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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502353

RESUMO

Since laccase acts specifically in lignin, the major contributor to biomass recalcitrance, this biocatalyst represents an important alternative to the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass. Therefore, this study investigates the laccase pretreatment and climate change effects on the hydrolytic performance of Panicum maximum. Through a Trop-T-FACE system, P. maximum grew under current (Control (C)) and future climate conditions: elevated temperature (2 °C more than the ambient canopy temperature) combined with elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration(600 µmol mol-1), name as eT+eC. Pretreatment using a laccase-rich crude extract from Lentinus sajor caju was optimized through statistical strategies, resulting in an increase in the sugar yield of P. maximum biomass (up to 57%) comparing to non-treated biomass and enabling hydrolysis at higher solid loading, achieving up to 26 g L-1. These increments are related to lignin removal (up to 46%) and lignin hydrophilization catalyzed by laccase. Results from SEM, CLSM, FTIR, and GC-MS supported the laccase-catalyzed lignin removal. Moreover, laccase mitigates climate effects, and no significant differences in hydrolytic potential were found between C and eT+eC groups. This study shows that crude laccase pretreatment is a potential and sustainable method for biorefinery solutions and helped establish P. maximum as a promising energy crop.


Assuntos
Lacase/metabolismo , Lignina/química , Panicum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biomassa , Carboidratos , Mudança Climática , Hidrólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Lacase/química , Lentinula , Lignina/metabolismo , Açúcares
2.
Biomolecules ; 11(8)2021 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34439756

RESUMO

The present study aimed to demonstrate Lentinus (formerly Pleurotus) sajor-caju (PSC) as a good source of pro-health substances. It has also shown that supplementation of its culture medium with cow milk may further improve its beneficial properties. Intracellular fractions from fungi grown on a medium supplemented with cow milk were analyzed using various biochemical methods for determination of the nutrient composition. Furthermore, anti-cancer properties of selected extracts were investigated on colorectal cancer cell lines (HT-29, LS 180, and SW948) in vitro. Biochemical analysis showed enrichment in health-enhancing compounds, such as proteins or polysaccharides (about 3.5- and 4.5-fold increase in concentration of proteins and carbohydratesin extracts of mycelia cultured on whole milk (PSC2-I), respectively), with a decrease in the level of free radicals (10-fold decrease in extract grown on milk and medium mixture (1:1) (PSC3-II)), which was related to increased catalase and superoxide dismutase activity (7.5-fold increase in catalase activity and 5-fold in SOD activity in PSC3-II compared to the control). Moreover, the viability of the cancer cells was diminished (to 60.0 ± 6.8% and 40.0 ± 8.6% of the control, on HT-29 and SW948 cells, respectively), along with pro-apoptotic (to 18.8 ± 11.8 and 14.7 ± 8.0% towards LS 180 and SW948 cells, respectively) and NO-secreting effects (about 2-fold increase) of the extracts. This study suggests that PSC has multiple nutritional and anti-cancer properties and can be used as a source of healthy biomolecules in modern medicine or functional foods.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Lentinula/metabolismo , Leite/química , Pleurotus/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Apoptose , Catalase/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Células HT29 , Humanos , Necrose , Óxido Nítrico/química , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
3.
New Phytol ; 232(3): 1337-1349, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389999

RESUMO

Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are monocopper enzymes of industrial and biological importance. In particular, LPMOs play important roles in fungal lifestyle. No inhibitors of LPMOs have yet been reported. In this study, a diverse library of 100 plant extracts was screened for LPMO activity-modulating effects. By employing protein crystallography and LC-MS, we successfully identified a natural LPMO inhibitor. Extract screening revealed a significant LPMO inhibition by methanolic extract of Cinnamomum cassia (cinnamon), which inhibited LsAA9A LPMO from Lentinus similis in a concentration-dependent manner. With a notable exception, other microbial LPMOs from families AA9 and AA10 were also inhibited by this cinnamon extract. The polyphenol cinnamtannin B1 was identified as the inhibitory component by crystallography. Cinnamtannin B1 was bound to the surface of LsAA9A at two distinct binding sites: one close to the active site and another at a pocket on the opposite side of the protein. Independent characterization of cinnamon extract by LC-MS and subsequent activity measurements confirmed that the compound inhibiting LsAA9A was cinnamtannin B1. The results of this study show that specific natural LPMO inhibitors of plant origin exist in nature, providing the opportunity for future exploitation of such compounds within various biotechnological contexts.


