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1.
Food Chem ; 370: 131318, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662792

RESUMO

This article compares information on the labels of Brazilian food bars with National Health Surveillance Agency legislation. Twenty-six brands of food bars were identified, comprising 50 commercial lines and 153 flavors. The marketing appeal to consumers on the front of pack labeling appeared in many ways to identify these products with a healthy and sustainable lifestyle. However, mandatory information was hard to see, both on the packaging and online, making it difficult for consumer to access. Most of the information on labels followed current legislation, but nutritional irregularities were identified since most bars were ultra-processed and one had incorrect information on the label. The claim that these foods are healthy reinforces the need to reformulate nutrition labeling in Brazil to facilitate identification of nutritional quality/value of foods as part of healthy and sustainable diets.


Assuntos
Rotulagem de Alimentos , Legislação sobre Alimentos , Brasil , Comportamento do Consumidor , Preferências Alimentares , Valor Nutritivo
2.
Artigo em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55345

RESUMO

[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Identificar el perfil nutricional de productos alimentarios eximidos de presentar uno o más sellos de advertencia nutricional en el frente del envase durante la primera etapa de vigencia de la Ley 30021 de Promoción de la Alimentación Saludable para Niños, Niñas y Adolescentes de Perú. Métodos. Se recolectaron datos de 188 productos desde puntos de venta de la ciudad de Lima. La muestra por conveniencia incluyó productos que hasta el 17 de septiembre de 2021 estaban eximidos por la legislación de presentar alguna de las advertencias para el azúcar, el sodio o las grasas saturadas. Se evaluó la proporción de productos que estarían obligados a aplicar uno o más sellos de advertencia a partir de la entrada en vigencia de la segunda etapa de la legislación. Se verificó cuántos productos eximidos de la aplicación de advertencias por la legislación contienen exceso de azúcar, sodio o grasas saturadas según los criterios de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS). Resultados. El 76,1% de los productos superaba al menos uno de los umbrales para el azúcar, el sodio o las grasas saturadas vigentes a partir de septiembre de 2021. La proporción de productos eximidos de presentar advertencias por la legislación y que contienen exceso de azúcar, sodio o grasas saturadas según la OPS será 4,2, 3,4 y 2,3 veces menor, respectivamente, a partir de la segunda etapa. Conclusión. Durante la primera etapa de vigencia de la ley, 58%, 42% y 28,2% de los productos eximidos de la presentación de advertencias contenían exceso de azúcar, grasas saturadas o sodio, respectivamente, según la OPS.


[ABSTRACT]. Objective. Identify the nutritional profile of food products exempted from presenting one or more front-of-package nutritional warnings during the first stage of Law 30,021 on the Promotion of Healthy Eating for Children and Adolescents in Peru. Methods. Data were collected on 188 products from points of sale in the city of Lima. The convenience sample included products that until September 17, 2021 were exempted by the legislation from presenting any of the warning labels for sugar, sodium, or saturated fats. An assessment was made of the proportion of products that would be required to apply one or more warning labels when the second stage of the legislation takes effect. It was also calculated how many products exempted from the application of warning labels contain excess sugar, sodium, or saturated fats, according to the criteria of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). Results. 76.1% of the products exceeded at least one of the thresholds for sugar, sodium, or saturated fats that entered in force in September 2021. The proportion of products that the law exempts from warnings and that contain excess sugar, sodium, or saturated fats according to PAHO will be 4.2, 3.4, and 2.3 times lower, respectively, in the second stage. Conclusion: During the first stage of the law's entry into force, 58%, 42%, and 28.2% of the products exempted from the presentation of warning labels contained excess sugar, saturated fats, or sodium, respectively, according to PAHO.


