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1.
Cogn Res Princ Implic ; 7(1): 39, 2022 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35524920

RESUMO

Holistic processing has been identified as an expertise marker of face and object recognition. By contrast, reduced holistic processing is purportedly an expertise marker in recognising orthographic characters in Chinese. Does holistic processing increase or decrease in expertise development? Is orthographic recognition a domain-specific exception to all other kinds of recognition (e.g. face and objects)? In two studies, we examined the developmental trend of holistic processing in Chinese character recognition in Chinese and non-Chinese children, and its relationship with literacy abilities: Chinese first graders-with emergent Chinese literacy acquired in kindergarten-showed increased holistic processing perhaps as an inchoate expertise marker when compared with kindergartners and non-Chinese first graders; however, the holistic processing effect was reduced in higher-grade Chinese children. These results suggest a non-monotonic inverted U-shape trend of holistic processing in visual expertise development: An increase in holistic processing due to initial reading experience followed by a decrease in holistic processing due to literacy enhancement. This result marks the development of holistic and analytic processing skills, both of which can be essential for mastering visual recognition. This study is the first to investigate the developmental trend of holistic processing in Chinese character recognition using the composite paradigm.


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Leitura , Criança , China , Humanos , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Percepção Visual
2.
Health Lit Res Pract ; 6(2): e88-e95, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35522858

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health literacy describes an individuals' ability to maximize their potential in health care, including one's ability to understand information needed to make informed health decisions. A variety of general and condition-specific health literacy assessment tools have been created to help health professionals assess patients' health literacy skills and tailor the need for health care communication or education; however, there are no such tools available for the audiology field. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to develop an objective reading recognition audiology-related health literacy assessment tool, the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Audiology (REALA). METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study (N = 200). The initial version of the REALA contained 99 words specifically related to audiology. The final version, revised to have improved clinical utility, contained a total of 48 words that were selected based on item difficulty, item discrimination score, and point-biserial index using classical item analysis. KEY RESULTS: The total pass rate for the final version of the 48-word REALA was 0.72 (standard deviation = 0.45) and the Cronbach coefficient alpha was 0.93. Once the comprehension component is added to the tool, the REALA can be a valuable health literacy assessment tool that health professionals use to evaluate patients' audiology-related health literacy. CONCLUSION: Once the comprehension component is added to the tool, the REALA can be a valuable health literacy assessment tool that health professionals use to evaluate patients' audiology-related health literacy. [HLRP: Health Literacy Research and Practice. 2022;6(2):e88-e95.] Plain Language Summary: A health literacy assessment tool, the REALA, was developed in the study. The final version of REALA contained 48 words relative to hearing healthcare. The results suggested that REALA can help health professionals assess patients' hearing related health literacy and tailor the need for hearing health care communication or education.


Assuntos
Audiologia , Letramento em Saúde , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Letramento em Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Leitura
4.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(5): e36835, 2022 05 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35576562