Assuntos
Oxigenases de Função Mista , Extratos Vegetais , Proteínas Fúngicas , Lentinula , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos
4.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(18): 6779-6792, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34459954

RESUMO

Bioprospecting for innovative basidiomycete cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450s) is highly desirable due to the fungi's enormous enzymatic repertoire and outstanding ability to degrade lignin and detoxify various xenobiotics. While fungal metagenomics is progressing rapidly, the biocatalytic potential of the majority of these annotated P450 sequences usually remains concealed, although functional profiling identified several P450 families with versatile substrate scopes towards various natural products. Functional knowledge about the CYP5035 family, for example, is largely insufficient. In this study, the families of the putative P450 sequences of the four white-rot fungi Polyporus arcularius, Polyporus brumalis, Polyporus squamosus and Lentinus tigrinus were assigned, and the CYPomes revealed an unusual enrichment of CYP5035, CYP5136 and CYP5150. By computational analysis of the phylogeny of the former two P450 families, the evolution of their enrichment could be traced back to the Ganoderma macrofungus, indicating their evolutionary benefit. In order to address the knowledge gap on CYP5035 functionality, a representative subgroup of this P450 family of P. arcularius was expressed and screened against a test set of substrates. Thereby, the multifunctional enzyme CYP5035S7 converting several plant natural product classes was discovered. Aligning CYP5035S7 to 102,000 putative P450 sequences of 36 fungal species from Joint Genome Institute-provided genomes located hundreds of further CYP5035 family members, which subfamilies were classified if possible. Exemplified by these specific enzyme analyses, this study gives valuable hints for future bioprospecting of such xenobiotic-detoxifying P450s and for the identification of their biocatalytic potential. KEY POINTS: • The P450 families CYP5035 and CYP5136 are unusually enriched in P. arcularius. • Functional screening shows CYP5035 assisting in the fungal detoxification mechanism. • Some Polyporales encompass an unusually large repertoire of detoxification P450s.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Polyporales , Basidiomycota/genética , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Evolução Molecular , Genoma Fúngico , Lentinula , Filogenia , Polyporales/genética , Polyporus
5.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 23(7): 51-61, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375518

RESUMO

This study aimed to compare the bioactivities of Lentinus polychrous polysaccharide extracts with Ganoderma lucidum. Three hot water-extracted polysaccharide fractions of L. polychrous (LPE), including immature fruiting bodies (im-LPE), mature fruiting bodies (ma-LPE), and mycelium (my-LPE), were analyzed for their phytochemical contents and bioactivities (e.g., anticancer, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory effects) compared with G. lucidum extract (GLE). Although GLE had the highest total phenolic and protein contents and lower carbohydrate content than LPE, im-LPE showed strong inhibition on HepG2 cell proliferation as did GLE. GLE and LPE showed antiviral effects on herpes simplex virus-1 and the relative antiproliferative activity was from im-LPE > my-LPE > ma-LPE. However, im-LPE showed the best protective activity on the viral attachment step with some virucidal effects. Moreover, all LPE showed selective and stronger inhibitory effects on LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophages than those of GLE on genetic expression. Considering the 50% inhibitory concentration values, my-LPE possessed the strongest inhibitory activity on the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase. However, ma-LPE had the strongest inhibitory effects on interleukin-1ß and tumor necrosis factor-α gene expression. The extracts increased splenocyte proliferation under mycohaemagglutinin induction with a relative order of my-LPE > GLE > ma-LPE = im-LPE. In conclusion, LPE showed positive effects and stronger activity than G. lucidum. L. polychrous may have potential for use as an ingredient in functional foods.


