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1.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 4585, 2022 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35933422

RESUMO

Some experiences linger in mind, spontaneously returning to our thoughts for minutes after their conclusion. Other experiences fall out of mind immediately. It remains unclear why. We hypothesize that an input is more likely to persist in our thoughts when it has been deeply processed: when we have extracted its situational meaning rather than its physical properties or low-level semantics. Here, participants read sequences of words with different levels of coherence (word-, sentence-, or narrative-level). We probe participants' spontaneous thoughts via free word association, before and after reading. By measuring lingering subjectively (via self-report) and objectively (via changes in free association content), we find that information lingers when it is coherent at the narrative level. Furthermore, and an individual's feeling of transportation into reading material predicts lingering better than the material's objective coherence. Thus, our thoughts in the present moment echo prior experiences that have been incorporated into deeper, narrative forms of thinking.


Assuntos
Leitura , Semântica , Humanos , Narração
2.
J Sch Psychol ; 93: 1-27, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35934446

RESUMO

There has been little research investigating the predictive validity of modern intelligence tests for racially and ethnically diverse students. The validity of test score interpretation within educational and psychological assessment assumes that test scores predict educationally relevant phenomena equally well for individuals, regardless of group membership (American Educational Research Association et al., 2014; Messick, 1995; Warne et al., 2014). We used multiple group latent variable structural equation modeling (SEM) to investigate Cattell-Horn-Carroll general (g) and broad cognitive abilities on reading and mathematics achievement and whether these differed between racial (African American, Asian, and Caucasian) and ethnic (Hispanic, non-Hispanic) children and adolescents within the Woodcock-Johnson IV norming sample (N = 3127). After establishing construct equivalence across racial and ethnic groups, supporting the consistent calculation of composite scores regardless of group membership, we then examined the predictive validity of intelligence on achievement. After controlling for parent education, findings suggested two instances of differential predictive relations: (a) general intelligence had larger influences on basic reading skills for Caucasians when compared to Asian peers, and (b) comprehension-knowledge had larger influences on basic reading skills for Asians when compared to Caucasian peers. The overall pattern of findings suggests there is little to no predictive bias with the WJ IV. However, the findings indicate that when latent mean differences exist (after establishing strong factorial invariance), then bias will be introduced into the estimation of regression parameters used to identify differential predictive validity. Thus, even when measurement invariance is supported, differential prediction bias is inevitable when there are mean differences in the scores used as predictors. Future test bias research should consider latent ability differences and how that may impact findings of bias, and possibly, socioeconomic status-related indicators when assessing for measurement or prediction bias in intelligence and achievement tests.


Assuntos
Etnicidade , Leitura , Logro , Adolescente , Criança , Cognição , Humanos , Matemática
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13224, 2022 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35918357

RESUMO

Despite abundant evidence that music skills relate to enhanced reading performance, the mechanisms subtending this relation are still under discussion. The Temporal Sampling Framework (TSF) provides a well-defined explanation for the music-reading link: musical rhythm perception would relate to reading because it helps to encode speech units, which, in turn, is fundamental to reading. However, in spite of this clear mediation-based prediction (effect of music skills mediated by the encoding of speech units), the tests made to it so far remain inconclusive, either due to the use of hybrid measures (rhythm perception and production, musical and non-musical rhythm) or to underspecified mediation results (unclear presence of partial mediation). In the present study, we addressed these potential weaknesses of previous studies and investigated whether phonological memory and phonological awareness (proxies of speech encoding abilities) mediate the effects of rhythm perception abilities on reading in late first-graders. To test for the specificity of musical rhythm in this relation, we examined the same hypothesis for melody perception. Results showed full mediation for effects of musical rhythm perception, while melody perception did not even relate to reading. Our findings support the predictions embedded in the TSF and highlight the potential of rhythm-based interventions in early stimulation.


