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1.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 274: 114049, 2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33766758

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The family Lecythidaceae has about 25 genera and 400 identified species, which are distributed especially in the pantropical region, mostly found in the tropics of Central and South America, Southeast Asia and Africa. The third most abundant family in Amazonian forests and the genus Eschweilera, with the large number of species in Lecythidaceae. AIM OF THE REVIEW: The present review compiles information since the 1934s about of ethnopharmacology, and chemical constituents of species of Lecythidaceae, as well as a summary of the bioactivities shown by the extracts, fractions, and secondary metabolites. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All relevant information on ethnopharmacology, and chemical constituents of species of Lecythidaceae were gathered from electronic databases including Web of Science, Science Direct, Elsevier, ResearchGate, and Google Scholar. Information was also obtained from local books, PhD. and MSc. Dissertations. RESULTS: The phytochemical diversity of the family was demonstrated with 180 different metabolites that have been reported from 25 species, most of them being triterpenes or flavonoids. The pharmacological studies carried out with the extracts, fractions and compounds showed promising antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, cytotoxic and antioxidant activities. CONCLUSION: The present review provides an insight into ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and pharmacology of species of Lecythidaceae. Based on the pharmacological studies it has been found that different plant species of Lecythidaceae possess a wide range of bioactivities such as anti-arthritic, anti-inflammatory, antileishmanial, antibacterial and antifungal. These activities are due to the presence of bioactive compounds including triterpenoids and their glycosides derivatives, flavonoids, steroids, sesquiterpenoids, alkaloids, and other compounds. However, there are many plants, which have not been assessed pharmacologically and hence warrant further studies.


Assuntos
Lecythidaceae , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Preparações de Plantas , Animais , Etnofarmacologia , Humanos , Lecythidaceae/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Fitoterapia , Preparações de Plantas/análise , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia
2.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 270: 113778, 2021 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421601

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cariniana rubra Gardner ex Miers (Lecythidaceae), is a native and endemic tree in Brazil, whose inner stem bark decoction preparation is used in folk medicine to treat various inflammatory disorders. Previous scientific reports confirmed its popular use as an anti-inflammatory, without, however, evaluating its action mechanisms. AIM: The objective of this study was to determine the cytotoxicity and anti-inflammatory mechanism of action of the methanolic extract of Cariniana rubra (MECr), using experimental models in vivo and in vitro, as well as to identify secondary metabolites present in the extract. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The MECr was prepared by maceration of inner stem bark powder in methanol (1:10 w/v). The in vitro cytotoxicity effect was evaluated in CHO-k1 cells. The Hippocratic screening test was conducted to evaluate the acute toxicity of MECr in mice. The actions of MECr on leukocyte migration, cytokine levels (IL-1ß and TNF-α) and annexin-A1 (AnxA1) expression, were carried out on lambda-type carrageenan air pouch inflammation model in Swiss mice. Additionally, the phytochemical analysis of MECr was carried out by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and spectrometric mass analysis with electrospray ionization ESI(-)/MS and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). RESULTS: Treatment of CHO-k1 cells for 24 h with MECr did not cause cytotoxicity (IC50 > 200 µg/mL), however, the MECr was shown to be cytotoxic after 72 h of cell exposure (IC50 = 19.90 ± 3.51 µg/mL). In the Hippocratic test, oral treatment of mice with 750, 1500, or 3000 mg/kg of MECr did not show any histopathological changes and mortality during the 14 days of observation. In the carrageenan air pouch inflammation model, MECr reduced (p < 0.001) polymorphonuclear migration (57.7% and 57.8%), leukocyte monocyte migration (74.5% and 61.8%) in the air pouch cavity and in the skin tissue, respectively. MECr also inhibited TNF-α concentration in the air cavity wash (3.2%, p < 0.01) and increased expression of the AnxA1 protein (26.9%, p < 0.01) in the skin tissue, particularly in neutrophils. ß-sitosterol (1.95%), gallic acid (1.24%), ß-amyrin (0.87%) and stigmasterol (0.66%) were identified as the major constituents in methanolic extract. CONCLUSION: MECr exhibits significant anti-inflammatory action at least by increasing AnxA1 expression and by inhibiting the release of TNF-α pro-inflammatory cytokine and leukocyte migration, which is probably linked to the presence of identified biologically active compounds, especially gallic acid and terpenes. We believe that the results of this study provide a pharmacological basis for the MECr to be considered as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Lecythidaceae/química , Leucócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Casca de Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Caules de Planta/química , Animais , Anexina A1/genética , Anexina A1/metabolismo , Anti-Inflamatórios/análise , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Brasil , Células CHO , Carragenina/toxicidade , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cricetulus , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Leucócitos/citologia , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Masculino , Metanol/química , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Food Res Int ; 137: 109383, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33233085