[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Identificar o perfil nutricional de produtos alimentícios isentos da aplicação de um ou mais selos de advertência nutricional na parte frontal da embalagem durante a primeira etapa de vigência da Lei 30021 de Promoção da Alimentação Saudável para Crianças e Adolescentes do Peru. Métodos. Foram coletados dados de 188 produtos em pontos de venda da cidade de Lima. A amostra por conveniência incluiu produtos que, até 17 de setembro de 2021, estavam isentos, pela legislação, de apresentar quaisquer advertências para açúcar, sódio ou gorduras saturadas. Foi avaliada a proporção de produtos que seriam obrigados a apresentar um ou mais selos de advertência quando a segunda etapa da legislação entrasse em vigor. Verificou-se quantos produtos isentos da apresentação de advertências, pela legislação, contêm excesso de açúcar, sódio ou gorduras saturadas, segundo os critérios da Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde (OPAS). Resultados. 76,1% dos produtos ultrapassaram pelo menos um dos limiares para açúcar, sódio ou gorduras saturadas vigentes a partir de setembro de 2021. A proporção de produtos isentos de apresentar advertências, pela legislação, e que contêm excesso de açúcar, sódio ou gorduras saturadas, segundo a OPAS, será 4,2, 3,4 e 2,3 vezes menor, respectivamente, a partir da segunda etapa. Conclusão. Durante a primeira etapa de vigência da lei, 58%, 42% e 28,2% dos produtos isentos da apresentação de advertências continham excesso de açúcar, gorduras saturadas ou sódio, respectivamente, segundo a OPAS.


Assuntos
Rotulagem de Alimentos , Alimentos, Dieta e Nutrição , Legislação sobre Alimentos , Obesidade , Programas e Políticas de Nutrição e Alimentação , Peru , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Alimentos, Dieta e Nutrição , Legislação sobre Alimentos , Obesidade , Programas e Políticas de Nutrição e Alimentação , Peru , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Alimentos, Dieta e Nutrição , Legislação sobre Alimentos , Obesidade , Programas e Políticas de Nutrição e Alimentação
3.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444844

RESUMO

The implementation of REGULATION (EC) No 1924/2006 has led to the formation of a list of health claims that can be used in food supplements (EU 432/2012). However, such supplements are often composed of plant preparations with claims omitted from this list. The peculiarity of plants is related to their long history of use, that could allow claims based on traditionally recognized health effects. In addition, the scientific literature has been enriched over the years through clinical studies that have assessed the bioavailability and efficacy of bioactive components, and investigated their mechanisms of action. Based on existing recognized models which aim to classify research according to the level of scientific evidence, Synadiet developed a three-grade model (A, B or C) for assessing plants health claims. In this paper, the applicability of the model is illustrated through an example for which a Grade B health claim attesting the possible contribution of red clover isoflavones to the improvement of blood lipid levels in postmenopausal women has been attributed. The model appears able to be easily extrapolated to claims pertaining to other plants. If adopted by consensus at European level, this model could initiate the implementation of a positive list of health claims on plant preparations.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/normas , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Rotulagem de Alimentos/normas , Preparações de Plantas/normas , Plantas Comestíveis , Adulto , Idoso , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Feminino , Rotulagem de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Isoflavonas/análise , Isoflavonas/normas , Legislação sobre Alimentos , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Nutritivo , Preparações de Plantas/análise , Pós-Menopausa/sangue , Trifolium/química
4.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e190, 2021 07 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34275497

RESUMO

About 800 foodborne disease outbreaks are reported in the United States annually. Few are associated with food recalls. We compared 226 outbreaks associated with food recalls with those not associated with recalls during 2006-2016. Recall-associated outbreaks had, on average, more illnesses per outbreak and higher proportions of hospitalisations and deaths than non-recall-associated outbreaks. The top confirmed aetiology for recall-associated outbreaks was Salmonella. Pasteurised and unpasteurised dairy products, beef and molluscs were the most frequently implicated foods. The most common pathogen-food pairs for outbreaks with recalls were Escherichia coli-beef and norovirus-molluscs; the top pairs for non-recall-associated outbreaks were scombrotoxin-fish and ciguatoxin-fish. For outbreaks with recalls, 48% of the recalls occurred after the outbreak, 27% during the outbreak, 3% before the outbreak, and 22% were inconclusive or had unknown recall timing. Fifty per cent of recall-associated outbreaks were multistate, compared with 2% of non-recall-associated outbreaks. The differences between recall-associated outbreaks and non-recall-associated outbreaks help define the types of outbreaks and food vehicles that are likely to have a recall. Improved outbreak vehicle identification and traceability of rarely recalled foods could lead to more recalls of these products, resulting in fewer illnesses and deaths.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Contaminação de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Humanos , Legislação sobre Alimentos , Estados Unidos
5.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34069664

RESUMO

Suggestions that a food contains healthy ingredients or that it can provide beneficial effects upon consumption have been regulated in the EU since 2006. This paper describes the analysis of how this nutrition and health claim regulation has resulted in over 300 authorised claims and how the authorisation requirements and processes have affected the use of claims on foods. Five challenges are identified that negatively affect the current legislation dealing with nutrition and health claims: non-reviewed botanical claims (as well as on hold claims for infants and young children), the lack of nutrient profiles and the focus of claims on single ingredients, consumer understanding, research into health effects of nutrition and finally, enforcement. These challenges are shown to influence the goals of the regulation: protecting consumers from false and misleading claims and stimulating the development of a level playing field in the EU, to foster innovation. Tackling these political and scientific substantiation questions for health claims, together with continuously analysing the understanding and usage of claims by consumers and operators will ensure that the NHCR will stay effective, today and in the future.