Assuntos
Música , Percepção da Fala , Conscientização , Linguística , Leitura , Fala , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia
4.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272438, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35921370

RESUMO

The ability to predict upcoming information is crucial for efficient language processing and enables more rapid language learning. The present study explored how shared reading experience influenced predictive brain signals and expressive vocabulary of 12-month-old infants. The predictive brain signals were measured by fNIRS responses in the occipital lobe with an unexpected visual-omission task. The amount of shared reading experience was correlated with the strength of this predictive brain signal and with infants' expressive vocabulary. Importantly, the predictive brain signal explained unique variance of expressive vocabulary beyond shared reading experience and maternal education. A further mediation analysis showed that the effect of shared reading experience on expressive vocabulary was explained by the infants' predictive brain signal. This is the first evidence indicating that richer shared reading experience strengthens predictive signals in the infant brain and in turn facilitates expressive vocabulary acquisition.


Assuntos
Leitura , Vocabulário , Encéfalo , Humanos , Lactente , Idioma , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem
5.
JAMA ; 328(6): 527-528, 2022 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35943468
6.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13521, 2022 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35941176

RESUMO

Developmental dyslexia, a difficulty with acquiring fluent reading, has also been characterized by reduced short-term memory (STM) capacity, which is often operationalized with span tasks. The low performance of individuals with dyslexia (IDDs) in such tasks is commonly attributed to poor phonological memory. However, we suggest an alternative explanation based on the observation that many times the items that are used in spans tasks are high-frequency items (e.g., digit words). We suggest that IDDs do not enjoy the benefit of item frequency to the same extent as controls, and thus their performance in span tasks is especially hampered. On the contrary, learning of repeated sequences was shown to be largely independent of item frequency, and therefore this type of learning may be unimpaired in dyslexia. To test both predictions, we used the Hebb-learning paradigm. We found that IDDs' performance is especially poor compared to controls' when high-frequency items are used, and that their repeated series learning does not differ from that of controls. Taken together with existing literature, our findings suggest that impaired learning of repeated series is not a core characteristic of dyslexia, and that the reports on reduced STM in dyslexia may to a large extent be explained by reduced benefit of item frequency.


Assuntos
Dislexia , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Transtornos da Memória , Memória de Curto Prazo , Fonética , Leitura
7.
J Vis ; 22(9): 3, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35921089

RESUMO

Crowding refers to the failure to identify a peripheral object due to its proximity to other objects (flankers). This phenomenon can lead to reading and object recognition impairments and is associated with macular degeneration, amblyopia, and dyslexia. Crucially, the maximal target-flanker spacing required for the crowding interference (critical spacing) increases with eccentricity. This spacing is also larger when target and flankers appear along the horizontal meridian (radial arrangement) than when the flankers appear above and below the target (tangential arrangement). This phenomenon is known as radial-tangential anisotropy. Previous studies have demonstrated that transient attention can reduce crowding interference; however, it is still unclear whether and how attention interacts with radial-tangential anisotropy. To address this issue, we manipulated transient attention by using a cue at either the target (valid) or the fixation (neutral) location, in both radial and tangential target-flanker arrangements. Results showed that critical spacing was larger in the radial than in the tangential arrangement and that cueing the target location improved performance and reduced the critical spacing for both radial and tangential arrangements to the same extent. Together, our findings suggest that transient spatial attention plays an essential role in crowding but not in radial-tangential anisotropy.


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Campos Visuais , Atenção , Aglomeração , Humanos , Leitura
8.
BMJ ; 378: o1636, 2022 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35777786
9.
Lit Med ; 40(1): 38-54, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35848294

RESUMO

What are the formal potentialities of illness narratives across media and writerly modes? And how can a formalist reading within this genre contribute to an understanding of particularly stigmatized illnesses and conditions? This essay considers Julia Lederer's and Carolyn Lazard's semi-autobiographical works on anorexia nervosa and chronic illness, respectively, and approaches them through the lens of Caroline Levine's new formalist method, which fuses the literary (or artistic more broadly) with the social and political. It concludes that Lederer's and Lazard's imagination and creation of other, alternative worlds-worlds of illness and disability-provide critical insights into the meanings of illness, health, and well-being, and their political implications. In so doing, they also probe at and question the role of medicine in discursive constructions of illness and disability.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa , Medicina na Literatura , Humanos , Imaginação , Narração , Leitura
10.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0271604, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35857786