RESUMO

Sapucaia or Lecythis pisonis Cambess. is an ornamental tree that produces edible, tasty, and nutritious nuts, and can be used for timber production. Sapucaia has potential as a functional food, owing to optimal nutritional and particularly Se levels. The present study sought to characterize the seeds of 21 sapucaia matrices from forest remnants of a neotropical hotspot (Atlantic Forest) and farms in two Brazilian states. Biometrics, germination, vigor, lignin content in the teguments, minerals content, and phenotypic and molecular diversity were analyzed. The seeds of matrices 16 and 21 were the most vigorous. Nuts from matrices 21 and 17 contained the highest amounts of Se. Matrices 5, 8, and 21 were the most phenotypically distant; whereas matrix 21 was the most genetically distant. Importantly, we validated a new non-destructive and efficient X-ray-based methodology for internal and densitometric analysis of sapucaia seeds, and demonstrated a high genetic divergence among matrices.


Assuntos
Lecythidaceae , Nozes , Brasil , Minerais , Sementes
4.
J Cosmet Sci ; 71(5): 239-250, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022195

RESUMO

Lecythis pisonis nuts are rich in tocopherols, polyphenols, and fatty acids, and hence, the quality of oil was analyzed for use in the elaboration of skin cream. Nut oil was extracted with hexane in a Soxhlet apparatus. The quality and safety of the oil were tested by using established protocols from Adolf Lutz Institute. Three concentrations, 1%, 5%, and 10%, of oil were incorporated into a formulated cream. The oil formulations were evaluated for their stability, organoleptic characteristics, pH, viscosity, spreadability, challenge test, cellular viability, and their response to microbial contamination, as recommended by the National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA). Quality analysis demonstrated the high quality of the obtained oil, with no traces of heavy metals and no toxic effects on ingestion. The cream containing L. pisonis nut oil is stable, has an effective preservative system, and is considered safe for use because it presented no toxicity in human cells. A stabilizer is required to maintain the pH in the range suitable for a body cream. Of the formulations tested, the cream containing 5% nut oil was the most stable and had presented the best organoleptic characteristics.


Assuntos
Lecythidaceae , Ácidos Graxos , Humanos , Nozes , Creme para a Pele/toxicidade
5.
Acta amaz ; 50(3): 199-203, jul. - set. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118820

RESUMO

Obtaining juvenile material may favor the clonal propagation of Brazil nut, Bertholletia excelsa. We aimed to assess the emission of epicormic shoots on detached branches of Brazil nut trees as a function of the mother tree and branch diameter, in order to provide juvenile material for use in clonal multiplication. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 6 (mother trees) x 3 (stem diameter: < 20 20-40 and 40-80 mm) factorial design, with four replicates. Every five days the number of shoots emitted was counted and the sprouting speed index and average sprouting time were calculated. The number of epicormic shoots and the sprouting speed index were dependent on the interaction between mother tree and branch diameter. Branches with larger diameter (20-40 and 40-80 mm) showed higher potential for obtaining propagules for use in Brazil nut clonal multiplication (cutting, grafting and in vitro cultivation). (AU)


Assuntos
Reprodução Assexuada , Agricultura Florestal , Lecythidaceae , Bertholletia
6.
Int J Mycobacteriol ; 9(2): 195-199, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32474543