Assuntos
Lentinula , Reishi , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 9845, 2021 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33972587

RESUMO

The basidiomycete fungus Lentinula novae-zelandiae is endemic to New Zealand and is a sister taxon to Lentinula edodes, the second most cultivated mushroom in the world. To explore the biology of this organism, a high-quality chromosome level reference genome of L. novae-zelandiae was produced. Macrosyntenic comparisons between the genome assembly of L. novae-zelandiae, L. edodes and a set of three genome assemblies of diverse species from the Agaricomycota reveal a high degree of macrosyntenic restructuring within L. edodes consistent with signal of domestication. These results show L. edodes has undergone significant genomic change during the course of its evolutionary history, likely a result of its cultivation and domestication over the last 1000 years.


Assuntos
Domesticação , Genoma Fúngico , Lentinula/genética , Cogumelos Shiitake/genética , Sintenia , DNA Fúngico/isolamento & purificação , Genômica , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Análise de Sequência de DNA
7.
J Proteomics ; 242: 104255, 2021 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33957313

RESUMO

Hepatic steatosis is a very common response to liver injury and often attributed to metabolic disorders. Prior studies have demonstrated the efficacy of a biotechnologically produced oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sajor-caju, PSC) in alleviating hepatic steatosis in obese Zucker rats. This study aims to elucidate molecular events underlying the anti-steatotic effects of PSC. Tandem mass tag (TMT) peptide labeling coupled with LC-MS/MS/MS was used to quantify and compare proteins in the livers of lean Zucker rats fed a control diet (LC), obese Zucker rats fed the same control diet (OC) and obese Zucker rats fed the control diet supplemented with 5% PSC (OPSC) for 4 weeks. Using this technique 3128 proteins could be quantified, out of which 108 were differentially abundant between the OPSC and OC group. Functional enrichment analysis of the up-regulated proteins showed that these proteins were mainly involved in metabolic processes, while the down-regulated proteins were involved in inflammatory processes. Results from proteomic analysis were successfully validated for two up-regulated (carbonic anhydrase 3, regucalcin) and two down-regulated (cadherin-17, ceruloplasmin) proteins by means of immunoblotting. SIGNIFICANCE: Valorization of low-grade agricultural waste by edible fungi, such as the mushroom Pleurotus sajor-caju (PSC), represents a promising strategy for the production of protein rich biomass since they boast of a unique enzyme system that has the ability to recover nutrients and energy from biodegradable waste. Herein, we describe the metabolic effects of PSC feeding using a combined quantitative proteomics and bioinformatics approach. In total, 108 proteins were identified to be regulated by PSC feeding in the liver of the obese rats. Complementary usage of a bioinformatics approach allowed us to decipher the mechanisms underlying the recently observed lipid-lowering and anti-inflammatory activity of PSC feeding in obese Zucker rats, namely a reduction of fatty acid synthesis, an improvement of hepatoprotective mechanisms and an enhancement of anti-inflammatory effects.


Assuntos
Pleurotus , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida , Lentinula , Fígado , Obesidade , Proteômica , Ratos , Ratos Zucker , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
8.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 23(4): 13-22, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822504

RESUMO

Osteoporosis is an important public health challenge. Several medicinal mushrooms are able to improve bone stability by influencing different steps of bone formation, mineralization, or resorption. In nearly all investigations, the effects have been shown in vitro or in animal assays and only very few in clinical studies. Positive results exist for medicinal mushrooms of the genera Cordyceps/Ophiocordyceps, Ganoderma, Grifola, Lentinula, Phellinus, Pleurotus, Taiwanofungus, Trametes, and Wolfiporia. The results for Hericium are not consistent. This article critically reviews these investigations and describes challenges for the future.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Basidiomycota , Osso e Ossos/fisiologia , Osteoporose/terapia , Animais , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Cordyceps , Grifola , Lentinula , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Osteoporose/prevenção & controle , Trametes
9.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 23(4): 39-45, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822506