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is a growing public health problem globally. Despite the availability of management options, the progression of the disease as a function of waiting time may challenge the effort to attain a desired outcome. There is a conflicting report on the role of waiting time to initiate an appropriate treatment in improving patients' survival. OBJECTIVE: This review aims to evaluate the association between delayed time to initiate any treatment indication with survival in patients with cervical cancer. METHODS: An internet-based literature search will be performed using text words, MESH terms and truncated words in databases, namely MEDLINE, Cochrane CENTRAL, EMBASE, Web of Science and Scopus. Grey literature searches in Google Scholar, Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (NDLTD) and Dissertations and Theses Global will be made. All articles published until 30th of December 2021 on human subjects will be searched without a language restriction. Studies which fulfil the inclusion criteria will be screened in full reading, selected, appraised and assessed for methodological quality by two independent reviewers. Data on participants, study methods, interventions, and outcomes will be abstracted. Included studies will be pooled for meta-analysis. Microsoft-Excel and R packages will be employed to carry out the statistical analysis. Heterogeneity will be assessed using Cochrane Q statistic, Tau2, and I2. Results will be reported as a function of 4-week delay in treatment initiation and the corresponding hazard ratio (HR) at 95% confidence interval. Statistical significance will be considered at P<0.05. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO registration number: CRD42022299689.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Metanálise como Assunto , Leitura , Projetos de Pesquisa , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/terapia
11.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0271191, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35802736

RESUMO

Psychological research, including research into adult reading, is frequently based on convenience samples of undergraduate students. This practice raises concerns about the external validity of many accepted findings. The present study seeks to determine how strong this student sampling bias is in literacy and numeracy research. We use the nationally representative cross-national data from the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies to quantify skill differences between (i) students and the general population aged 16-65, and (ii) students and age-matched non-students aged 16-25. The median effect size for the comparison (i) of literacy scores across 32 countries was d = .56, and for comparison (ii) d = .55, which exceeds the average effect size in psychological experiments (d = .40). Numeracy comparisons (i) and (ii) showed similarly strong differences. The observed differences indicate that undergraduate students are not representative of the general population nor age-matched non-students.


Assuntos
Alfabetização , Estudantes , Adulto , Humanos , Leitura , Projetos de Pesquisa , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 223: 105469, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35802959

RESUMO

This study explored whether early maternal input during shared reading predicted later theory of mind (ToM) understanding through children's receptive language and executive function (EF). Maternal input plays a prominent role in the development of children's language skills, which are crucial for both EF and ToM development. There is also an abundance of behavioral evidence suggesting a directional link from EF to ToM. This relation raises the possibility of a cognitive cascade in which maternal input during shared reading promotes ToM development sequentially through receptive language and EF. The sample included 656 children clustered within 328 ethnically and sociodemographically diverse families. The shared reading sessions occurred when the younger and older siblings were 1.5 and 4 years old, respectively. Receptive language, EF, and ToM were measured when the siblings were approximately 5 years old to account for age differences. Multilevel modeling using Bayesian estimation was used to account for the effect of family-wide confounds (i.e., shared between the siblings in the family) while isolating child-specific processes (i.e., unique to each child within the family). The results supported two indirect paths from shared reading to children's ToM: one through receptive language alone and another that operated sequentially through receptive language and EF. These paths were observed only at the family level. These findings emphasize the importance of maternal input during early shared reading for cognitive development and suggest a cascade from maternal input to ToM via language and EF during the preschool period.