RESUMO

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) has become a public health challenge in the current scenario with a single causative agent, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) causing the highest morbidity and mortality affecting almost 1.7 million of the population. Furthermore, there has been no novel drug discovery for the past five decades, and the emergence of latent, multiple drug-resistant, and extensively drug-resistant species has given rise to an alarming necessity for a novel compound/s for treating this highly untamable microbe. In developing countries, plant-based drugs have shown promising results in combating TB or its symptoms; naturally occurring secondary metabolites can act as lead-drug molecules or can be co-administered with conventional drugs. Therefore, the present study was focused to identify and characterize potential antimycobacterial compounds found in the screened ethnobotanical plants, Tithonia diversifolia (TD) and Couroupita guianensis (CG). These plants are used for treating respiratory disorders and allergies in the traditional medicinal systems. Methods: These plant leaf extracts were detected and purified using chromatographic techniques for potent antitubercular phytochemicals, and the purified eluents were tested on Mycobacterium smegmatis (MSM) as a surrogate for MTB; further, the fractions inhibiting growth of MSM were characterized through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A toxicity test of the purified samples was also assessed by an in vitro 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide reduction and hemolytic assays. Results: The analyzed plant extracts showed the presence of a C-15 sesquiterpene, zingiberene in TD, and a phthalate ester, bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, in CG leaf extracts. The toxicity assessment proved the purified fractions to be moderately toxic at higher concentrations (≥100 µg/mL). Conclusion: Therefore, the identified compounds can be promising antitubercular agents; however, further in vivo investigations will add substantial value to the compounds being pharmacologically useful.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/isolamento & purificação , Lecythidaceae/química , Mycobacterium smegmatis/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Tithonia/química , Descoberta de Drogas , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Plantas Medicinais/classificação
7.
Planta ; 251(4): 83, 2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32189086

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Plant growth-promoting bacteria association improved the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant pathways in Neotropical trees under drought, which led to lower oxidative damage and enhanced drought tolerance in these trees. Water deficit is associated with oxidative stress in plant cells and may, thus, negatively affect the establishment of tree seedlings in reforestation areas. The association with plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) is known to enhance the antioxidant response of crops, but this strategy has not been tested in seedlings of Neotropical trees. We evaluated the effects of inoculation with two PGPB (Azospirillum brasilense and Bacillus sp.) on the antioxidant metabolism of Cecropia pachystachya and Cariniana estrellensis seedlings submitted to drought. We measured the activity of antioxidant enzymes and the content of non-enzymatic antioxidants in leaves, and biometrical parameters of the seedlings. In both tree species, drought decreased the activity of antioxidant enzymes and the content of non-enzymatic antioxidant compounds. For C. pachystachya, the enzymatic and non-enzymatic pathways were mostly influenced by A. brasilense inoculation, which enhanced ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and superoxide dismutase activities and positively affected the level of non-enzymatic antioxidant compounds. In C. estrellensis, A. brasilense inoculation enhanced APX activity. However, A. brasilense and Bacillus sp. inoculation had more influence on the non-enzymatic pathway, as both bacteria induced a greater accumulation of secondary compounds (such as chlorogenic acid, gallic acid, rutin and synapic acid) compared to that in non-inoculated plants under drought. For both species, PGPB improved biometrical parameters related to drought tolerance, as specific leaf area and leaf-area ratio. Our results demonstrate that PGPB induced antioxidant mechanisms in drought-stressed Neotropical trees, increasing drought tolerance. Thus, PGPB inoculation provides a biotechnological alternative to improve the success of reforestation programmes.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Estresse Fisiológico , Árvores/metabolismo , Ascorbato Peroxidases/metabolismo , Azospirillum brasilense/metabolismo , Cecropia (Planta)/metabolismo , Cecropia (Planta)/microbiologia , Secas , Lecythidaceae/metabolismo , Lecythidaceae/microbiologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Plântula/metabolismo , Plântula/microbiologia , Árvores/microbiologia
8.
Front Biosci (Schol Ed) ; 12: 38-56, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585864

RESUMO

Brazil nuts are rich in magnesium, selenium, arginine and other amino acids, dietary fiber, tocopherols (vitamin E), phytosterols, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, sitosterols, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, polyphenols and other amino acids. Due to such a rich mixture of nutrients, Brazil nuts protect LDL from peroxidation, and improve endothelial function, blood pressure, lipid metabolism, and decrease endothelial inflammatory markers, DNA oxidation, and blood lipids (cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides). Here, we review and propose biological mechanisms by which bioactive compounds of Brazil nuts afford protections against atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Just a few nuts per day provide sufficient cardiovascular benefits, including protection against development and progression of atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Cardiotônicos/farmacologia , Lecythidaceae , Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Pressão Sanguínea , Brasil , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Dieta , Humanos , Lipídeos , Nozes/química
9.
J Hered ; 110(3): 287-299, 2019 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30726933