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wikipedia is a popular encyclopedia for health- and disease-related information in which patients seek advice and guidance on the web. Yet, Wikipedia articles can be unsuitable as patient education materials, as investigated in previous studies that analyzed specific diseases or medical topics with a comparatively small sample size. Currently, no data are available on the average readability levels of all disease-related Wikipedia pages for the different localizations of this particular encyclopedia. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to analyze disease-related Wikipedia pages written in English, German, and Russian using well-established readability metrics for each language. METHODS: Wikipedia database snapshots and Wikidata metadata were chosen as resources for data collection. Disease-related articles were retrieved separately for English, German, and Russian starting with the main concept of Human Diseases and Disorders (German: Krankheit; Russian: Заболевания человека). In the case of existence, the corresponding International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10), codes were retrieved for each article. Next, the raw texts were extracted and readability metrics were computed. RESULTS: The number of articles included in this study for English, German, and Russian Wikipedia was n=6127, n=6024, and n=3314, respectively. Most disease-related articles had a Flesch Reading Ease (FRE) score <50.00, signaling difficult or very difficult educational material (English: 5937/6125, 96.93%; German: 6004/6022, 99.7%; Russian: 2647/3313, 79.9%). In total, 70% (7/10) of the analyzed articles could be assigned an ICD-10 code with certainty (English: 4235/6127, 69.12%; German: 4625/6024, 76.78%; Russian: 2316/3314, 69.89%). For articles with ICD-10 codes, the mean FRE scores were 28.69 (SD 11.00), 20.33 (SD 9.98), and 38.54 (SD 13.51) for English, German, and Russian, respectively. A total of 9 English ICD-10 chapters (11 German and 10 Russian) showed significant differences: chapter F (FRE 23.88, SD 9.95; P<.001), chapter E (FRE 25.14, SD 9.88; P<.001), chapter H (FRE 30.04, SD 10.57; P=.049), chapter I (FRE 30.05, SD 9.07; P=.04), chapter M (FRE 31.17, 11.94; P<.001), chapter T (FRE 32.06, SD 10.51; P=.001), chapter A (FRE 32.63, SD 9.25; P<.001), chapter B (FRE 33.24, SD 9.07; P<.001), and chapter S (FRE 39.02, SD 8.22; P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: Disease-related English, German, and Russian Wikipedia articles cannot be recommended as patient education materials because a major fraction is difficult or very difficult to read. The authors of Wikipedia pages should carefully revise existing text materials for readers with a specific interest in a disease or its associated symptoms. Special attention should be given to articles on mental, behavioral, and neurodevelopmental disorders (ICD-10 chapter F) because these articles were most difficult to read in comparison with other ICD-10 chapters. Wikipedia readers should be supported by editors providing a short and easy-to-read summary for each article.


Assuntos
Compreensão , Idioma , Humanos , Leitura , Federação Russa , Redação
5.
BMJ ; 377: o1222, 2022 05 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35577386

Assuntos
Leitura , Humanos
6.
Am Ann Deaf ; 166(5): 663-680, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35431267

RESUMO

To explore the roles of character recognition, expressive vocabulary, and syntactic awareness in deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) students' reading fluency, 52 Chinese DHH students (mean age = 13.29 years) in elementary school participated in the present study. The results showed that character recognition, expressive vocabulary, and syntactic awareness significantly predicted DHH students' reading fluency after age and nonverbal reasoning ability were controlled for. Specifically, character recognition and syntactic awareness uniquely and significantly accounted for the variance in reading fluency beyond the effect of the other two predictors in children in lower grades (grades 1-3), whereas the unique effects of expressive vocabulary and syntactic awareness were significant in children in higher grades (grades 4-6). These findings suggested that these three factors are important to Chinese DHH students' reading fluency, but that their relative contributions vary across different stages in elementary school.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência Auditiva , Adolescente , Criança , China , Compreensão , Humanos , Leitura , Estudantes , Vocabulário
7.
Psicothema ; 34(2): 283-290, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35485542

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although previous studies have considered the relationship between prosody skills and the acquisition of reading skills, few have performed comprehensive, simultaneous assessments of different oral language prosody skills and, to our knowledge, none have been carried out in Spanish. Our study analyses the relationship between prosody and reading skills. METHOD: Sixty-one second-grade Spanish schoolchildren participated in this study. Prosodic skills were assessed using the Spanish version of the Profiling Elements of Prosody in Speech-Communication battery, available in different languages. Reading comprehension, word/non-word reading skills, phonological awareness and vocabulary were also evaluated. RESULTS: The results show that prosody was significantly related to word and non-word reading, but phonological awareness was the only significant predictor of these reading outcomes. Prosodic skills contribute to explaining reading comprehension even after controlling for the effect of vocabulary and phonological awareness. CONCLUSIONS: The results highlight the role of prosodic skills in reading acquisition in Spanish. Comparison with previous studies in English-language populations demonstrates the existence of cross-linguistic differences.