RESUMO

Lentinus squarrosulus is a mushroom widely used in Gabon for its culinary and medicinal properties. The bioactive potential of mushrooms might be attributable to the presence of several pharmaceutically important mycocompounds that need to be ascertained scientifically. A study of the therapeutic potential of L. squarrosulus, the species of lignicolous fungus exploited in Gabon, was carried out on the basis of a chemical screening performed on three extracts in order to highlight different important chemical groups. This chemical screening was followed by a study of the fungus's antioxidant activity and prediction of its additional pharmacological activities. Chemical screening revealed that three extracts (aqueous, hydroethanolic, and ethanolic) of L. squarrosulus were almost free of tannins and were poor in total flavonoids and moderately rich in reducing sugars. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts were rich in total polyphenols, whereas aqueous and hydroethanolic extracts were rich in alkaloids. The aqueous extract was rich in saponosides and the hydroethanolic extract was rich in coumarins. The dosage of phenolic compounds confirmed the fungus's richness in total polyphenols, especially for aqueous and ethanolic extracts, its poverty in flavonoids and absence of tannins in ethanolic and hydroethanolic extracts. Regarding antioxidant activities, the results obtained for diphenyl picryl hydrazyl trapping tests showed that the different extracts tested had antioxidant activity ranging from low to moderate (0.12 ≤ antioxidant activity index [IAA] ≤ 0.6); the greatest activity was obtained with ethanolic extract (IAA = 0.6). Hence, we conclude that L. squarrosulus extracts can be used as easily accessible sources of natural antioxidants for potential preventative therapies.


Assuntos
Lentinula/química , Alcaloides/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Gabão , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Polifenóis/isolamento & purificação , Proantocianidinas/isolamento & purificação , Taninos/isolamento & purificação
10.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 37(4): 69, 2021 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33748875

RESUMO

Two edible mushrooms Calocybe indica and Pleurotus sajor-caju were chosen as parent strains in this study to approach the concept of hybridization through the protoplast fusion technique. Protoplast fusion in presence of polyethylene glycol (PEG) was conducted between the parent strains and by further double selection screening method, six somatic hybrid lines were developed. Those fruit bodies of the hybrid lines showed phenotypic resemblance with Pleurotus sajor-caju when grown on paddy straw under favorable conditions. The hybridity of the newly developed somatic hybrid strains was established by barrage reaction, morphological traits, fruitbody parameter and, inter single sequence repeat (ISSR) profiling. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for the analysis of phenotypic data of hybrid lines and parents. Five ISSR primers were used to generate 51 amplified DNA fragments ranged between 250 and 3000 bp in size in six hybrids and two parents with 90.19% polymorphism. Some of the hybrids contain some non-parental bands which indicate that recombination might happen in the hybrid genome hence confirming the hybridity of newly developed strains. The dendrogram was created using the Average Linkage (Between Groups) method based on ISSR profiling and genetic distance between parent-hybrids and hybrid-hybrid was analyzed by Jaccard's proximity matrix. A definite improvement in nutritional properties and biological activity was observed in the study. Due to ease in their cultivation, it can play a significant role in the rural economic development.


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Agaricales/genética , Hibridização Genética , Pleurotus/genética , Protoplastos , Agaricales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biomassa , Análise de Alimentos , Lentinula/genética , Fenótipo , Pleurotus/química , Pleurotus/crescimento & desenvolvimento
11.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(1): e20191153, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787685

RESUMO

Bisphenol A is an endocrine interfering compound, produced and used on a large scale worldwide. Chemical and biologic methods can be used to remove it from the environment. Biological methods are considered less costly, safer and, according to green chemistry definitions, an environmentally correct method. Considering the use of a crude enzyme broth, without any downstream process, the costs could be mostly reduced. Thus, the removal of bisphenol A by Pleurotus sajor-caju crude enzyme broth was investigated. Initially, the agro-industrial wastes were characterized and, the composition of the culture medium and the bioreactor culture conditions were defined. The enzyme produced in the highest concentration was characterized and the crude broth used in the bisphenol A removal assays. The OXI45 culture medium presented the highest laccase activity (1,850.7 U L-1, 350 rpm). Greater laccase stability was observed at 20 - 40 oC and pHs 5 - 7. Vanillin and ferulic acid (considered mediator compounds) were identified in the crude broth, probably helping on the obtention of the high value of removal effectiveness (0.052 mg U-1 h-1). The results indicate the potential use of the Pleurotus sajor-caju crude enzyme broth to obtain an enzymatic formulation for application in the environmental area.


