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1.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 213: 105210, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450462

RESUMO

Understanding fractions and decimals requires not only understanding each notation separately, or within-notation knowledge, but also understanding relations between notations, or cross-notation knowledge. Multiple notations pose a challenge for learners but could also present an opportunity, in that cross-notation knowledge could help learners to achieve a better understanding of rational numbers than could easily be achieved from within-notation knowledge alone. This hypothesis was tested by reanalyzing three published datasets involving fourth- to eighth-grade children from the United States and Finland. All datasets included measures of rational number arithmetic, within-notation magnitude knowledge (e.g., accuracy in comparing fractions vs. fractions and decimals vs. decimals), and cross-notation magnitude knowledge (e.g., accuracy in comparing fractions vs. decimals). Consistent with the hypothesis, cross-notation magnitude knowledge predicted fraction and decimal arithmetic when controlling for within-notation magnitude knowledge. Furthermore, relations between within-notation magnitude knowledge and arithmetic were not notation specific; fraction magnitude knowledge did not predict fraction arithmetic more than decimal arithmetic, and decimal magnitude knowledge did not predict decimal arithmetic more than fraction arithmetic. Implications of the findings for assessing rational number knowledge and learning and teaching about rational numbers are discussed.


Assuntos
Idioma , Aprendizagem , Criança , Finlândia , Humanos , Matemática , Estados Unidos
2.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 213: 105259, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481344

RESUMO

Children under 6 years of age have difficulty recognizing a familiar face across changes in appearance and telling the face apart from similar-looking people. Understanding the process by which newly encountered faces become familiar can provide insights into these difficulties. Exposure to the ways in which a person varies in appearance is one mechanism by which adults and older children (≥6 years) learn new faces. We provide the first investigation of whether this mechanism for face learning functions in younger children. Children aged 4 and 5 years were read two storybooks featuring an unfamiliar character. Participants viewed six images of the character in one story and one image of the character in the other story. After each story, children were asked to identify novel images of the character that were intermixed with images of a similar-looking distractor. Like older children, 4- and 5-year-olds were more sensitive to identity in the 6-image condition, but they also adapted a less conservative criterion. Young children identified more images of the character after viewing six images versus one image. However, many also incorrectly identified more images of the distractor after viewing six images versus one image, an effect not previously found for older children and adults. These results suggest that this mechanism for face learning is not fully refined before 6 years of age.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem , Resolução de Problemas , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos
3.
Urol Clin North Am ; 49(1): 39-56, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34776053

RESUMO

While cadaveric dissection has stood the test of time because of its widely accepted educational value by experienced surgeons, the introduction advances in 3D printing and biomaterial technologies could potentially provide alternative tools for surgical training. This novel concept in simulation (physical reality) would encompass all the benefits of cadavers in terms of realism and clinical relevance without any of its ethical, infection, safety, and financial concerns.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Renais/cirurgia , Impressão Tridimensional , Treinamento por Simulação/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Urológicos/educação , Biópsia , Cadáver , Educação à Distância , Humanos , Hidrogéis , Aprendizagem , Masculino , Fenômenos Mecânicos , Modelos Anatômicos , Nefrectomia/educação , Modelagem Computacional Específica para o Paciente , Próstata/patologia , Prostatectomia/educação , Estudos de Validação como Assunto
4.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 75(1): 156-168, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34293988

RESUMO

People are willing to spend time and money to receive information and content they are curious about, such as answers to trivia questions, suggesting they find information rewarding. In neurotypical adults, states of high curiosity satisfaction are also known to enhance the learning and memory of information encountered in that state. Here, we investigated whether the relationship between curiosity, satisfaction, and learning was altered in a group with specific learning difficulty (dyslexia). Using a willingness-to-wait paradigm, we observed that adults with and without dyslexia are willing to spend time waiting for verbal and visual information. This indicates that the same "wanting" mechanisms are seen in individuals with dyslexia for information. We then examined whether information that was desirable was also associated with enhanced memory. Our findings indicate that information does function like a reward, with the gap between expected and received information driving memory. However, this memory effect was attenuated in individuals with dyslexia. These findings point to the need to understand how reward drives learning and why this relationship might differ in dyslexia.


