
13.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202776

RESUMO

The chemical composition, antioxidant activity, and antimicrobial properties of three commercially available essential oils: rosemary (REO), lavender (LEO), and mint (MEO), were determined in the current study. Our data revealed that the major components of REO, MEO, and LEO were 1,8-cineole (40.4%), menthol (40.1%), and linalool acetate (35.0%), respectively. The highest DPPH radical-scavenging activity was identified in MEO (36.85 ± 0.49%) among the investigated EOs. Regarding antimicrobial activities, we found that LEO had the strongest inhibitory efficiencies against the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida (C.) tropicalis, MEO against Salmonella (S.) enterica, and REO against Staphylococcus (S.) aureus. The strongest antifungal activity was displayed by mint EO, which totally inhibited the growth of Penicillium (P.) expansum and P. crustosum in all concentrations; the growth of P. citrinum was completely suppressed only by the lowest MEO concentration. The lowest minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against S. enterica, S. aureus, and C. krusei were assessed for MEO. In situ analysis on the bread model showed that 125 µL/L of REO exhibited the lowest mycelial growth inhibition (MGI) of P. citrinum, and 500 µL/L of MEO caused the highest MGI of P. crustosum. Our results allow us to make conclusion that the analysed EOs have promising potential for use as innovative agents in the storage of bakery products in order to extend their shelf-life.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Pão/microbiologia , Lavandula/química , Mentha/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Penicillium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rosmarinus/química , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Candida tropicalis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óleos Voláteis/química
14.
Molecules ; 26(14)2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299656

RESUMO

Chemical composition, antioxidant capacity, and antimicrobial activity of lavender essential oils (LEOs) extracted from three different varieties of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (1-Moldoveanca 4, 2-Vis magic 10, and 3-Alba 7) have been determined. These plants previously patented in the Republic of Moldova were cultivated in an organic agriculture system in the northeastern part of Romania and then harvested in 3 consecutive years (2017-2019) to obtain the essential oils. From the inflorescences in the complete flowering stage, the LEOs were extracted by hydrodistillation. Then, their composition was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and by Fourier Transformed Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The major identified constituents are as follows: linalool (1: 32.19-46.83%; 2: 29.93-30.97%; 3: 31.97-33.77%), linalyl acetate (1: 17.70-35.18%; 2: 27.55-37.13%; 3: 28.03-35.32%), and terpinen-4-ol (1: 3.63-7.70%; 2: 3.06-7.16%; 3: 3.10-6.53%). The antioxidant capacity as determined by ABTS and DPPH assays indicates inhibition, with the highest activity obtained for LEO var. Alba 7 from 2019. The in vitro antimicrobial activities of the LEOs and combinations were investigated as well, by using the disk diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against the Gram-positive bacterial strain Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538), Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27858), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), the yeast Candida albicans (ATCC 10231), and clinical isolates. Our results have shown that LEOs obtained from the three studied varieties of L. angustifolia manifest significant bactericidal effects against tested microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli), and antifungal effects against Candida albicans. The mixture of LEOs (Var. Alba 7) and geranium, respectively, in tea tree EOs, in different ratios, showed a significant enhancement of the antibacterial effect against all the studied strains, except Pseudomonas aeruginosa.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Antioxidantes , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Candida albicans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lavandula/química , Óleos Voláteis , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia
15.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 87(19): e0109921, 2021 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34319799