Assuntos
Idioma , Leitura , Criança , Humanos , Testes de Linguagem , Instituições Acadêmicas , Vocabulário
8.
BMJ Open ; 12(4): e056503, 2022 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35396295

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the impact on readers' interpretation of the results reported in an abstract for a hypothetical clinical trial with (1) a statistically significant result (SSR), (2) spin, (3) both an SSR and spin compared with (4) no spin and no SSR. PARTICIPANTS: Health students and professionals from universities and health institutions in France and the UK. INTERVENTIONS: Participants completed an online questionnaire using Likert scales and free text, after reading one of the four versions of an abstract about a hypothetical randomised trial evaluating 'Naranex' and 'Bulofil' (two hypothetical drugs) for chronic low back pain. The abstracts differed in (1) reported result of 'mean difference of 1.31 points (95% CI 0.08 to 2.54, p= 0.04)' or 'mean difference of 1.31 points (95% CI -0.08 to 2.70, p= 0.06)' and (2) presence or absence of spin. The effect size for the trial's primary outcome (pain disability score) was the same in each abstract, slightly in favour of Naranex. PRIMARY OUTCOME: The reader's interpretation of the trial's results, based on their answer (1, disagree; 4, neutral; 7, agree) to the following statement: 'About the main findings of the study, what is your opinion about the following statement: 'Naranex is better than Bulofil'?' RESULTS: Two hundred and ninety-seven of the 404 people randomised to receive one of the four abstracts completed the study. Respondents were more likely to favour Narenex when the abstract reported an SSR without spin, a statistically significant result with spin, a non-statistically significant result with spin, compared with when it reported a non-SSR without spin. CONCLUSION: Statistical significance appears to have influenced readers' perception whatever the level of spin, while spin influenced readers' perception when the results were not statistically significant but did not appear to have an impact when results were statistically significant.


Assuntos
Leitura , França , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5678, 2022 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35383208

RESUMO

Disinformation about science can impose enormous economic and public health burdens. A recently proposed strategy to help online users recognise false content is to follow the techniques of professional fact checkers, such as looking for information on other websites (lateral reading) and looking beyond the first results suggested by search engines (click restraint). In two preregistered online experiments (N = 5387), we simulated a social media environment and tested two interventions, one in the form of a pop-up meant to advise participants to follow such techniques, the other based on monetary incentives. We measured participants' ability to identify whether information was scientifically valid or invalid. Analysis of participants' search style reveals that both monetary incentives and pop-up increased the use of fact-checking strategies. Monetary incentives were overall effective in increasing accuracy, whereas the pop-up worked when the source of information was unknown. Pop-up and incentives, when used together, produced a cumulative effect on accuracy. We suggest that monetary incentives enhance content relevance, and could be combined with fact-checking techniques to counteract disinformation.


Assuntos
Motivação , Mídias Sociais , Coleta de Dados , Humanos , Leitura
10.
Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc ; 56(2): 88-93, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35416158

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the contents and readability levels of informative texts about anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) on Turkish websites. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, online searches were performed using the Google, Yandex, and Yahoo search engines on 16, 17, and 18 November 2020, respectively. In these three search engines, 'anterior cruciate ligament', 'anterior cruciate ligament surgery', 'ACL', and 'ACL surgery' were entered in Turkish. The first 10 pages from each search on the websites were collected. The websites were divided into 3 groups according to their sources. Group 1 was classified as websites prepared by private hospitals or medical centers; group 2, as individual websites of orthopedics and traumatology physicians; and group 3, as non-profit websites providing general health information that does not fall into these two groups. The websites were analyzed based on both the website interface and a specific content scoring guide by two reviewers. The Flesch Kincaid (FK) grade level and the Flesch reading ease (FRE) score were used to determine the readability of information on the websites. RESULTS: Eighty-five unique websites were evaluated. The mean quality score of all the websites was 10.4 ± 4.5 with a maximum score of 25 (range=3-21). No significant difference in quality score was found between the groups. The mean FK grade score of all the websites was 11.2 ± 1.7 (range=7.9-15.3). The mean FRE score of all the websites was 46.8 ± 7.7 (range=24.1-63.7). No statistically significant differences in FK grade and FRE score were found between the groups. Although 59 websites (69%) had a third-party seal indicating the certification of one of the organizations established to provide a standard of health information on the Internet, only 21 websites (25%) were updated in the year before the search. CONCLUSION: The readability level of the informative texts about the ACL on the Turkish websites was above the educational level in Turkey. In addition, the quality score of the Turkish websites related to ACL was low. The content of the informative texts should be organized while taking into account the patients' literacy level.