RESUMO

Following the global trend of deforestation and degradation, tropical dry forests in the Mascarenes archipelago on Reunion has undergone harsh reduction and fragmentation within 3 centuries of human occupation. We investigated the genetic diversity, mating system, and gene flow in fragmented populations of the native tree Foetidia mauritiana (Lecythidaceae) on Reunion, using microsatellite genotyping of adults (in- and ex situ) and seed progenies (in situ only). To test genetic isolation between the Mascarene islands, we also genotyped conspecific adults on Mauritius, and trees of Foetidia rodriguesiana on Rodrigues. We found a high genetic diversity among the trees on Reunion, but no population structure (G'ST: 0.039-0.090), and an increase of the fixation index (FIS) from adults to progenies. A subsequent analysis of mating systems from progeny arrays revealed selfing rates >50% in fragmented populations and close to 100% in lone trees. A paternity analysis revealed pollen flow ranging from 15.6 to 296.1 m within fragments. At broader scale, the populations of F. mauritiana on Reunion and Mauritius are genetically differentiated. The morphologically allied taxa F. rodriguesiana and F. mauritiana are clearly isolated. Therefore, this case study shows that genetic diversity may persist after deforestation, especially in long-lived tree species, but the reproductive features may be deeply altered during this process. This would explain the low seed production and the absence of recruitment in F. mauritiana. Restoration programs should take into account these features, as well as the importance that trees ex situ represent in restoring and conserving diversity.


Assuntos
Fluxo Gênico , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Lecythidaceae/genética , Árvores/genética , Florestas , Ilhas , Filogenia , Pólen , Sementes/genética , Clima Tropical
10.
Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol ; 392(5): 513-528, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30617548

RESUMO

To investigate the topical anti-inflammatory activity of the crude extract of Cariniana domestica fruit peels (CdE), its dichloromethane, n-butanol, and ethyl acetate (EtAc) fractions, and steroids (ß-sitosterol, lupeol, and stigmasterol) isolated from the EtAc fraction in models of irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) croton oil-induced in mice. We induced skin inflammation by single (acute; 1 mg/ear) and multiple (chronic; 0.4 mg/ear) croton oil application. We topically applied C. domestica (CdE, fractions, and gel formulations) and ß-sitosterol, lupeol, and stigmasterol immediately after applying croton oil. HPLC-DAD chromatography of the EtAc fraction and stability of the gel formulations were verified. HPLC-DAD of the EtAc fraction revealed the stigmasterol, lupeol, and ß-sitosterol presence. CdE and EtAc fraction gels showed no organoleptic or pH changes at room temperatures. CdE and dichloromethane, n-butanol, and EtAc (1 mg/ear) fractions decreased the acute ear edema with maximum inhibition (Imax) of 97 ± 2, 86 ± 1, 81 ± 4, and 95 ± 2%, respectively. CdE and EtAc fraction gel presented similar effects, with respective Imax of 85 ± 6% (3%;15 mg/ear) and 82 ± 2% (1%;15 mg/ear). ß-sitosterol (7.5 µg/ear), lupeol (10 µg/ear), and stigmasterol (5.7 µg/ear) also reduced this parameter by 46 ± 8, 51 ± 7, and 62 ± 7%, respectively. All topical treatments reduced the inflammatory cells' infiltration in the acute ICD model. CdE reduced the ear edema by 77 ± 4% (1 mg/ear) and the inflammatory cell infiltration in the chronic ICD model. CdE's anti-inflammatory effect was accompanied by a minimum development of adverse effects. C. domestica demonstrates a promising potential for the development of a topical anti-inflammatory agent. Graphical abstract Cariniana domestica, popularly known as jequitibá-roxo, presented topical anti-inflammatory activity in an acute and chronic irritant contact dermatitis croton oil-induced in mice. The crude extract (solutions and gel formulations) and different fractions obtained from fruit peels of C. domestica showed topical antiinflammatory activity on skin inflammation models with minimum adverse effects in preliminary toxicological studies (behavior and biochemical parameters). Moreover, the HPLC analysis revealed the presence of ß-sitosterol, stigmasterol and lupeol, which also presented topical anti-inflammatory effect in the acute irritant contact dermatitis croton oil-induced. Our findings support the use of this species as a promising topical antiinflammatory agent.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Dermatite Irritante/tratamento farmacológico , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Lecythidaceae , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Administração Tópica , Animais , Dermatite Irritante/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Edema/patologia , Frutas , Géis , Masculino , Camundongos , Fitoterapia , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/patologia
11.
Drug Chem Toxicol ; 42(6): 592-599, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29648485