Assuntos
Teoria da Mente , Teorema de Bayes , Pré-Escolar , Função Executiva , Humanos , Lactente , Idioma , Relações Pais-Filho , Leitura
13.
J Refract Surg ; 38(7): 428-434, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35858191

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate and compare the performance of a trifocal diffractive intraocular lens (IOL) and a lens combining a bifocal diffractive profile and extended depth of focus (EDOF) profile. METHODS: This non-randomized, prospective comparative study included 42 patients (84 eyes) undergoing lens surgery with implantation of either the FineVision HP trifocal IOL (PhysIOL) or TECNIS Synergy bifocal EDOF IOL (Johnson and Johnson Surgical Vision). There were 21 patients (42 eyes) in each group. The primary outcome was reading speed at high contrast and luminance. Secondary outcomes were reading speed at lower contrasts and luminances, visual acuity at all distances (distance, intermediate, and near) with and without correction, and quality of vision. RESULTS: The reading speed at high contrast (100%) and high luminance (100%) was better in the Synergy group (P = .01). This difference between the two IOLs seemed to be preserved at lower contrasts and luminances. There was no statistically significant difference between visual acuities except for monocular uncorrected intermediate visual acuity (P = .046) in favor of the FineVision HP IOL. The mean spherical equivalents in the FineVision HP and Synergy groups were 0.14 ± 0.64 and 0.10 ± 0.33 diopters without significant difference between these means (P = .78). The defocus curve was more dome-shaped for the Synergy IOL. The evaluation of visual symptoms was comparable in both groups. The glare halo (Halometry test; Aston University) was smaller in the FineVision HP group (P = .03). CONCLUSIONS: The Synergy IOL appears to provide better reading speed and is less sensitive to refractive error. Both lenses provided excellent distance, intermediate, and near vision. [J Refract Surg. 2022;38(7):428-434.].


Assuntos
Lentes Intraoculares , Facoemulsificação , Presbiopia , Humanos , Implante de Lente Intraocular , Satisfação do Paciente , Presbiopia/cirurgia , Estudos Prospectivos , Desenho de Prótese , Leitura , Refração Ocular
14.
J Psychiatr Res ; 152: 352-359, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35785578

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Specific Learning Disorder (SLD) is a common developmental and neurobiological disorder of childhood characterized by impairment of functionality in one or more areas such as reading, writing, mathematics, listening, speaking, and reasoning. The etiology of SLD is still not fully understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate children with SLD to investigate the potential role of MMP-9, TIMP-1 and SIRT-1, which have important roles in synaptic plasticity, cognitive functions, learning and memory, and are known to be associated with various psychiatric disorders. METHODS: The study was conducted with 44 outpatients aged 8-14 years who were diagnosed with SLD according to DSM-5 in the outpatient clinic and a control group of 44 age, gender and education level-matched healthy children. The groups were compared in respect of serum levels of MMP-9, TIMP-1 and SIRT-1, evaluated using the ELISA method. RESULTS: Serum MMP-9 levels were significantly lower in children in the SLD group than in the control group, while TIMP-1 was higher. No difference was determined between the groups in respect of the SIRT1 levels. SLD severity was negatively correlated with MMP-9 levels and positively correlated with TIMP-1 levels. CONCLUSIONS: MMP-9 appear to contribute to hippocampal-dependent memory and learning by modulating long-term synaptic plasticity. The findings of this study also reinforce the idea that deregulation of the MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio may impact learning and play a role in SLD. These findings will help to elucidate the etiology of SLD. Furthermore, understanding molecular pathways can contribute to the discovery of certain biomarkers in SLD pathogenesis and the development of new treatment possibilities.