Assuntos
Dislexia , Comportamento Exploratório , Adulto , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Recompensa
5.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 213: 105269, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416553

RESUMO

Visualizations are commonly used in educational materials; however, not all visualizations are equally effective at promoting learning. Prior research has supported the idea that both perceptually rich and bland visualizations are beneficial for learning and generalization. We investigated whether the perceptual richness of a life cycle diagram influenced children's learning of metamorphosis, a concept that prior work suggests is difficult for people to generalize. Using identical materials, Study 1 (N = 76) examined learning and generalization of metamorphosis in first- and second-grade students, and Study 2 (N = 53) did so in fourth- and fifth-grade students. Bayesian regression analyses revealed that first and second graders learned more from the lesson with the perceptually rich diagram. In addition, fourth and fifth graders generalized more with the bland diagram, but these generalizations tended to be incorrect (i.e., generalizing metamorphosis to animals that do not undergo this type of change). These findings differ from prior research with adults, in which bland diagrams led to more correct generalizations, suggesting that the effect of perceptual richness on learning and generalization might change over development.


Assuntos
Generalização Psicológica , Aprendizagem , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes
6.
Appl Ergon ; 98: 103604, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662750

RESUMO

The aim of this research was to examine how broadband noise which is present in many workplaces affects dynamic decision-making. The effect of potential moderating factors, cognitive workload and sex, were also examined. Forty-eight participants (24 females) with an average age of 27.38 years (SD = 12.34) were asked to complete a dynamic decision-making task over three consecutive-days. Independent variables were Noise (Broadband - 0dBA vs. 75dBA above background) and Cognitive Workload (Low vs. High, manipulated via presence of a secondary task). Among females, broadband noise significantly impaired performance in low workload, but significantly improved performance in high workload. In contrast, among males broadband noise had no significant effect on overall performance. From an applied perspective, understanding the interaction between noise, cognitive workload and sex allows for the design of a training environment to ensure maximum performance by all staff.


Assuntos
Ruído , Carga de Trabalho , Adulto , Cognição , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Masculino
7.
Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi ; 156(6): 330-334, 2021.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34719563

RESUMO

The pandemic of COVID-19 has drastically changed the education program in universities. An on-demand lecture is one of the common approaches, which are employed to prevent the infection form spreading in the classroom. On-demand lectures generally have a good reception of the students for the reason that they could repeatedly play back the video when needed and attend the class in a relaxed attitude as they like. On the other hand, we often have some concerns about their understanding of the lecture because we could not get enough feedback during the preparation of the video lectures. In addition, majority of us, beginners of on-demand lectures, have to overcome the difficulties in utilizing various tools to support them. Here, I would like to introduce some tips of on-demand lectures. One, who delivers a chalk talk, should obtain a good pen tablet and a suitable video recording software. Because video lectures with a large data size interrupt the comfortable views of the students, the video files should be compressed using a special software. Approachable Q&A systems should greatly enhance the learning efficiency and open the door to the flip teaching. Blended learning, in which face-to-face learning is combined with video lectures to enhance the understanding, has recently attracted more attention in the field of education. The pandemic of COVID-19 might bring a good opportunity to brush up and improve our classes.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , Aprendizagem , SARS-CoV-2 , Universidades , Gravação em Vídeo
8.
Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi ; 156(6): 335-337, 2021.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34719564

RESUMO

Laboratory work is an essential part of natural science education because it provides students with a valuable opportunity to experience practical scientific research firsthand. In laboratory work in pharmacology, students generally learn about biological mechanisms and drug action mechanisms by analyzing drug actions using laboratory animals. Actual experience with hands and eyes is an important factor in the laboratory work. Under the COVID-19 epidemic, however, we were forced to conduct the laboratory work online. For the laboratory work using isolated organs, we used simulation software, in which students can examine effects of a range of drugs on the smooth muscle within the guinea pig ileum. For the behavioral observation practice, we showed the video of the experiments conducted by the instructors beforehand to the students, and asked them to observe and analyze the behavior. In this review, we will share our challenges to online laboratory work.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Farmacologia , Animais , Cobaias , Humanos , Laboratórios , Aprendizagem , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2021: 7954140, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34721565

RESUMO

Episodic memory and emotions are considered essential functions in human cognition. Both allow us to acquire new knowledge from the environment, ranging from the objects around us to how we feel towards them. These qualities make them crucial functions for systems trying to create human-like behaviour. In the field of cognitive architectures (CAs), there are multiple studies covering memory and emotions. However, most of them treat these subjects in an isolated manner, considering emotions only as a reward signal unrelated to a retrieved experience. To address this lack of direct interaction, we propose a computational model that covers the common processes that are related to memory and emotions. Specifically, this proposal focuses on affective evaluations of episodic memories. Neurosciences and psychology are the bases of this model. That is, the model's components and the processes that they carry out on the information they receive are designed based on evidence from these cognitive sciences. The proposed model is a part of Cuáyóllótl, a cognitive architecture for cybernetic entities such as virtual creatures and robots. Case studies validate our proposal. They show the relevance of the integration of emotions and memory in a virtual creature. The virtual creature endowed with our emotional episodic model improves its learning and modifies its behaviour according to planning and decision-making processes.