RESUMO

Napoleona vogelii is used in traditional medicine for the management of stomach aches, ulcer, and cancers. This study was conducted to investigate the subchronic toxicological effect of methanol stem bark extract of N. vogelii on biochemical, hematological, and hormonal profile of male and female rats. Forty rats of both sexes were randomly divided into four groups of 10 rats each and were administered 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of the extract p.o. for 90 d. Ten milliliter per kilogram of distilled water p.o. was administered to control rats. On hematological assessment, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration was significantly (p < 0.01) increased at 400 mg/kg compared to control. Biochemical assessment showed a significant increase (p < 0.05) in levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase at 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively, compared to control. Hormonal assessment of male rats revealed a significantly (p < 0.0001) reduced level of testosterone at all treatment doses compared to control while estradiol was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced at 100 mg/kg, but significantly (p < 0.0001) increased at 200 and 400 mg/kg respectively compared to control in female rats. Findings from this study demonstrate that N. vogelli is relatively safe on oral acute exposure but may possess the potential to cause hepatic dysfunction and infertility in male rats by perturbations of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis while conversely enhancing fertility in female rats on subchronic administration.


Assuntos
Lecythidaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Administração Oral , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Testosterona/sangue , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda , Testes de Toxicidade Subcrônica
12.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 109: 120-126, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30396068

RESUMO

Napoleona vogelii is used in ethnomedicine for the treatment of asthma and cough. This study evaluated antiasthmatic and antitussive properties of its methanol leaf extract (NVE) in rodents. Phytochemical screening was conducted using established methods. Acute oral toxicity test was done in mice and guinea pigs. Ovalbumin (OA)-sensitized guinea pigs were orally pretreated with 100, 200 or 400 mg/kg/day of NVE or 0.5 mg/kg/day of salbutamol for 14 days before exposure to 0.2% histamine aerosol. Latency to preconvulsive dyspnea (PCD), tracheal fluid volume (TFV), flow rate (FR), and tracheal morphometry (TM) were evaluated. Tracheal rings from sensitized guinea pigs were tested in organ baths for antispasmodic and spasmolytic effects. Citric acid and ammonium hydroxide cough models were used to evaluate antitussive effects in guinea pigs and mice respectively. Tannins, alkaloids, flavonoids, and phenolic substances were found in NVE. LD50 values in mice and guinea pigs were greater than 5000 mg/kg. NVE caused a significant (P < 0.05) increase in the latency to PCD and a decrease in TFV in the group treated with 200 mg/kg. TM indicated a reduction in airway narrowing in NVE-treated groups. The presence of NVE significantly attenuated responses of tracheal rings to carbachol. Its addition to carbachol precontracted rings resulted in significant relaxation. Emax for calcium concentration-response was significantly (P < 0.01) decreased in the presence of NVE. Cough bouts dose-dependently decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in guinea pigs and mice. We conclude that NVE seems safe and possesses anti-asthmatic effect that involves inhibition of calcium influx. It also has antitussive properties that may be peripherally mediated.


Assuntos
Antiasmáticos/farmacologia , Antitussígenos/farmacologia , Lecythidaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Albuterol/farmacologia , Animais , Antiasmáticos/administração & dosagem , Antiasmáticos/isolamento & purificação , Antitussígenos/administração & dosagem , Antitussígenos/isolamento & purificação , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Asma/patologia , Cálcio/metabolismo , Tosse/tratamento farmacológico , Tosse/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Cobaias , Masculino , Metanol/química , Camundongos , Ovalbumina/imunologia , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Folhas de Planta , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda
13.
Food Res Int ; 112: 434-442, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30131155

RESUMO

In this study, the profile of the bioactive compounds of sapucaia nut (Lecythis pisonis Cambess) and its by-products have been investigated. The phenolic profile by LC-ESI-MS/MS, the total phenolic content, the condensed tannins and the antioxidant activity of the sapucaia nut and shell were determined. 14 phenolic compounds were identified in the sapucaia nut extract, primarily phenolic acids and flavonoids. Catechin, epicatechin, myricetin, ellagic acid and ferulic acid presented significant correlation to the antioxidant activity. The sapucaia shell contained 22 phenolic compounds, 13 of which were quantified. The sapucaia shell extract showed a high content of total phenolic compounds, a high condensed tannins content, and high antioxidant activity. The higher antioxidant activity of the shell can be associated with a higher content of phenolics. Overall, it can be concluded that the sapucaia nut is a raw material rich in phenolic compounds that present high antioxidant activity. The nuts and the cake may be used as a promising raw material for the food industry, while the shells could be an alternative source of natural antioxidants. Further use in the cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry may also be envisaged.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Lecythidaceae/química , Nozes/química , Fenóis/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
14.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 130: 277-288, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30036857