Assuntos
Alimentos , Legislação sobre Alimentos , Estado Nutricional , Europa (Continente) , União Europeia , Rotulagem de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Previsões , Alimento Funcional , Humanos , Aplicação da Lei , Valor Nutritivo
6.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2021-06-23. (OPS/NMH/RF/21-0011).
Não convencional em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54421

RESUMO

El 17 de mayo del 2013, el Perú aprobó la Ley N° 30021 de promoción de la alimentación saludable para niños, niñas y adolescentes, que exige la inclusión de advertencias publicitarias en productos alimenticios y bebidas no alcohólicas que superen los parámetros técnicos establecidos en el Reglamento de la Ley Nº 30021 y en el Manual de Advertencias Publicitarias. Esta hoja informativa presenta los resultados del primer estudio que se llevó a cabo en el Perú para examinar el cumplimiento de esta normativa durante su primera fase de vigencia. El estudio fue realizado por el Ministerio de Salud del Perú y la Organización Panamericana de la Salud, y verificó que la mayor parte de los productos evaluados cumplen la normativa. Sin embargo, una proporción importante de productos (22%) todavía incumple los requisitos exigidos durante la primera etapa de vigencia de la normativa, lo que indica la necesidad de reforzar los mecanismos de monitoreo, fiscalización y sanción. Además, cerca de una tercera parte de todos los productos cuyo contenido en azúcar, sodio y grasas saturadas se considera excesivo según la OPS no están sujetos al requisito de incluir advertencias durante el primer plazo de entrada en vigencia de los parámetros técnicos establecidos por el Perú para tales nutrientes. Los resultados indicaron que la entrada en vigencia de la segunda etapa es fundamental porque reducirá el número de productos que no advierten a la población sobre esa cantidad excesiva. El estudio también indica que en el futuro deben incluirse en la normativa los productos que se excluyen de la segunda fase de vigencia pero que contienen una cantidad excesiva de acuerdo con las recomendaciones de la OPS, para garantizar una mejor protección de la alimentación saludable y la salud pública.


Assuntos
Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Programas e Políticas de Nutrição e Alimentação , Saúde da Criança , Saúde do Adolescente , Legislação sobre Alimentos , Peru
7.
Public Health Nutr ; 24(15): 5156-5165, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33972003

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The excessive growth of the food supplements' industry highlights the need to focus attention on all aspects involved in their proper consumption; one that takes centre stage is advertising. The aim of this research is to analyse the presence of false and misleading claims in food supplements advertising. To this end, a relationship is established between the different types of health-related claims and the substances on which they are based, whether authorised or not by European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). DESIGN: This empirical work conducts a content analysis of all radio mentions broadcast throughout 2017 on news/talk radio stations. SETTING: Spain. PARTICIPANTS: All radio mentions broadcast on news/talk commercial radio stations in Spain with the highest audience levels. The corpus is composed of 437 advertisements. RESULTS: Results indicate that 80·3 % of function claims included in the analysed advertisements are not authorised by EFSA, while 20·4 % of disease claims are not allowed by EU regulation. Likewise, almost half of the substances referred to (43·7 %) are illicit: 54·1 % in function claims, 57·3 % in disease claims and 73·7 % in the case of reduction of disease risk claims. CONCLUSIONS: This work reveals consistent failures to comply with European regulation on food supplements advertising. The widespread use of unauthorised health claims and substances is aggravated by the indirect recourse of illness as a persuasive argument, descriptions of alleged benefits as product attributes and the omission of essential information. This leads to dangerous misinformation and can pose serious health risks. Stronger legal mechanisms are needed for effective consumer protection.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Legislação sobre Alimentos , Publicidade , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Humanos
8.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672234