Assuntos
Pleurotus , Compostos Benzidrílicos , Lacase , Lentinula , Fenóis
12.
Mol Biol Rep ; 48(1): 41-55, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33454908

RESUMO

Mosquito-transmitted diseases like zika, dengue, chikungunya, and yellow fever are known to affect human health worldwide. Numerous synthetic insecticides have been used as vector control for these diseases, but there is the challenge of environmental toxicity and vector resistance. This study investigated the medicinal and insecticidal potential of Lentinus squarrosulus against Aedes aegypti. The fruiting bodies were identified morphologically as well as using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences for its molecular characterization. Genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) yield was confirmed with NanoDrop Spectrophotometer ND-1000 and amplified with ITSl and ITS4 primers. The amplicons were sequenced and the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database identified the nucleotides. Its ethanol extract was subjected to phytochemical screening and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis and tested against the pupa and fourth instar larva of Aedes aegypti with percentage mortality monitored. The Macrofungus was identified morphologically and confirmed with molecular characterization as Lentinus squarrosulus (LS). The gene sequence was deposited in GenBank (Accession number MK629662.1). GC-MS analysis showed that its ethanol extract has 25 bioactive compounds with 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid, ethyl ester having the highest percentage of 43.32% as well as methyl-2-oxo-1-pyrrolidine acetate and 17-octadecynoic acid having the lowest percentage (0.09%). The macrofungus contained varied concentrations of phytochemicals including phenols (159 mg/g GAE), tannins (1.6 mg/g TAE), and flavonoids (31.4 mg/g QE). The ethanol extract had significant potent effects on Aedes aegypti larva and pupa which could be due to the occurrence and abundance of 9,12-octadecadienoic acid in LS. The LC50 of the extract for larvicidal and pupicidal activities were 2.95 mg/mL and 3.55 mg/mL, respectively, while its LC90 were 6.31 mg/mL and 5.75 mg/mL respectively. Lentinus squarrosulus had insecticidal effects against the Aedes aegypti larva and pupa and possessed great potential as a source of alternative medicine and eco-friendly insecticides.


Assuntos
Aedes/efeitos dos fármacos , Lentinula/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Viroses/prevenção & controle , Aedes/patogenicidade , Animais , Etanol/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Inseticidas/química , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/patogenicidade , Mosquitos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Mosquitos Vetores/patogenicidade , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Viroses/epidemiologia
13.
J Food Biochem ; 45(3): e13490, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33043511

RESUMO

Pleurotus ostreatus (P. ostreatus) and Lentinus subnudus (L. subnudus) commonly consumed as food or as food supplement have been reported in folklore for their antihypertensive property with limited scientific proof. This study aims to unravel the antihypertensive mechanism of P. ostreatus and L. subnudus in vitro. The antioxidant properties of P. ostreatus and L. subnudus were established via standard antioxidant assays. Also, the effect of P. ostreatus and L. subnudus extracts on relevant enzymes associated to the development of hypertension were evaluated. Findings from this study revealed that P. ostreatus and L. subnudus extracts exhibited antihypertensive and antioxidant properties. Meanwhile, according to our results, various bioactive compounds present in P. ostreatus and L. subnudus could be responsible for the observed in vitro antihypertensive property. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: P. ostreatus and L. subnudus are the most commonly consumed mushrooms by the rural dwellers in South Western Nigeria, perhaps, based on their nutritive value and health-enhancing benefits. This paper showed that P. ostreatus and L. subnudus possess antihypertensive and antioxidant properties. Thus, their consumption as foods or food supplements may provide therapeutic benefits for hypertensive patients. Therefore, P. ostreatus and L. subnudus are promising candidates for the development of nutraceuticals.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos , Lentinula , Pleurotus , Adenosina Desaminase , Angiotensinas , Arginase , Proteínas Sanguíneas , Colinérgicos , Humanos , Nigéria , Peptidil Dipeptidase A
14.
J Diet Suppl ; 18(4): 372-386, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32496927