Assuntos
Transtorno de Aprendizagem Específico , Criança , Humanos , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz , Leitura , Sirtuína 1 , Transtorno de Aprendizagem Específico/diagnóstico , Transtorno de Aprendizagem Específico/psicologia , Inibidor Tecidual de Metaloproteinase-1
15.
Sci Data ; 9(1): 411, 2022 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35840575

RESUMO

Eye movements are one of the most fundamental behaviors during reading. A growing number of Chinese reading studies have used eye-tracking techniques in the last two decades. The accumulated data provide a rich resource that can reflect the complex cognitive mechanisms underlying Chinese reading. This article reports a database of eye-movement measures of words during Chinese sentence reading. The database contains nine eye-movement measures of 8,551 Chinese words obtained from 1,718 participants across 57 Chinese sentence reading experiments. All data were collected in the same experimental environment and from homogenous participants, using the same protocols and parameters. This database enables researchers to test their theoretical or computational hypotheses concerning Chinese reading efficiently using a large number of words. The database can also indicate the processing difficulty of Chinese words during text reading, thus providing a way to control or manipulate the difficulty level of Chinese texts.


Assuntos
Movimentos Oculares , Leitura , Asiáticos , China , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Idioma
16.
BMC Pediatr ; 22(1): 416, 2022 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35831809

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lifestyle behaviour in children and adolescents has become increasingly sedentary and occupied with digital work. Concurrently, there has been an increase in the prevalence of headache, neck- and low back pain, which are leading causes of disability globally. Extensive near work and use of digital devices are demanding for both the visual system and the upper body head-stabilizing musculature. Uncorrected vision problems are present in up to 40% of Nordic school children, and a lack of corrective eye wear may cause eyestrain, musculoskeletal pain and headache. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between laboured reading, musculoskeletal pain, uncorrected vision, and lifestyle behaviours in children and adolescents. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study with a total of 192 Norwegian school children aged 10-11 and 15-16 years. As a part of a school vision testing program, the children completed an online questionnaire about general and ocular health, socioeconomic status, academic ambition, near work and related symptoms, upper body musculoskeletal pain, and physical and outdoor activities. RESULTS: The 15-16-year-olds had a more indoor, sedentary, digital-based lifestyle with higher academic demands, compared with the 10-11-year-olds. Concurrently, reading became more laboured and upper body musculoskeletal pain increased with age. Girls reported more symptoms, higher academic ambitions, and more time spent on schoolwork and reading, compared with boys. Non-compliance in wearing prescribed eye wear (glasses or contact lenses), increased use of near digital devices, and experiencing visual stress (glare) were positively associated with laboured reading and upper body musculoskeletal pain. CONCLUSIONS: A screen-based lifestyle with high academic demands challenges the ability to sustain long hours of static, intensive near work. Extensive near work tires the visual system and upper body musculature and provokes laboured reading and musculoskeletal pain symptoms. This study emphasizes the importance of regular eye examinations in school children, and the need to raise awareness among children, parents, and school- and health personnel about the importance of optimal vision and visual environment for academic performance and health.


Assuntos
Dor Musculoesquelética , Leitura , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Cefaleia , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Dor Musculoesquelética/epidemiologia , Dor Musculoesquelética/etiologia
17.
Cogn Res Princ Implic ; 7(1): 72, 2022 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35907147

RESUMO

When two people read the same story, they might both end up liking it very much. However, this does not necessarily mean that their reasons for liking it were identical. We therefore ask what factors contribute to "liking" a story, and-most importantly-how people vary in this respect. We found that readers like stories because they find them interesting, amusing, suspenseful and/or beautiful. However, the degree to which these components of appreciation were related to how much readers liked stories differed between individuals. Interestingly, the individual slopes of the relationships between many of the components and liking were (positively or negatively) correlated. This indicated, for instance, that individuals displaying a relatively strong relationship between interest and liking, generally display a relatively weak relationship between sadness and liking. The individual differences in the strengths of the relationships between the components and liking were not related to individual differences in expertize, a characteristic strongly associated with aesthetic appreciation of visual art. Our work illustrates that it is important to take into consideration the fact that individuals differ in how they arrive at their evaluation of literary stories, and that it is possible to quantify these differences in empirical experiments. Our work suggests that future research should be careful about "overfitting" theories of aesthetic appreciation to an "idealized reader," but rather take into consideration variations across individuals in the reason for liking a particular story.