RESUMO

Aspartame is a phenylalanine containing sweetener, added to foods and drinks, which is avoided in phenylketonuria (PKU). However, the amount of phenylalanine provided by aspartame is unidentifiable from food and drinks labels. We performed a cross-sectional online survey aiming to examine the accidental aspartame consumption in PKU. 206 questionnaires (58% female) were completed. 55% of respondents (n = 114) were adults with PKU or their parent/carers and 45% (n = 92) were parents/carers of children with PKU. 74% (n = 152/206) had consumed food/drinks containing aspartame. Repeated accidental aspartame consumption was common and more frequent in children (p < 0.0001). The aspartame containing food/drinks accidentally consumed were fizzy drinks (68%, n = 103/152), fruit squash (40%, n = 61/152), chewing gum (30%, n = 46/152), flavoured water (25%, n = 38/152), ready to drink fruit squash cartons (23%, n = 35/152) and sports drinks (21%, n = 32/152). The main reasons described for accidental consumption, were manufacturers' changing recipes (81%, n = 123/152), inability to check the ingredients in pubs/restaurants/vending machines (59%, n = 89/152) or forgetting to check the label (32%, n = 49/152). 23% (n= 48/206) had been prescribed medicines containing aspartame and 75% (n = 36/48) said that medicines were not checked by medics when prescribed. 85% (n = 164/192) considered the sugar tax made accidental aspartame consumption more likely. Some of the difficulties for patients were aspartame identification in drinks consumed in restaurants, pubs, vending machines (77%, n = 158/206); similarities in appearance of aspartame and non-aspartame products (62%, n = 127/206); time consuming shopping/checking labels (56%, n = 115/206); and unclear labelling (55%, n = 114/206). These issues caused anxiety for the person with PKU (52%, n = 106/206), anxiety for parent/caregivers (46%, n = 95/206), guilt for parent/carers (42%, n = 87/206) and social isolation (42%, n = 87/206). It is important to understand the impact of aspartame and legislation such as the sugar tax on people with PKU. Policy makers and industry should ensure that the quality of life of people with rare conditions such as PKU is not compromised through their action.


Assuntos
Acidentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Aspartame/análise , Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Fenilalanina/análise , Fenilcetonúrias/dietoterapia , Adulto , Aspartame/efeitos adversos , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Alimentos/efeitos adversos , Análise de Alimentos , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Humanos , Legislação sobre Alimentos , Masculino , Fenilalanina/efeitos adversos , Restaurantes
9.
Toxins (Basel) ; 13(2)2021 01 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530316

RESUMO

The most common, toxic, and carcinogenic mycotoxins found in human food and animal feed are the aflatoxins (AFs). The United States is a leading exporter of various nuts, with a marketing value of $9.1 billion in 2019; the European Union countries are the major importers of U.S. nuts. In the past few years, border rejections and notifications for U.S. tree nuts and peanuts exported to the E.U. countries have increased due to AF contamination. In this work, we analyzed notifications from the "Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF)" on U.S. food and feed products contaminated with mycotoxins, primarily AFs, for the 10-year period 2010-2019. Almost 95% of U.S. mycotoxin RASFF notifications were reported for foods and only 5% for feeds. We found that 98.9% of the U.S. food notifications on mycotoxins were due to the AF contamination in almond, peanut, and pistachio nuts. Over half of these notifications (57.9%) were due to total AF levels greater than the FDA action level in food of 20 ng g-1. The Netherlands issued 27% of the AF notifications for U.S. nuts. Border rejection was reported for more than 78% of AF notifications in U.S. nuts. All U.S. feed notifications on mycotoxins occurred due to the AF contamination. Our research contributes to better understanding the main reasons behind RASFF mycotoxins notifications of U.S. food and feed products destined to E.U. countries. Furthermore, we speculate possible causes of this problem and provide a potential solution that could minimize the number of notifications for U.S. agricultural export market.