RESUMO

New approaches for the control of Campylobacter jejuni biofilms in the food industry are being studied intensively. Natural products are promising alternative antimicrobial substances to control biofilm production, with particular emphasis on plant extracts. Dried flowers of Lavandula angustifolia were used to produce essential oil (LEO), an ethanol extract (LEF), and an ethanol extract of Lavandula postdistillation waste material (LEW). The chemical compositions determined for these Lavandula preparations included seven major compounds that were selected for further testing. These were tested against C. jejuni for biofilm degradation and removal. Next-generation sequencing was used to study the molecular mechanisms underlying LEO actions against C. jejuni adhesion and motility. Analysis of LEO revealed 1,8-cineol, linalool, and linalyl acetate as the main components. For LEF and LEW, the main components were phenolic acid glycosides, with flavonoids rarely present. The MICs of the Lavandula preparations and pure compounds against C. jejuni ranged from 0.2 mg/ml to 1 mg/ml. LEO showed the strongest biofilm degradation. The reduction of C. jejuni adhesion was ≥1 log10 CFU/ml, which satisfies European Food Safety Authority recommendations. Lavandula preparations reduced C. jejuni motility by almost 50%, which consequently can impact biofilm formation. These data are in line with the transcriptome analysis of C. jejuni, which indicated that LEO downregulated genes important for biofilm formation. LEW also showed good antibacterial and antibiofilm effects, particularly against adhesion and motility mechanisms. This defines an innovative approach using alternative strategies and novel targets to combat bacterial biofilm formation and, hence, the potential to develop new effective agents with biofilm-degrading activities. IMPORTANCE The Lavandula preparations used in this study are found to be effective against C. jejuni, a common foodborne pathogen. They show antibiofilm properties at subinhibitory concentrations in terms of promoting biofilm degradation and inhibiting cell adhesion and motility, which are involved in the initial steps of biofilm formation. These results are confirmed by transcriptome analysis, which highlights the effect of Lavandula essential oil on C. jejuni biofilm properties. We show that the waste material from the hydrodistillation of Lavandula has particular antibiofilm effects, suggesting that it has potential for reuse for industrial purposes. This study highlights the need for efforts directed toward such innovative approaches and alternative strategies against biofilm formation and maintenance by developing new naturally derived agents with antibiofilm activities.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Campylobacter jejuni/efeitos dos fármacos , Lavandula , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Aderência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Campylobacter jejuni/genética , Campylobacter jejuni/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Campylobacter jejuni/fisiologia , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Flores , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Resíduos
16.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 5565956, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34222473

RESUMO

Background: Conscious patients admitted to intensive care units (ICU) suffer from anxiety and agitation for various reasons, which can affect their recovery processes. Aims: To compare the effects of lavender and Citrus aurantium essential oils on anxiety and agitation of conscious patients admitted to ICUs. Design: A randomized parallel placebo-controlled trial. Methods: One hundred and fifty conscious patients admitted to ICUs were selected by convenience sampling and were randomly divided into three groups, groups of lavender aromatherapy and Citrus aurantium aromatherapy, in addition to the routine care and inhalation of five drops of lavender or Citrus aurantium essential oils for 30 minutes. The placebo group, in addition to routine care, was provided with 5 drops of normal saline for 30 minutes. Anxiety was assessed with the state subscale of State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and agitation was examined with Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale before, immediately, one hour, and three hours after the intervention. Results: All three groups suffered from relatively severe state anxiety before the intervention. The level of anxiety in the lavender and Citrus aurantium groups was significantly lower than that of the placebo group immediately and three hours after the intervention (P < 0.05). No significant difference was observed between the two groups of lavender and Citrus aurantium. The majority of the samples in all three groups were agitated before the intervention, but agitation of all three groups decreased after the intervention. Restless/agitation reduced significantly in all three groups. Although restless/agitation of the lavender and Citrus aurantium groups reduced more than that of the placebo, no significant difference was found between the three groups. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed the positive effects of lavender aromatherapy and Citrus aurantium aromatherapy on reducing the anxiety of patients admitted to ICUs. Relevance to Clinical Practice. Aromatherapy can be used as an effective and safe intervention to reduce anxiety in ICUs.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Aromaterapia/métodos , Citrus/metabolismo , Lavandula/metabolismo , Adulto , Transtornos de Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Estado de Consciência , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Óleos Voláteis , Placebos , Óleos Vegetais , Prevalência , Agitação Psicomotora , Projetos de Pesquisa , Tamanho da Amostra
17.
J Altern Complement Med ; 27(10): 813-823, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34242093