RESUMO

Pleurotus ostreatus (P. ostreatus) and Lentinus subnudus (L. subnudus) have been used by the locals for the management of Alzheimer's disease (AD) but with scant scientific sources. The aim of this study is to assess the neuroprotective properties of P. ostreatus and L. subnudus using transgenic Drosophila melanogaster flies (TDMF). The activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), as well as the antioxidant status of TDMF raised on a diet supplemented with P. ostreatus and L. subnudus were determined. The flies were raised on a diet devoid of supplements or supplemented with P. ostreatus or L. subnudus (1% and 5% inclusion) for 7 days. Afterward, AChE and BChE activities, as well as catalase and total thiol level, were determined. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were also determined in the flies raised on a diet devoid of supplement and on supplemented diets. Meanwhile, flies raised on P. ostreatus- and L. subnudus-supplemented diets exhibited a significant reduction in the activity of AChE and BChE in comparison with the controls. Also, supplemented diets significantly (p < 0.05) enhance catalase activity and improve total thiol level, while ROS and MDA levels were observed to be reduced in all the flies raised on the supplemented diets in comparison with the controls. In summary, reduction in the activity of AChE and BChE, as well as improved antioxidant status in TDMF, could be some of the mechanisms through which P. ostreatus and L. subnudus exhibit anti-AD properties. Nevertheless, L. subnudus exhibits a better neuroprotective effect than P. ostreatus.


Assuntos
Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Butirilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Dieta , Drosophila melanogaster/enzimologia , Lentinula , Pleurotus , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia
15.
Pak J Biol Sci ; 23(12): 1551-1562, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33274887

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Raising growing rabbits is an ideal solution to confront animal protein deficiency, especially in developing countries. The presence of lignin in wheat straw causes limitation of the digestion overall process. The biological delignification is a practical and promising alternative due to improving the digestibility of wheat straw. This study aimed to enhance wheat straw digestibility and enriching it with protein and use it as a growing rabbit feedstuff. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Enzymes production of white-rot fungi was assayed in myco-straw and the mean value was recorded. Wheat straw has been treated with the three most effective fungal species with Biological Treated Wheat Straw (BTWS). After that, the myco-straw was grounded and included in diet to evaluate the growth performance, digestibility and blood parameters of a growing V-line rabbit. RESULTS: The best three species for enzyme productions were P. sajor-caju, P. columbinus and P. floridanus. The optimum incubation period was 16 days. The fungal treatments showed significant enzymes activity of laccase, Mn-peroxidase, cellulase and xylanase. Body weight, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio of growing V-line rabbits had improved than those of the control. But, nutrients digestibility of the diet containing BTWS and Carcass traits of growing V-line rabbits were non-significant compared with the control one. In comparison with control, the lipid profile had no differences but the total protein was improved. CONCLUSION: White-rot fungal conversion of wheat straw is maybe one potential alternative providing a more practical, environmental-friendly and nutritionally enhancing as rabbits feedstuff. Rabbits fed BTWS-diets had significantly improved growth performance.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/microbiologia , Digestão , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Lentinula/enzimologia , Lignina/metabolismo , Triticum/microbiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Fermentação , Estado Nutricional , Valor Nutritivo , Pleurotus , Coelhos , Triticum/metabolismo , Ganho de Peso
16.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(6): 2238-2246, 01-11-2020. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1148295

RESUMO

Lentinus crinitus is a medicinal basidiomycete, little studied regarding the basic cultivation conditions, which is used in bioremediation and consumed by native Indians from the Brazilian Amazon. Also, it produces a fungal secondary metabolite panepoxydone that has been described as an essential regulator of the inflammatory and immune response. This study aimed to evaluate basic conditions of temperature, pH, and nitrogen concentration and source in the cultivation of L. crinitus mycelial biomass. In order to evaluate fungal growth temperature, 2% malt extract agar (MEA) medium, pH 5.5, was utilized from 19 to 40 °C. For pH, MEA had pH adjusted from 2 to 11 and cultivated at 28 °C. Urea or soybean meal was added to MEA to obtain final concentration from 0.5 and 16 g/L of nitrogen, pH of 5.5, cultivated at 28 °C. The best temperature growth varies from 31 to 34 ºC and the optimal one is 32.7º C, and the best pH ranges from 4.5 to 6.5 and the optimal one is 6.1. Protein or non-protein nitrogen concentration is inversely proportional to the mycelial biomass growth. Nitrogen concentrations of 2.0 g/L soybean meal and urea inhibit mycelial biomass growth in 11% and 12%, respectively, but high concentrations of 16.0 g/L nitrogen inhibit the growth in 46% and 95%, respectively. The fungus is robust and grows under extreme conditions of temperature and pH, but smaller adaptation with increasing nitrogen concentrations in the cultivation medium, mainly non-protein nitrogen.