Assuntos
Aflatoxinas/análise , Ração Animal/microbiologia , Comércio , Análise de Alimentos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Nozes/microbiologia , Animais , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , União Europeia , Regulamentação Governamental , Humanos , Legislação sobre Alimentos , Concentração Máxima Permitida , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos
10.
Curr Biol ; 31(4): R168-R172, 2021 02 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33621498

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic is an alarm call to all on the risks of zoonotic diseases and the delicate relationship between nature and human health. In response, China has taken a proactive step by issuing a legal decision to ban consumption of terrestrial wildlife. However, concerns have been raised and opponents of bans argue that well-regulated trade should be promoted instead. By analyzing China's legal framework and management system regulating wildlife trade, together with state and provincial-level wildlife-trade licenses and wildlife criminal cases, we argue that current wildlife trade regulations do not function as expected. This is due to outdated protected species lists, insufficient cross-sector collaboration, and weak restrictions and law enforcement on farming and trading of species. The lack of quarantine standards for wildlife and increased wildlife farming in recent years pose great risks for food safety and public health. In addition, wildlife consumption is neither required for subsistence nor an essential part of Chinese diets. All these facts make the ban necessary to provoke improvement in wildlife management, such as updating protected species lists, revising laws and changing consumption behaviors. Nonetheless, the ban is not sufficient to address all the problems. To sustain the efficacy of the change, we propose that a long-term mechanism to reduce the demand and improve effective management is needed.


Assuntos
Legislação sobre Alimentos , Carne , Animais , Animais Selvagens , COVID-19 , China , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/legislação & jurisprudência , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Quarentena , Zoonoses
11.
Nutr Hosp ; 38(1): 23-28, 2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33319571

RESUMO

Introduction: Background: Brazil includes food as a social right, making the State responsible to the courts for the sufficient and adequate supply of enteral food. Objectives: to evaluate the supply of enteral diets in pharmacies in the state of Espirito Santo. Methods: to do this, we used the forms filled out by patients or legal representatives, containing medical records, to analyze the nutritional and social profiles of the users over two years, and the compliance of the administrative processes with the ordinance that instituted enteral food supplies was verified. Results: the sample was comprised of 204 patients receiving enteral nutrition, and the administrative procedures required to supply these patients were surveyed in seven (7/9) pharmacies. The data showed that the most common group was that of women (51 %), who were white (51 %), legally represented (91 %), and 73.5 years old (11 to 109 years). Information regarding missing anthropometric data, use of terms and calculations for obtaining enteral food other than those recommended, incomplete documents, alterations to the physical examinations suggestive of error, and nonobservance of inclusion and exclusion criteria were collected for this study. Conclusions: this study revealed that there were gaps in the process of enteral diet supply by the Espírito Santo pharmacies, both concerning compliance with the protocol and patient follow-up by the professional who assists both the patient and the pharmacist who provides the input.


Assuntos
Nutrição Enteral/estatística & dados numéricos , Alimentos Formulados/provisão & distribuição , Farmácias/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil , Criança , Feminino , Regulamentação Governamental , Direitos Humanos/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Legislação sobre Alimentos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
12.
Public Health ; 190: 168-172, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33341278

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Based on the legal framework regulating the advertisement of food supplements in the EU, the aim of this article is to analyse the relationship between the presence of endorsers, the different types of health-related claims (H-RCs) and product content information. STUDY DESIGN: We applied a quantitative approach based on the content analysis of all radio spots broadcast throughout 2017 on full-service radio stations in Spain. METHODS: A corpus of 10,556 radio spots was obtained of the three radio stations with the highest audience levels (165 without repetitions). We incorporated data on the accumulated broadcast frequencies to supplement the content analysis specific to each radio spot with its weight in relation to the overall advertising discourse. We developed a coding scheme to assess the type of endorser, the types of H-RCs, and the product content information. RESULTS: Results show that European directives are breached in different ways. Healthcare experts prevail in disease claims, although they are prohibited. Celebrities are the most widely used endorsers (25%) in the function and reduction of disease risk claims. In addition, although these types of claims require substantiation by authorised ingredient, 73% of H-RCs lack this information. CONCLUSIONS: The high presence of illicit H-RCs and endorsers, such as physicians, and the omission of compulsory product information suggest that public administrations must apply stricter monitoring and sanctioning mechanisms to dissuade advertisers from further breaches of the law and to protect consumers. Implications for public health policy are made.