Assuntos
Emoções , Leitura , Estética , Humanos , Individualidade , Narração
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35897294

RESUMO

(1) Objective: Teaching is a particularly voice-demanding occupation. Voice training provided during teachers' education is often insufficient and thus teachers are at risk of developing voice disorders. Vocal demands during teaching are not only characterized by speaking for long durations but also by speaking in noisy environments. This provokes the so-called Lombard effect, which intuitively leads to an increase in voice intensity, pitch and phonation time in laboratory studies. However, this effect has not been thoroughly investigated in realistic teaching scenarios. (2) Methods: This study thus examined how 13 experienced, but vocally untrained, teachers behaved when reading in a noisy compared to quiet background environment. The quiet and noisy conditions were provided by a live audience either listening quietly or making noise by talking to each other. By using a portable voice accumulator, the fundamental frequency, sound pressure level of the voice and the noise as well as the phonation time were recorded in both conditions. (3) Results: The results showed that the teachers mainly responded according to the Lombard effect. In addition, analysis of phonation time revealed that they failed to increase inhalation time and appeared to lose articulation through the shortening of voiceless consonants in the noisy condition. (4) Conclusions: The teachers demonstrated vocally demanding behavior when speaking in the noisy condition, which can lead to vocal fatigue and cause dysphonia. The findings underline the necessity for specific voice training in teachers' education, and the content of such training is discussed in light of the results.


Assuntos
Ruído , Professores Escolares , Comportamento Verbal , Humanos , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Fonação , Leitura , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Distúrbios da Voz/epidemiologia
19.
Dyslexia ; 28(3): 342-358, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35789139

RESUMO

The current study aims to examine prosodic sensitivity in Chinese children with dyslexia and its relation to Chinese reading in children with and without dyslexia. A total of 172 Chinese children from third grade to sixth grade in Taiwanese primary schools were recruited. Thirty (14 male) children were identified as having dyslexia, and the remaining children (N = 142; 67 male) were typically developing children matched with those with dyslexia as carefully as possible with respect to school, grade, and gender. Our results indicated that group differences were found for all three types of prosodic sensitivity. Moderation analyses showed that group had no significant interaction with prosodic sensitivity in predicting Chinese reading, so the participants in the two groups were combined in the following analyses. The results of the stepwise regression analyses showed that only lexical tone awareness could significantly predict Chinese character reading after controlling for phonological awareness, while only intonation awareness could significantly predict reading comprehension after controlling for Chinese character reading. The results provide preliminary evidence on the issue of prosodic sensitivity in Chinese children with dyslexia and its role in Chinese reading, which might provide a novel approach to the teaching of Chinese languages.


Assuntos
Dislexia , Asiáticos , Criança , China , Dislexia/complicações , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino , Fonética , Leitura
20.
Dyslexia ; 28(3): 359-374, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35818161

RESUMO

During parafoveal processing, skilled readers encode letter identity independently of letter position (Johnson et al., 2007). In the current experiment, we examined orthographic parafoveal processing in readers with dyslexia. Specifically, the eye movements of skilled readers and adult readers with dyslexia were recorded during a boundary paradigm experiment (Rayner, 1975). Parafoveal previews were either identical to the target word (e.g., nearly), a transposed-letter preview (e.g., enarly), or a substituted-letter preview (e.g., acarly). Dyslexic and non-dyslexic readers demonstrated orthographic parafoveal preview benefits during silent sentence reading and both reading groups encoded letter identity and letter position information parafoveally. However, dyslexic adults showed, that very early in lexical processing, during parafoveal preview, the positional information of a word's initial letters were encoded less flexibly compared to during skilled adult reading. We suggest that dyslexic readers are less able to benefit from correct letter identity information (i.e., in the letter transposition previews) due to the lack of direct mapping of orthography to phonology. The current findings demonstrate that dyslexic readers show consistent and dyslexic-specific reading difficulties in foveal and parafoveal processing during silent sentence reading.


Assuntos
Dislexia , Leitura , Adulto , Movimentos Oculares , Fóvea Central , Humanos , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos
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