Lentinus crinitus é um basidiomiceto medicinal consumido por índios nativos da Amazônia brasileira. Este fungo tem sido estudado quanto ao potencial de biorremediação de metais, mas ainda carece de estudos sobre às condições básicas de crescimento. L. crinitus produz panepoxidona - um metabólito secundário fúngico - descrito como regulador da resposta inflamatória e imune em células animais. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar as condições básicas de temperatura, pH e concentração e fonte de nitrogênio para o crescimento micelial de L. crinitus. O fungo foi crescido em meio agar extrato de malte a 2% (MEA), pH 5,5 e mantido entre 19 e 40 °C. Para a avaliação de pH o MEA teve o pH ajustado de 2 a 11 e o crescimento foi realizado a 28 °C. As fontes de nitrogênio estudadas foram a uréia e o farelo de soja adicionado ao MEA para obter entre 0,5 a 16 g/L de nitrogênio, pH de 5,5, cultivado a 28 ° C. A melhor faixa temperatura para o crescimento micelial foi de 31 a 34 ºC com ótimo a 32,7 º C; a melhor faixa de pH de 4,5 a 6,5 e com ótimo de 6,1. A concentração de nitrogênio proteico ou não proteico é inversamente proporcional ao crescimento do fungo. Concentrações de nitrogênio de 2,0 g/L reduzem o crescimento da biomassa micelial em 11% e 12%, respectivamente e meios com nitrogênio de 16,0 g/L reduzem o crescimento em 46% e 95%, respectivamente. O fungo é robusto e cresce sob condições extremas de temperatura e pH, mas menor adaptação em meios com alta concentração de nitrogênio, principalmente não proteico.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Lentinula , Cultura Axênica , Micelas , Ureia
17.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; 64(22): e2000591, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997875

RESUMO

SCOPE: Sustainable protein sources are needed to meet the increasing protein demands of a continuously growing world population. This study is focused on the biotechnological production of a protein rich oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sajor-caju; PSC) by valorization of an agricultural side stream and the evaluation of the physiological effects of PSC in a rat model of metabolic syndrome. METHODS AND RESULTS: PSC is produced via submerged cultivation in a 150 L bioreactor that utilizes isomaltulose molasses as its sole carbon source, and is further analyzed for its nutritional composition. A feeding trial is performed using Zucker rats which are fed a 5% PSC supplemented diet, for 4 weeks. Biochemical analyses reveal a significant reduction of the liver lipid concentrations and liver inflammation in the PSC fed obese rats in comparison to the obese rats from the control group. Hepatic qPCR analyses, differential transcript profiling, and enzyme activity measurements reveal a number of altered pathways that may be responsible for these anti-steatotic and anti-inflammatory effects of the mushroom. CONCLUSION: Bioconversion of a low quality agricultural side stream to an improved protein source is performed by submerged cultured PSC, and the obtained mycelium shows strong anti-steatotic and anti-inflammatory effects.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia/métodos , Lentinula , Valor Nutritivo , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Pleurotus/química , Animais , Citocinas/sangue , Suplementos Nutricionais , Expressão Gênica , Hiperlipidemias/dietoterapia , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/genética , Lentinula/química , Lentinula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/dietoterapia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Ratos Zucker
18.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 164: 3133-3144, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32860792