Assuntos
Publicidade/legislação & jurisprudência , Suplementos Nutricionais , Rotulagem de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Alimentos/normas , Rotulagem de Produtos/legislação & jurisprudência , Publicidade/métodos , Humanos , Legislação sobre Alimentos , Espanha
13.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; 61(6): 906-919, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32274931

RESUMO

The Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF), where competent authorities in each Member State (MS) submit notifications on the withdrawal of unsafe or illegal products from the market, makes a significant contribution to food safety control in the European Union. The aim of this paper is to frame the potential challenges of interpreting and then acting upon the dataset contained within the RASFF system. As it is largest cause of RASFF notifications, the lens of enquiry used is mycotoxin contamination. The methodological approach is to firstly iteratively review existing literature to frame the problem, and then to interrogate the RASFF system and analyze the data available. Findings are that caution should be exercised in using the RASFF database both as a predictive tool and for trend analysis, because iterative changes in food law impact on the frequency of regulatory sampling associated with border and inland regulatory checks. The study highlights the variability of engagement by MSs with the RASFF database, influencing generalisability of the trends noted. As importing countries raise market standards, there are wider food safety implications for the exporting countries themselves. As this is one of the first studies articulating the complexities and opportunities of using the RASFF database, this research makes a strong contribution to literature.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , União Europeia , Alimentos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Legislação sobre Alimentos
14.
Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf ; 19(5): 2747-2763, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33336973

RESUMO

With the surge in consumption of insects, the search continues to find ways to increase the popularity of insect-based products in the Western world. The black soldier fly larvae (BSFL), which is mainly utilized for animal feed, has great potential to provide a sustainable source of nutrients for human food. This review aims to discuss some of the key benefits and challenges of BSFL and their potential role as a food ingredient and/or product for human consumption. Few articles specifically discuss BSFL as a food source, therefore a comprehensive literature search strategy consisted of collecting and evaluating published data about BSFL as animal feed that could be relevant to its use in food. The hurdles that need to be overcome in order to introduce BSFL as a viable food option include safety concerns, technofunctional properties, nutritional aspects, consumer attitudes, and product applications for BSFL.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Insetos Comestíveis/química , Ração Animal , Animais , Comportamento do Consumidor , Insetos Comestíveis/microbiologia , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Humanos , Larva , Legislação sobre Alimentos , Valor Nutritivo
15.
Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf ; 19(5): 2701-2720, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33336981

RESUMO

Sulfites are a class of chemical compounds, SO2 releasers, widely used as additives in food industry, due to their antimicrobial, color stabilizing, antibrowning, and antioxidant properties. As the results of these pleiotropic functions they can be added to a broad range of products including dried fruits and vegetables, seafood, juices, alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverage, and in few meat products. Sulfites ingestion has been correlated with several adverse and toxic reactions, such as hypersensitivity, allergic diseases, vitamin deficiency, and may lead to dysbiotic events of gut and oral microbiota. In many countries, these additives are closely regulated and in meat products the legislation restricts their usage. Several studies have been conducted to investigate the sulfites contents in meat and meat products, and many of them have revealed that some meat preparations represent one of the main sources of SO2 exposure, especially in adults and young people. This review discusses properties, technological functions, regulation, and health implications of sulfites in meat-based foods, and lays a special emphasis on the chemical mechanisms involved in their interactions with organic and inorganic meat components.


Assuntos
Produtos da Carne , Carne , Sulfitos/química , Conservantes de Alimentos/efeitos adversos , Conservantes de Alimentos/química , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Humanos , Legislação sobre Alimentos , Sulfitos/efeitos adversos , Sulfitos/análise
16.
Nutrients ; 12(10)2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066130

RESUMO

Policies to require warnings on the front of food and drinks high in nutrients of concern (e.g., added sugar, sodium, or saturated fat) are becoming increasingly common as an obesity prevention strategy. Colombia, a country with growing prevalence of obesity, is considering implementing a similar policy. The objective of this study was to assess perceptions and reactions to different warning designs. We conducted a randomized experiment in an online panel of adults age > 18y (n = 1997). Participants were randomized to view one of four labels: a control label (barcode), an octagon warning, a circle warning, and a triangle warning. Participants viewed their randomly assigned label on a series of products and answered questions (continuous outcomes ranged from 1-4). Compared to the control, all warnings led to higher perceived message effectiveness (increase in mean from 1.79 in the control to 2.59-2.65 in the warning conditions, p < 0.001), a higher percentage of participants who correctly identified products high in nutrients of concern (from 48% in the control condition to 84-89% in the warning conditions, p < 0.001), and reduced intentions to purchases these products (decrease in mean from 2.59 to 1.99-2.01 in the warning conditions, p < 0.001). Relative to the control, warnings performed similarly across education levels, suggesting this policy would be equitable in Colombia. Looking at differences by warning type, the pattern of results suggested that the octagon warnings performed best. After viewing all label types, 49% of participants selected the octagon warning as the one that most discouraged them from consuming products high in nutrients of concern, while 21% and 27% selected the circle and triangle warning. Colombian policymakers should consider the octagon warning as part of a front-of-package labeling policy to help consumers identify and reduce consumption of foods and drinks high in nutrients of concern.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Açúcares da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Açúcares da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Graxos/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos/efeitos adversos , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Análise de Alimentos , Rotulagem de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Rotulagem de Alimentos/métodos , Alimentos , Legislação sobre Alimentos , Política Nutricional/legislação & jurisprudência , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar/efeitos adversos , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar/análise , Adulto , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066255