Assuntos
Memória Episódica , Cognição , Emoções , Humanos , Aprendizagem
10.
J Grad Med Educ ; 13(5): 654-665, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34721794

RESUMO

Background: Physicians require the expertise to care for an increasingly aging population. A robust understanding of geriatric educational interventions is needed to improve geriatric training for physicians. Objective: To map the breadth of geriatric educational interventions for residents (in non-geriatric specialties). Methods: We used a scoping review methodology. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, EMCare, CENTRAL, ERIC, and Scopus from 2004 to September 2019 for search terms related to "educational approaches" AND "geriatric" AND "residents." Two authors independently selected eligible studies, extracted data (categorized by educational approaches and Kirkpatrick level outcomes), and critically appraised studies using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. Results: There were 63 included studies, with a total of 6976 participants. Twelve studies had comparators, including 5 randomized controlled trials. Fifty-three studies (84%) described multicomponent interventions, incorporating combinations of didactic or self-directed approaches with interactive, simulation, experiential, and/or group-based learning. Use of curricular process was explicitly reported in 34 studies (59%). Most studies met at least 4 of 5 Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool criteria. Studies commonly measured outcomes at Kirkpatrick levels 1 and 2 (reaction and learning), with 15 studies measuring performance outcomes (Kirkpatrick levels 3 and 4b). All included studies had at least one positive result. Conclusions: All educational interventions had positive outcomes; however, curriculum-informed multicomponent interventions were the most common. This scoping review demonstrates that robust methodology with comparators, longer-term designs, and use of higher-level Kirkpatrick outcome measures is possible but not commonly used. Clear direction for future research is provided.


Assuntos
Internato e Residência , Medicina , Médicos , Idoso , Currículo , Humanos , Aprendizagem
12.
J Nurses Prof Dev ; 37(6): 365-367, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34723843

RESUMO

The unexpected challenges of COVID-19 forced our nation to "rework" normal practices and routines. Kathy Chappell states that nurse professional development practitioners must be problem focused and solution oriented. Led by a nurse professional development specialist, planners employed innovation and creativity to address the problems found in one professional development program. This article assures readers that remote day-long conferences are well accepted and useful in today's fast-paced learning environment.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Profissionais de Enfermagem , Criatividade , Humanos , Aprendizagem , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Radiol Technol ; 93(2): 130-140, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34728575

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the use of reflection by radiography students and radiographers. METHODS: Radiography students and radiographers completed reflection assignments as a part of capstone courses, which were taken near graduation in an entry-level bachelor of science radiography program (BSRS) and a bachelor of science completion program (registered technologist to BSRS). Responses were evaluated to determine achievement of predetermined outcomes and objectives. RESULTS: There were 115 students and 25 radiographers who completed the reflection assignments. The mean scores of radiography students and current radiographers were measured to address the achievement of 2 student learning outcomes. Student learning outcome 1 contained 6 objectives, and it was found that radiographers scored significantly higher than did radiography students on 5 of the 6 objectives. Student learning outcome 2 had 5 objectives, and it was found that radiographers also scored significantly higher on each objective. DISCUSSION: Although most radiography students and radiographers were able to link theory with practice through reflection to some degree, it was discovered that radiographers scored significantly higher than did radiography students in 10 of the 11 objectives, using these same outcome assessments. The results seem to indicate that the additional clinical experiences of radiographers, compared with radiography students, enabled radiographers to better reflect on their previous learning and apply it to new and different situations. Despite differences in the ability to critically reflect on previous learning, however, it is thought that students and technologists can use what they learn through reflection for continued professional development. In addition, educators can use this information to identify areas for improvement in their programs. CONCLUSION: Radiographers and radiography students were able to apply knowledge gained through critical reflection in clinical practice. Compared with radiography students, radiographers have a greater capacity to reflect critically. The ability for greater reflection is partly due to having more clinical experiences to use as a frame of reference for reflection. Therefore, guided and critical reflection is useful for students and radiographers to apply theory learned to the clinical environment.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem , Estudantes , Pessoal Técnico de Saúde , Humanos , Radiografia
14.
Adv Health Care Manag ; 202021 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34779187