RESUMO

The inoculation of tree species with plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) has emerged as an important strategy for the acclimation of seedlings by improving plant tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of inoculation with bacterial species (Azospirillum brasilense - Ab-V5, Bacillus sp., Azomonas sp. and Azorhizophillus sp.) on the growth and physiology of the Neotropical tree species Trema micrantha and Cariniana estrellensis under drought conditions. When associated with Ab-V5 and Azomonas sp., T. micrantha showed increased protein in the leaves, starch in the leaves and roots, photosynthesis, instantaneous carboxylation efficiency and root and shoot dry mass. Moreover, there were reductions in hydrogen peroxide, lipid peroxidation, water potential and proline. In C. estrellensis associated with Ab-V5, higher values of photosynthesis and instantaneous carboxylation efficiency were observed, in addition to higher starch content in the leaves and roots and higher protein content in the leaves; lower hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxidation contents were also observed. The associations of T. micrantha with Ab-V5 and Azomonas sp. and C. estrellensis with Ab-V5 favored the activation of metabolic processes under drought, leading to greater drought tolerance. This work demonstrates the effects of compatible associations of Neotropical tree and PGPB species and suggests that the identification of compatible PGPB strains can result in tree seedlings with increased tolerance to abiotic stresses, such as drought.


Assuntos
Azospirillum brasilense/metabolismo , Bacillus/metabolismo , Lecythidaceae/fisiologia , Pseudomonadaceae/metabolismo , Plântula/fisiologia , Árvores/fisiologia , Trema/fisiologia , Desidratação , Lecythidaceae/microbiologia , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Prolina/metabolismo , Plântula/microbiologia , Amido/metabolismo , Árvores/microbiologia , Trema/microbiologia
15.
Food Res Int ; 109: 572-582, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29803485

RESUMO

The aim of this work was to investigate the physicochemical, thermal, and functional properties of partially defatted sapucaia nut (Lecythis pisonis Cambess.) flours (PDSF) degreased by subcritical propane (20-60 °C; 20-100 bar) and supercritical CO2 + ethanol (1:1 w/w) as co-solvent (60 °C; 200 bar) in comparison to the PDSF obtained through Soxhlet extraction with petroleum ether. Under the conditions studied herein, compressed propane has a minor effect on the granules' morphology (average particle size between 22 and 32 µm) or in the physicochemical characteristics of the PDSF. It caused a minimum impact on the nutritional profile of the samples; unlike, the thermogravimetric analysis revealed that there is an influence on the thermal stability of the PDSF. Functional characteristics, such as emulsifying (8-20 m2/g), foam (6-12%), and high water (0.35-1.38 g/g flour) and oil (0.72-1.57 g/g flour) absorption capacity, were observed in PDSF. Defatted flours were found to be effective in the production of emulsions with structures that showed micrometric-sized droplets (up to 85% droplet size <15.0 µm) with alleged stability. PDSF is a source of proteins (31-49%) and carbohydrates (17-31%), thus it can be used as an ingredient to produce foodstuff in bakery and confectionery aiming to increase their nutritional value and functional properties.


Assuntos
Ingredientes de Alimentos/análise , Lecythidaceae/química , Nozes/química , Cromatografia com Fluido Supercrítico , Cor , Carboidratos da Dieta/análise , Emulsões , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Valor Nutritivo , Tamanho da Partícula , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/análise , Solventes/química , Termogravimetria , Água/química
16.
Food Res Int ; 108: 27-34, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29735057