Assuntos
Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior , Informação de Saúde ao Consumidor , Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/cirurgia , Compreensão , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Internet , Leitura , Turquia
11.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266323, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35395034

RESUMO

Does reading fiction improve mental health and well-being? We present the results of five studies that evaluated the impact of five forms of exposure to fiction. These included the effects of recalling reading fiction, of being prescribed fiction, of discussing fiction relative to non-fiction, and of discussing literary fiction relative to best-seller fiction. The first three studies directly recruited participants; the final two relied on scraped social media data from Reddit and Twitter. Results show that fiction can have a positive impact on measures of mood and emotion, but that a process of mnemonic or cognitive consolidation is required first: exposure to fiction does not, on its own, have an immediate impact on well-being.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Leitura , Afeto , Emoções , Humanos , Rememoração Mental
12.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 258, 2022 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35397598

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Evaluate the efficiency of using an artificial intelligence reading label system in the diabetic retinopathy grading training of junior ophthalmology resident doctors and medical students. METHODS: Loading 520 diabetic retinopathy patients' colour fundus images into the artificial intelligence reading label system. Thirteen participants, including six junior ophthalmology residents and seven medical students, read the images randomly for eight rounds. They evaluated the grading of images and labeled the typical lesions. The sensitivity, specificity, and kappa scores were determined by comparison with the participants' results and diagnosis gold standards. RESULTS: Through eight rounds of reading, the average kappa score was elevated from 0.67 to 0.81. The average kappa score for rounds 1 to 4 was 0.77, and the average kappa score for rounds 5 to 8 was 0.81. The participants were divided into two groups. The participants in Group 1 were junior ophthalmology resident doctors, and the participants in Group 2 were medical students. The average kappa score of Group 1 was elevated from 0.71 to 0.76. The average kappa score of Group 2 was elevated from 0.63 to 0.84. CONCLUSION: The artificial intelligence reading label system is a valuable tool for training resident doctors and medical students in performing diabetic retinopathy grading.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Retinopatia Diabética , Oftalmologia , Estudantes de Medicina , Inteligência Artificial , Retinopatia Diabética/diagnóstico , Humanos , Fotografação/métodos , Leitura
13.
Brain Lang ; 229: 105104, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35397294

RESUMO

Syllable effects during visual word recognition have been observed for CV but not for CVC syllables, a puzzling effect that is not explained either by the distributional frequencies of CV and CVC syllables, syllable complexity, or syllabic neighbourhood density. Furthermore, in European Portuguese (EP), syllable effects have not been found for pseudowords, suggesting that syllable activation might not precede lexical activation. Here, we combined a colour-congruency lexical decision task with the collection of electroencephalographic (EEG) data to investigate syllable effects in EP for CV and CVC words and pseudowords, with the latter presenting a match (CVCO+P+) or a mismatch (CVCO+P-) between their orthographic (O) and phonological (P) syllable structure to further ascertain the locus (i.e., orthographic and/or phonological) of syllable effects. Results showed syllable congruency effects in the N100, P200, and N400 ERP components for CV and CVC words suggesting the influence of different factors underlying the syllable structure effect.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Portugal , Leitura
14.
Clin Neurophysiol ; 138: 84-96, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35366481