RESUMO

Nutrition and health claims should be truthful and not misleading. We aimed to determine the use of nutrition and health claims in packaged foods sold in Mongolia and examine their credibility. A cross-sectional study examined the label information of 1723 products sold in marketplaces in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. The claim data were analysed descriptively. In the absence of national regulations, the credibility of the nutrition claims was examined by using the Codex Alimentarius guidelines, while the credibility of the health claims was assessed by using the European Union (EU) Regulations (EC) No 1924/2006. Nutritional quality of products bearing claims was determined by nutrient profiling. Approximately 10% (n = 175) of products carried at least one health claim and 9% (n = 149) carried nutrition claims. The credibility of nutrition and health claims was very low. One-third of nutrition claims (33.7%, n = 97) were deemed credible, by having complete and accurate information on the content of the claimed nutrient/s. Only a few claims would be permitted in the EU countries by complying with the EU regulations. Approximately half of the products with nutrition claims and 40% of products with health claims were classified as less healthy products. The majority of nutrition and health claims on food products sold in Mongolia were judged as non-credible, and many of these claims were on unhealthy products. Rigorous and clear regulations are needed to prevent negative impacts of claims on food choices and consumption, and nutrition transition in Mongolia.


Assuntos
Rotulagem de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Embalagem de Alimentos , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Política Nutricional , Valor Nutritivo , Estudos Transversais , Saúde , Humanos , Legislação sobre Alimentos , Mongólia , Políticas , Prevalência
18.
Food Funct ; 11(10): 8493-8515, 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034610

RESUMO

Wild edible plants (WEPs) have been consumed since ancient times. They are considered as non-domesticated plants that grow spontaneously in nature, particularly in forests and bushlands, where they can be found and collected to be incorporated into human nutrition. Increasingly, WEPs are gaining importance as they are potential sources of food due to their nutritional value, besides showing positive health effects and offer innovative applications in haute cuisine. As these autochthonous plants grow naturally in the environment, they are more suitable to adapt to different climatic conditions as well as biotic and abiotic factors. Therefore, a door has been opened for their possible cultivation as they seem to require fewer expenses than other commercially cultivated plants. Moreover, the consumers demand for new products of natural origin that are sustainable and ecologically labeled have also boosted WEPs' recovery and incorporation into the market. In addition, they are considered as promising sources of essential compounds needed not only in human diet including carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids but also of other minor compounds as phenols, vitamins, or carotenoids that have shown numerous beneficial bioactivities such as antioxidants, anti-inflammatory, or anti-tumor activity. The use of these plants rich in bioactive molecules could be beneficial from the health point of view as the human body is not always capable of producing enough defenses, for instance, preventing oxidative damage. In particular, the presence of phenolic compounds in these vegetal matrices is supposed to provide a prophylactic effect against further pathogenesis and disorders related to aging or oxidative stresses. Regarding all this information based on traditional knowledge and ethnobotanical data, different WEPs found in the Northwestern region of Spain were selected, namely, Mentha suaveolens, Glechoma hederacea, Prunus spinosa, Apium nodiflorum, Artemisia absinthium, Silybum marianum, Picris hieracioides, Portulaca oleracea, Crithmum maritimum, and the genus Amaranthus. However, even though tradition and popular knowledge are excellent tools for the exploitation of these plants, it is necessary to develop regulations in this aspect to assure safety and veracity of food products. This article aims to review the main aspects of their bioactive properties, their traditional use, and the possibility of their incorporation into the market as new functional foods, looking at innovative and healthy gastronomic applications.