RESUMO

This work deals with the submerged cultivation, extraction and antitumor activity of polysaccharides from Lentinus crinitus. The fungus was isolated from a tropical forest (Antioquia, Colombia), cultivated in laboratory conditions, and classified by classical and molecular taxonomy. Then, it was cultivated in a bioreactor of 5 L using a ligninolytic residue as substrate. The fermentation conditions were 30 ±â€¯1 °C, pH 4.5, 300 rpm and 1.5 vvm for 4 days. The yields of fermentation were 20 g/L of biomass. After extraction, 0.65 g/L of water-soluble exopolysaccharide (LEPS) and 3.3 mg/100 g of water-soluble intrapolysaccharide (LIPS) were obtained. In each extract total carbohydrate, glucans and protein contents were determined. Also, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), high performance liquid chromatography with refraction index detection (HPLC-RI) and high performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC) analysis for characterization were performed. The antitumor activity was evaluated and polysaccharides not only showed anti-proliferative activity in breast cancer cells but also they activate J774 macrophages as evidenced by the increase of nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor-α (inducers of tumor cell apoptosis). Our findings suggest that polysaccharides can activate macrophages to release nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), which directly blocks cancer cell growth. These findings enhance our knowledge about new sources of fungal metabolites that serve as coadjuvant, cheap and less harmful alternatives to cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/farmacologia , Lentinula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Fermentação , Humanos , Lentinula/química , Células MCF-7 , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
19.
Biochemistry ; 59(36): 3347-3358, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32818374

RESUMO

Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are copper-dependent enzymes that cleave polysaccharide substrates oxidatively. First discovered because of their action on recalcitrant crystalline substrates (chitin and cellulose), a number of LPMOs are now reported to act on soluble substrates, including oligosaccharides. However, crystallographic complexes with oligosaccharides have been reported for only a single LPMO so far, an enzyme from the basidiomycete fungus Lentinus similis (LsAA9_A). Here we present a more detailed comparative study of LsAA9_A and an LPMO from the ascomycete fungus Collariella virescens (CvAA9_A) with which it shares 41.5% sequence identity. LsAA9_A is considerably more thermostable than CvAA9_A, and the structural basis for the difference has been investigated. We have compared the patterns of oligosaccharide cleavage and the patterns of binding in several new crystal structures explaining the basis for the product preferences of the two enzymes. Obtaining structural information about complexes of LPMOs with carbohydrates has proven to be very difficult in general judging from the structures reported in the literature thus far, and this can be attributed only partly to the low affinity for small substrates. We have thus evaluated the use of differential scanning fluorimetry as a guide to obtaining complex structures. Furthermore, an analysis of crystal packing of LPMOs and glycoside hydrolases corroborates the hypothesis that active site occlusion is a very significant problem for LPMO-substrate interaction analysis by crystallography, due to their relatively flat and extended substrate binding sites.


Assuntos
Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Lentinula/enzimologia , Oxigenases de Função Mista/química , Oxigenases de Função Mista/metabolismo , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Sordariales/enzimologia , Temperatura , Sítios de Ligação , Domínio Catalítico , Cristalização , Cristalografia por Raios X , Estabilidade Enzimática , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Oxirredução , Conformação Proteica , Especificidade por Substrato
20.
Molecules ; 25(13)2020 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645899

RESUMO

Herbal medicines are widely used worldwide and much appreciated because of their fewer side effects and the ability to fight diseases at the root cause. Active 'phyto' ingredients require a scientific approach and a mechanism to distribute components at the target site for better therapeutic results. Nanotechnology, on the other hand, has created new hope for cancer treatment but is still far from being proven in clinical settings. This article combines a unique approach to synthesis with the use of Pleurotus sajor-caju, followed by microwave irritation of silver and gold nanoparticles that ensures the capping of the active phyto ingredient and further enhances the effects of nanomedicine to fight colon cancer, thus opening a new era of what we call herbonanoceutics. The article also compares the characteristics and properties of silver (Au) and gold (Ag) nanoparticles synthesized by an in house developed novel microwave-assisted rapid green synthesis method. The as-prepared Ag NPs and Au NPs were compared using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Our comparative study revealed that both assemblies display face-centred cubic structures (FCCs) and are nanocrystalline in nature. The advantage of the approach was that the sizes of gold and silver were identical in range with a similar distribution pattern. This has helped us to study the activity against colon cancer cell line (HCT-116) without incoherence since size plays a key role in the application. More specifically, morphological changes, cell viability, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the fragmentation of DNA have been further reported to assess better the results obtained with the two metals. Our results suggest that the newly adopted synthesis method may ensure the dual benefits from phyto ingredients which further enhances the effectiveness of advanced nanomedicine.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Ouro , Lentinula/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Prata , Neoplasias do Colo/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Ouro/química , Ouro/farmacologia , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/uso terapêutico , Micro-Ondas , Prata/química , Prata/farmacologia
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