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The neurophysiological dynamics of the occurrence of a stuttering event are largely unknown. This sensor-level EEG study investigated whether already the intention to speak alters the formation of the speech production network in stuttering. METHODS: We studied alpha (8-13 Hz), low beta (15-25 Hz) and high beta (25-30 Hz) power modulation in 19 adults with developmental stuttering (AWS) and 19 fluently speaking control participants during speech intention. RESULTS: Both groups show that the anticipation of overt reading coincides with broadband low-frequency suppression in posterior sensors, a common sign of network formation for speech production. Prior to fluent speech, frontotemporal alpha and low-beta power were weaker in AWS with mild stuttering but stronger in AWS with severe stuttering. These correlations were not significant prior stuttered speech. Further, post hoc comparisons confirmed the difference between AWS with mild and severe stuttering in low beta power. CONCLUSIONS: AWS with more severe stuttering seem to show stronger maintenance of the current cognitive or sensorimotor state, as stuttering severity was associated with increased beta power. Increased beta power levels may influence subsequent speech preparation and execution processes. SIGNIFICANCE: Upcoming breakdowns of the speech production network as evident in actual stuttering are related to beta power during the intention to speak.


Assuntos
Gagueira , Adulto , Humanos , Neurofisiologia , Leitura , Fala/fisiologia , Gagueira/diagnóstico
15.
Neuropsychologia ; 170: 108231, 2022 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35378104

RESUMO

Extensive studies have reported significant activation of the cerebellum in reading and reading-related tasks. However, it has remained unclear how the cerebellum contributes to reading and how reading-related regions in the cerebrum are related to those in the cerebellum. In this review, by summarizing previous literature, we observe that multiple cerebellar areas are engaged in reading and vary in their contributions to reading. Moreover, the cerebellar reading-related areas are selectively connected with the cerebral areas with the same functional specificity. Abnormalities in the cerebro-cerebellar connection are also associated with reading impairments. We thus propose the cerebro-cerebellar mapping hypothesis, which suggests that the cerebellum might have another reading-related network rather than serving as a neural hub. This network maps to and collaborates with its functionally corresponding network in the cerebrum. This framework heightens the importance of the cerebellum to reading and provides new insights into the relationship between the cerebellum, cerebrum, and reading development.


Assuntos
Dislexia , Leitura , Mapeamento Encefálico , Cerebelo/fisiologia , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética
16.
Nature ; 604(7906): 416-419, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35444327
17.
Transl Vis Sci Technol ; 11(4): 17, 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35438720

RESUMO

Purpose: Myopes have a reduced ability to elicit transient axial eye shortening after imposed positive defocus, which may be due to changes in the biochemical signaling cascade controlling choroidal thickness. We have investigated whether reading with inverted text contrast can still elicit transient axial eye shortening in myopes, like it has been shown in emmetropes. Methods: Changes in axial length before and after reading were measured with the Lenstar LS-900. Text with inverted contrast was read from a large screen at 2 m distance (angular subtense 35.9°, screen luminance matched in all conditions to 86 ± 7 cd/m²) for 30 minutes. Moreover, we investigated the effects of letter sizes. Two text sizes were tested: "small" text (letter height 13.75 arcmin) and "large" text (letter height 34.39 arcmin). Results: Reading text with inverted contrast induced eye shortening (-10.2 ± 9.5 µm) in myopic eyes (n = 11; refraction -3.5 ± 1.9 diopters [D]), showing that an inhibitory signal was still generated by the retina as in emmetropes. In 15 subjects (refraction +1.7 to -4.2 D) we found that small text does not elicit significant differences in axial length (P = 0.09). However, with large text, changes in axial length were clearly different for the both contrast polarities (standard contrast, +1.7 ± 9.0 µm; inverted contrast, -9.7 ± 8.9 µm; P = 0.0017). Conclusions: Although positive defocus may not be an effective intervention to inhibit further eye growth in myopes, other visual stimuli can still trigger choroidal thickening and possibly generate signals to decrease myopia progression. Translational Relevance: Our results have shown the optimized text features, which may have a positive impact on myopia control.