RESUMO

Background: Aromatherapy is widely used in women's health as a complementary therapy. Objective: This review aimed to critically evaluate clinical evidence of the effectiveness of aromatherapy in managing menopausal symptoms. Design: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods: A total of 11 electronic databases were searched up to November 5, 2020. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating any type of aromatherapy against placebo in menopausal individuals were eligible. Two authors independently assessed the study eligibility and risk of bias as well as extracted the data for each study. Cochrane risk of bias tool was used to evaluate the methodological quality of each included studies. No ethical approval was required for this manuscript as this study did not involve human subjects or laboratory animals. Results: Seven RCTs met our inclusion criteria and were analyzed. Most of the included RCTs had low risk of bias in most domains except for blinding. Four studies tested the efficacy of aromatherapy for menopausal symptoms. The results showed that aromatherapy (lavender or low dose of neroli) inhalation had superior effects on reducing the total menopausal symptom score compared with the placebo. One study presented that aromatherapy massage with mixed oils reduced menopausal symptoms. Three studies investigated the effects of aromatherapy inhalation on sexual desire, and all of the studies showed that aromatherapy inhalation (lavender or low dose of neroli or mixed oils) had superior effects compared with the placebo. Conclusion: This review indicates limited evidence of the benefit of aromatherapy (lavender or low dose of neroli) in improving total menopausal symptoms and sexual desire. Further studies are highly warranted to validate the findings.


Assuntos
Aromaterapia , Lavandula , Humanos , Massagem , Menopausa , Óleos Vegetais , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
19.
Can J Microbiol ; 67(10): 724-736, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34153193

RESUMO

Lavender essential oil (LEO), a natural antimicrobial agent, is generally recognized as safe and effective in the inhibition of phytopathogenic fungi. Direct contact and fumigation (in vivo and in vitro) were used to study the fungistatic effect of LEO on Monilinia fructicola. Additionally, the effect on the ultrastructure of cells and the degree of destruction of the cell membrane of M. fructicola were revealed. In addition, the effects of LEO on the expression levels of apoptosis-related genes in M. fructicola cells were detected, and GC-MS was used to analyze the main components of LEO. LEO had a good inhibitory efficacy against M. fructicola in flat peaches, with almost complete growth inhibition at 800 µL/L. These effects were associated with the leakage of cytoplasmic contents, hyphal distortion, and spore disruption. Moreover, the expression of apoptosis RTG1 and RLM1 genes increased with LEO treatment. These results demonstrate that LEO can inhibit M. fructicola by inducing cytoplasmic membrane damage and cell apoptosis in fungi, and that the major ingredients of LEO are monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, which are presumed to contribute to the inhibitory effects.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Lavandula , Óleos Voláteis , Prunus persica , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Ascomicetos/genética , Frutas , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia
20.
Nurs Womens Health ; 25(4): 286-295, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34153228

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore potential clinical applications, based on evidence and a nurse-driven test of change, of using lavender aromatherapy for preoperative anxiety as an intervention complementary to standard preoperative care. DESIGN: A pre- versus postaromatherapy comparison using a visual analog scale (VAS). SETTING: The preoperative department at a level 2 trauma hospital with 544 beds. PARTICIPANTS: Forty-four surgical patients, including 29 female participants and 15 male participants. INTERVENTION/MEASUREMENTS: Participants reported their anxiety on a VAS before receiving a lavender aromatherapy inhaler. Anxiety scores were measured again after receiving the lavender aromatherapy and shortly before participants left the preoperative area for surgery. A pre-post comparison of the two VAS anxiety measurements before and after receiving the lavender aromatherapy was completed, analyzed, and is discussed. RESULTS: Mean anxiety scores were calculated for the pre- and postaromatherapy groups. Forty-eight percent of female participants (n = 29) reported a decrease in their anxiety after receiving preoperative lavender aromatherapy. Female participants reported higher preoperative anxiety scores and a larger decrease in their mean anxiety scores after receiving lavender aromatherapy when compared to male participants. CONCLUSION: The use of a nurse-driven complementary intervention in the preoperative area was associated with a decrease in mean anxiety scores among female patients about to undergo elective surgery. However, cause and effect cannot be determined because of a lack of a control group and randomization. Opportunities exist with support from seasoned staff for nurses to incorporate safe, evidence-based complementary interventions into the current standard of care for preoperative anxiety.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Aromaterapia/métodos , Lavandula/química , Óleos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Humanos , Óleos Vegetais , Resultado do Tratamento
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