RESUMO

Health-care professionals undergo numerous training programs each year in order to fulfill licensure requirements and organizational obligations. However, evidence suggests that a substantial amount of what is taught during training is never learned or transferred back to routine work. A major contributor to this issue is low training motivation. Prior conceptual models on training transfer in the organizational sciences literature consider this deficit, yet do not account for the unique conditions of the hospital setting. This chapter seeks to close this gap by adapting conceptual models of training transfer to this setting that are grounded in organizational science. Based on theory and supplemented by semistructured key informant interviews (i.e., organizational leaders and program directors), we introduce an applied model of training motivation to facilitate training transfer in the hospital setting. In this model, training needs analysis is positioned as a key antecedent to ensure support for training, relevant content, and perceived utility of training. We posit that these factors, along with training design and logistics, enhance training motivation in hospital environments. Further, we suggest that training motivation subsequently impacts learning and transfer, with elements of the work environment also serving as moderators of the learning-transfer relationship. Factors such as external support for training content (e.g., from accrediting bodies) and allocation of time for training are emphasized as facilitators. The proposed model suggests there are factors unique to the hospital work setting that impact training motivation and transfer that should be considered when developing and implementing training initiatives in this setting.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde , Motivação , Hospitais , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Transferência de Experiência
15.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 29: e3486, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34816868

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to develop an integrative learning program for people with dementia. METHOD: a methodological study was conducted using Delphi technique to develop the learning program, followed by a feasibility test. An expert panel was invited to develop the integrative learning program based on the neuroplasticity and learning framework. A feasibility test was conducted to evaluate the implementation of the program in two centers after the training of personnel who run the program. Verbatim transcripts of case conferences were coded, analyzed, and collapsed into themes and sub-themes by consensus. RESULTS: there was no indication for content modification during the period of program implementation. Qualitatively, the participating older adults showed improvement in communications, emotions, connectedness with self and others, and well-being. CONCLUSION: the integrative learning program was uneventfully implemented with promising results. The program is ready for full-scale research on its efficacy in multiple centers to obtain more robust evidence.


Assuntos
Demência , Vida Independente , Idoso , Consenso , Demência/terapia , Humanos , Aprendizagem
16.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(21)2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770273

RESUMO

The development and use of wearable devices require high levels of security and have sparked interest in biometric authentication research. Among the available approaches, electrocardiogram (ECG) technology is attracting attention because of its strengths in spoofing. However, morphological changes of ECG, which are affected by physical and psychological factors, can make authentication difficult. In this paper, we propose authentication using non-linear normalization of ECG beats that is robust to changes in ECG waveforms according to heart rate fluctuations in various daily activities. We performed a non-linear normalization method through the analysis of ECG alongside heart rate, evaluating similarities and authenticating the performance of our new method compared to existing methods. Compared with beats before normalization, the average similarity of the proposed method increased 23.7% in the resting state and 43% in the non-resting state. After learning in the resting state, authentication performance reached 99.05% accuracy for the resting state and 88.14% for the non-resting state. The proposed method can be applicable to an ECG-based authentication system under various physiological conditions.


Assuntos
Identificação Biométrica , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Eletrocardiografia , Frequência Cardíaca , Aprendizagem
17.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(21)2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770284

RESUMO

Nowadays, broadband applications that use the licensed spectrum of the cellular network are growing fast. For this reason, Long-Term Evolution-Unlicensed (LTE-U) technology is expected to offload its traffic to the unlicensed spectrum. However, LTE-U transmissions have to coexist with the existing WiFi networks. Most existing coexistence schemes consider coordinated LTE-U and WiFi networks where there is a central coordinator that communicates traffic demand of the co-located networks. However, such a method of WiFi traffic estimation raises the complexity, traffic overhead, and reaction time of the coexistence schemes. In this article, we propose Experience Replay (ER) and Reward selective Experience Replay (RER) based Q-learning techniques as a solution for the coexistence of uncoordinated LTE-U and WiFi networks. In the proposed schemes, the LTE-U deploys a WiFi saturation sensing model to estimate the traffic demand of co-located WiFi networks. We also made a performance comparison between the proposed schemes and other rule-based and Q-learning based coexistence schemes implemented in non-coordinated LTE-U and WiFi networks. The simulation results show that the RER Q-learning scheme converges faster than the ER Q-learning scheme. The RER Q-learning scheme also gives 19.1% and 5.2% enhancement in aggregated throughput and 16.4% and 10.9% enhancement in fairness performance as compared to the rule-based and Q-learning coexistence schemes, respectively.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem , Tecnologia sem Fio , Simulação por Computador , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas , Tecnologia
18.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(21)2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770315