RESUMO

The nutritional composition of the sapucaia nut, cake and shell, the nut and cake minerals content and the lipid profile of the nut oil (fatty acids, tocopherols, phytosterols and triacylglycerols) were determined. The nuts and cake exhibited a high content of lipid (47.9 to 60.8 mg 100 g-1), protein (15.8 to 19.5 mg 100 g-1), dietary fiber (16.5 to 22.6 mg 100 g-1) and provided an excellent source of selenium (26.4 to 46.94 µg g-1). The oil contained a high amount of unsaturated fatty acids (39.7 to 45.4% of oleic and 32.2 to 46.6% of linoleic acids) and presented a high Oxidative Stability Index (8.57-12.95 h) indicating the presence of antioxidant compounds in the oil. The major triacylglycerols in the sapucaia oil were LLO, PLO, LOO, POO, OOO, PLL and LLL. The main bioactive lipids identified in the oil were γ-tocopherol (19.2 to 28.5 mg 100 g-1) and ß-sitosterol (92.8 to 194 mg 100 g-1). The results showed that the sapucaia nut and its by-products are a promising natural source of bioactive and nutritional compounds and when present in the diet can contribute to the maintenance of human health. In addition, the nut and by-product represents a promising raw material for the food industry.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta/análise , Lecythidaceae/química , Lipídeos/análise , Minerais/análise , Valor Nutritivo , Nozes/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/análise , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Selênio/análise
17.
Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol ; 46(3): 589-598, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28554257

RESUMO

In the present study, a sustainable green chemistry approach was established to fabricate magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles (Fe3O4NPs) using the aqueous fruit extract of edible C. guianensis (CGFE). Synthesized NPs were further confirmed with different high-throughput characterization techniques such as UV-visible spectroscopy, FT-IR, XPS, DLS and zeta potential analysis. Additionally, XRD, AFM, HRTEM and SQUID VSM demonstrate the generation of crystalline CGFe3O4NPs with mean diameter of 17 ± 10 nm. Interestingly, CGFe3O4NPs exhibit a stupendous bactericidal action against different human pathogens which depicts its antimicrobial value. A significant dose-dependent cytotoxic effect of CGFe3O4NPs was noticed against treated human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2).


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Citotoxinas , Frutas/química , Lecythidaceae/química , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Nanopartículas de Magnetita , Extratos Vegetais/química , Antibacterianos/síntese química , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Citotoxinas/síntese química , Citotoxinas/química , Citotoxinas/farmacologia , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/química , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/uso terapêutico
18.
PLoS One ; 12(8): e0183743, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28837638

RESUMO

Understanding the factors that underlie the production of non-timber forest products (NTFPs), as well as regularly monitoring production levels, are key to allow sustainability assessments of NTFP extractive economies. Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa, Lecythidaceae) seed harvesting from natural forests is one of the cornerstone NTFP economies in Amazonia. In the Peruvian Amazon it is organized in a concession system. Drawing on seed production estimates of >135,000 individual Brazil nut trees from >400 concessions and ethno-ecological interviews with >80 concession holders, here we aimed to (i) assess the accuracy of seed production estimates by Brazil nut seed harvesters, and (ii) validate their traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) about the variables that influence Brazil nut production. We compared productivity estimates with actual field measurements carried out in the study area and found a positive correlation between them. Furthermore, we compared the relationships between seed production and a number of phenotypic, phytosanitary and environmental variables described in literature with those obtained for the seed production estimates and found high consistency between them, justifying the use of the dataset for validating TEK and innovative hypothesis testing. As expected, nearly all TEK on Brazil nut productivity was corroborated by our data. This is reassuring as Brazil nut concession holders, and NTFP harvesters at large, rely on their knowledge to guide the management of the trees upon which their extractive economies are based. Our findings suggest that productivity estimates of Brazil nut trees and possibly other NTFP-producing species could replace or complement actual measurements, which are very expensive and labour intensive, at least in areas where harvesters have a tradition of collecting NTFPs from the same trees over multiple years or decades. Productivity estimates might even be sourced from harvesters through registers on an annual basis, thus allowing a more cost-efficient and robust monitoring of productivity levels.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Crowdsourcing , Florestas , Lecythidaceae/embriologia , Sementes , Peru
19.
Genet Mol Res ; 16(2)2017 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28481404

RESUMO

Cariniana estrellensis is one of the largest trees found in Brazilian tropical forests. The species is typical of advanced stages of succession, characteristic of climax forests, and essential in genetic conservation and environmental restoration plans. In this study, we assessed Mendelian inheritance, genetic linkage, and genotypic disequilibrium in nine microsatellite loci for a C. estrellensis population. We sampled and genotyped 285 adult trees and collected seeds from 20 trees in a fragmented forest landscape in Brazil. Based on maternal genotypes and their seeds, we found no deviation from the expected 1:1 Mendelian segregation and no genetic linkage between pairwise loci. However, for adults, genotypic disequilibrium was detected for four pairs of loci, suggesting that this result was not caused by genetic linkage. Based on these results, we analyzed microsatellite loci that are suitable for use in population genetic studies assessing genetic diversity, mating system, and gene flow in C. estrellensis populations.