Assuntos
Miopia , Erros de Refração , Corioide/diagnóstico por imagem , Emetropia , Humanos , Leitura
18.
PLoS Biol ; 20(4): e3001591, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35381012

RESUMO

The ability to map speech sounds to corresponding letters is critical for establishing proficient reading. People vary in this phonological processing ability, which has been hypothesized to result from variation in hemispheric asymmetries within brain regions that support language. A cerebral lateralization hypothesis predicts that more asymmetric brain structures facilitate the development of foundational reading skills like phonological processing. That is, structural asymmetries are predicted to linearly increase with ability. In contrast, a canalization hypothesis predicts that asymmetries constrain behavioral performance within a normal range. That is, structural asymmetries are predicted to quadratically relate to phonological processing, with average phonological processing occurring in people with the most asymmetric structures. These predictions were examined in relatively large samples of children (N = 424) and adults (N = 300), using a topological asymmetry analysis of T1-weighted brain images and a decoding measure of phonological processing. There was limited evidence of structural asymmetry and phonological decoding associations in classic language-related brain regions. However, and in modest support of the cerebral lateralization hypothesis, small to medium effect sizes were observed where phonological decoding accuracy increased with the magnitude of the largest structural asymmetry across left hemisphere cortical regions, but not right hemisphere cortical regions, for both the adult and pediatric samples. In support of the canalization hypothesis, small to medium effect sizes were observed where phonological decoding in the normal range was associated with increased asymmetries in specific cortical regions for both the adult and pediatric samples, which included performance monitoring and motor planning brain regions that contribute to oral and written language functions. Thus, the relevance of each hypothesis to phonological decoding may depend on the scale of brain organization.


Assuntos
Idioma , Fonética , Adulto , Encéfalo , Mapeamento Encefálico , Córtex Cerebral , Criança , Lateralidade Funcional , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Leitura
19.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(8)2022 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35458961

RESUMO

Optical linear encoders are widely used in manufacturing. They are accurate and have a relatively high resolution and good repeatability. However, there are a lot of side effects, which have an inevitable impact on the performance of an encoder. In general, the majority of these effects could be minimized by the appropriate design of an encoder's reading head. This paper discusses the working principle of and commonly occurring errors in optical linear encoders. Three different mechanical designs are developed and implemented in the experimental reading head of the linear encoder in order to evaluate how mechanical construction influences the displacement measurement accuracy and total performance of the encoder.


Assuntos
Leitura , Óptica e Fotônica
20.
Neuropsychologia ; 170: 108230, 2022 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35395249

RESUMO

An influential theory in the field of visual object recognition proposes that it is the fast magnocellular (M) system that facilitates neural processing of spatially more fine-grained information rather the slower parvocellular (P) system. While written words can be considered as a special type of visual objects, it is unknown whether magnocellular facilitation also plays a role in reading. We used a masked priming paradigm that has been shown to result in neural facilitation in visual word processing and tested whether these facilitating effects are mediated by the magnocellular system. In two experiments, we manipulated the influence of magnocellular and parvocellular systems on visual processing of a contextually predictable target character by contrasting high versus low spatial frequency and luminance versus color contrast, respectively. In addition, unchanged (normal) primes were included in both experiments as a manipulation check. As expected, unchanged primes elicited typical repetition effects in the N1, N250 and P3 components of the ERP in both experiments. In the experiment manipulating spatial contrast, we obtained repetition effects only for the N1 component for both M- and P-biased primes. In the luminance versus color contrast experiment, repetition effects were found in N1 and N250 for both M- and P- biased primes. Furthermore, no interactions were found between M-vs. P-biased prime types and repetition. Together these results indicate that M- and P- information contributes jointly to early neural processes underlying visual word recognition.


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Priming de Repetição , Potenciais Evocados , Humanos , Mascaramento Perceptivo , Tempo de Reação , Leitura , Percepção Visual
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