RESUMO

Gas supply system risk assessment is a serious and important problem in cities. Existing methods tend to manually build mathematical models to predict risk value from single-modal information, i.e., pipeline parameters. In this paper, we attempt to consider this problem from a deep-learning perspective and define a novel task, Urban Gas Supply System Risk Assessment (GSS-RA). To drive deep-learning techniques into this task, we collect and build a domain-specific dataset GSS-20K containing multi-modal data. Accompanying the dataset, we design a new deep-learning framework named GSS-RiskAsser to learn risk prediction. In our method, we design a parallel-transformers Vision Embedding Transformer (VET) and Score Matrix Transformer (SMT) to process multi-modal information, and then propose a Multi-Modal Fusion (MMF) module to fuse the features with a cross-attention mechanism. Experiments show that GSS-RiskAsser could work well on GSS-RA task and facilitate practical applications. Our data and code will be made publicly available.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Aprendizagem , Medição de Risco
19.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 572, 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34772401

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Knowledge deficits with regard to epilepsy have been reported among healthcare professionals. This study was conducted to develop consensus-based aims, contents, intended learning outcomes, teaching, and evaluation methods for a course on epilepsy for postgraduate or continuing education in community health nursing programs. METHODS: A mixed method which combined a thorough search of literature, the nominal group technique, the Delphi technique, and survey of students' agreement was used. The databases MEDLINE/PUBMED, EMBASE, COCHRANE, CInAHL/EBESCO, SCOPUS, Google Scholar, Google Books, and Amazon were searched to identify potential aims, topics/contents, intended learning outcomes, teaching, and evaluation methods. Discussions and deliberations in serial meetings based on the nominal group technique were attended by educators/academicians (n = 12), neurologists (n = 2), practicing nurses (n = 5), pharmacists (n = 2), patients with epilepsy (n = 2), and students in postgraduate and continuing education programs (n = 7) to supplement and refine the data collected from the literature. The qualitative data were analyzed using RQDA tool for R. The Delphi technique was used among educators/academicians (n = 15), neurologists (n = 2), practicing nurses (n = 5), pharmacists (n = 2), patients with epilepsy (n = 3), and students in postgraduate and continuing education programs (n = 8) to achieve formal consensus. RESULTS: Consensus was achieved on 6 aims, 16 intended learning outcomes, and 27 topics in the course. Of the topics, 13 were relevant to nature of epilepsy and seizures, 2 were relevant to the impact of epilepsy and seizures on different life aspects of patients with epilepsy, 4 were relevant to advocating for the patients and supporting their choices, 5 were relevant to educating patients and their caregivers, and 3 were relevant to assessments and services. CONCLUSION: Consensus-based aims, topics/contents, intended learning outcomes, teaching, and evaluation methods of a course on epilepsy for postgraduate or continuing education in community health nursing programs were developed. Consensus-based courses could bridge knowledge gaps and improve educating community health nursing programs on epilepsy. Further studies are needed to determine if such consensus-based courses could promote care of patients with epilepsy.


Assuntos
Enfermagem em Saúde Comunitária , Epilepsia , Consenso , Educação Continuada , Epilepsia/terapia , Humanos , Aprendizagem
20.
Tijdschr Psychiatr ; 63(10): 707-710, 2021.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34757608

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Moral courage is the courage to do what you morally believe to be right, despite the presence of danger. Courage is certainly important in critical situations where moral values are at stake. Reflection is not enough, you have to act wisely. Moral courage bridges the gap between thinking and doing. This article first characterizes moral courage and then provides tools that can help psychiatrists to show moral courage. AIM: To provide tools that can help psychiatrists in their professional practice to show moral courage. METHOD: Characterizing moral courage on the basis of a case study and literature review. RESULTS: Psychiatrists can learn courage by preparing for the dangers inherent in the job, by thinking about situations in advance, and going through and practicing possible scenarios and consequences. They can also discuss the subject in peer-to-peer meetings. CONCLUSION: Courage is certainly important in critical situations where moral values are at stake. Reflection is then not enough, and one must act wisely. Moral courage bridges the gap between thinking and doing. Professionals are assisted in this when (professional) organizations invest in a safe and stimulating context.


Assuntos
Coragem , Ética em Enfermagem , Psiquiatria , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Princípios Morais
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