Assuntos
Dieta , Alimentos , Saúde , Valor Nutritivo , Plantas Comestíveis , Antioxidantes/análise , Carotenoides/análise , Humanos , Legislação sobre Alimentos , Plantas Comestíveis/química , Polifenóis/análise , Espanha , Vitaminas/análise
19.
Vopr Pitan ; 89(4): 100-109, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986325

RESUMO

The modern strategy of humanity food providing is aimed at finding the exit from the food crisis in the shortest possible time, by the end of XXI century food and feed production should increase by at least 70%. These tasks solution implies not only the use of science-oriented technologies, but also the expansion of the food base by means of novel food sources, which don't have a history of safe use. In the Russian Federation the formation of novel food's safety assessment approaches is regulated at the state level and is the most important requirement for the possibility of usage. Russian experience of the second half of the XX century in the area of novel food sources' biomedical research unites two stages. The first of them dates back to the middle of the 1960s', when the Soviet scientists, in particular, the workforce of the Institute of Nutrition of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, under the leadership of Academician A.A. Pokrovskii, have developed the evaluation approaches of the biological value and safety of microbial synthesized protein. The second stage of the safety assessment research development was the work with the genetically modified organisms of plant origin (GMO), that begun in the middle of the 1990s'. Since the moment of formation in 1995-1996, 9 methodical guidelines that regulate methods of safety assessment and control over GMO have been developed. Comprehensively formed by 2020, safety assessment system has been used in the framework of 27 GMO lines state registration that passed a whole cycle of medical and biological research and were allowed for use in nutrition of the population of the Eurasian Economic Union. Within the framework of these research a considerable amount of factual material has been accumulated, a regulatory and methodological basis has been built, and a substantial background for further fundamental and applied scientific research in the field of development and safety assessment of novel food has been created.


Assuntos
Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Alimentos Geneticamente Modificados , Legislação sobre Alimentos , Alimentos Geneticamente Modificados/história , Alimentos Geneticamente Modificados/normas , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Legislação sobre Alimentos/história , Legislação sobre Alimentos/tendências , Medição de Risco , Federação Russa
20.
Vopr Pitan ; 89(4): 125-145, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986327

RESUMO

The main results and prospects of fundamental and applied hygienic research of the laboratory of biosafety and nutrimicrobiome analysis of the Federal Research Centre of Nutrition, Biotechnology and Food Safety (hereinafter - the Institute of Nutrition) in the direction of developing a regulatory and methodological framework for assessing the microbiological safety of food are reviewed. The formation of microbiological regulation as a scientific analytical and administrative managerial process in the former USSR and the Russian Federation is considered in the context of historical data, including personal contribution of the scientists of the Institute of Nutrition and other specialists. The basic principles of regulation are emphasized: the scientific validity of the established criteria and requirements, the feasibility, technological attainability, differentiation according to the degree of danger to the health of consumers, preventive nature. The resource of the national normative and methodological base in the field of microbiological food safety at the turn of the century is characterized, the features of the introduction of the microbiological risk assessment (MRA) methodology in the substantiation of Russian norms and measures for the prevention of food infections are described. The information is given on the developed guidance documents on MRA and on the examples of norms adopted on its basis. The article covers the issues of reglamentation the requirements for food safety and reducing the spread of new pathogens Stx-Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Enterobacter sakazakii, Campylobacter spp. in the food chain based on risk-oriented approaches. The necessity of taking specific measures for the prevention of cross-contamination in the poultry processing industry is substantiated, taking into account the evidence of the high adaptability of C. jejuni isolated from domestic raw poultry. In the sanitarian-mycological aspect, the monitoring perspective of mould fungi, taking into account their chemotypes, in cereals and non-grain plant products is shown to predict the risk of mycotoxin accumulation and take timely measures. The need to assess the impact on the population, taking into account the characteristics of consumption in the country, as well as the development of criteria for indirect risk of residues are argued for regulation of the antibiotics in food. In light of the challenges in the field of agro- and food technologies to public health at the present stage, contributing to the acceleration of microbial evolution and the emergence of new risks in food, the priority tasks of improving the regulatory and methodological base for assessing microbiological safety have been identified, with an emphasis on the introduction into the process of substantiating the norms of innovative OMICs-technologies based on the achievements of genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, bioinformatics.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Legislação sobre Alimentos , Contaminação de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Microbiologia de Alimentos/história , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Microbiologia de Alimentos/tendências , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Legislação sobre Alimentos/história , Legislação sobre Alimentos/tendências , Federação Russa
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