Assuntos
Lecythidaceae/genética , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Repetições de Microssatélites , Brasil , Florestas , Fluxo Gênico , Genótipo , Sementes/genética
20.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 206: 376-392, 2017 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28502905

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Careya arborea Roxb. (Lecythidaceae) is a large tree found throughout India in deciduous forests and grasslands. C. arborea is traditionally used in tumors, inflammation, anthelmintic, bronchitis, epileptic fits, astringents, antidote to snake-venom, skin disease, diarrhea, dysentery with bloody stools, dyspepsia, ulcer, tooth ache, and ear pain. AIM OF THE STUDY: In our previous work, the methanolic extract of Careya arborea stem bark showed significant anti-inflammatory activity. As a continuity of that work, this study aimed at the isolation and evaluation of the anti-inflammatory effect of coumaroyl lupendioic acid, a new lupane-type triterpene from Careya arborea stem bark. Further, to give an insight into the underlying mechanism of action of the compound on the modulation of proinflammatory mediators. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Methanolic extract of Careya arborea stem bark was suspended in water, and sequentially fractionated with n-hexane and ethyl acetate. Further ethyl acetate fraction was subjected to medium pressure liquid chromatography (MPLC) to isolate the active molecules. The isolated compounds were characterized by the various spectral techniques namely UV, IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, DEPT, 1H-1H COSY, HMBC and Mass spectral techniques. In vitro COX-1 and COX-2 enzyme inhibition assays using human whole blood was performed to investigate the inhibitory effect of the isolated compounds. The resulted potent COX-2 inhibitor of the isolated constituents compound 5, designated as coumaroyl lupendioic acid (CLA), was investigated in carrageenan induced inflammation and its effect was also compared with betulinic acid (BA) at the doses of 10 and 20mgkg-1, p.o. using indomethacin and celecoxib (10 and 20mgkg-1, p.o., respectively) as reference drugs. The effect of CLA on the production of NO, MPO, PGE2, TNF-α, IL-1ß and IL-6 were assessed. In addition, the histopathology and immunohistochemistry (NF-Ò¡B, COX-2 and TNF-α protein expression) in paw tissues were also carried out. RESULTS: The chromatographic fractionation of the methanolic extract resulted in isolation of six new derivatives of lupane type triterpenes for the first time from the stem bark of C. arborea; 3ß-hydroxy-lup-5,20 (29),21-trien-28-oic acid (Compound 1), 1, 3, 13, 16-tetrahydroxy-lup-9(11), 20(29)-diene-28-oic acid (Compound 2), 1, 7-di hydroxy betulinic acid (Compound 3), 3ß-O-dihydrocinnamyl betulinic acid (Compound 4), 3ß-O-trans-coumaryl-lup-6, 9(11), 20(29)-triene-27, 28-dioic acid (Compound 5), 16ß-hydroxy-2, 3-seco-lup-5, 20(29)-dien-2, 3, 28-trioic acid (Compound 6). Among the all isolated compounds 3ß-O-trans-coumaryl-lup-6, 9(11), 20(29)-triene-27, 28-olioic acid designated as coumaroyl lupendioic acid (CLA) showed higher COX-2 selectivity which is comparable to reference drug (celecoxib). CLA significantly reduced carrageenan induced inflammation whereas CLA revealed greater effect as compared to BA at the similar corresponding doses. Moreover, CLA significantly inhibited pro-inflammatory mediators elevated by carrageenan. CLA also preserved the tissue architecture as evidenced by the histopathology. Furthermore, immunohistochemical studies revealed that CLA significantly down regulated NF-Ò¡B, COX-2 and TNF-α protein expression. CONCLUSION: The study gives an insight into the molecular mechanisms of coumaroyl lupendioic acid and suggests that the down-regulations of proinflammatory mediators provide credence to the ethno botanical use of the plant in the management of inflammation.


Assuntos
Modelos Animais de Doenças , Mediadores da Inflamação/antagonistas & inibidores , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Lecythidaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Análise Espectral
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