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1.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34696484

RESUMO

Small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) are economically important viral pathogens of sheep and goats. SRLV infection may interfere in the innate and adaptive immunity of the host, and genes associated with resistance or susceptibility to infection with SRLV have not been fully recognized. The presence of animals with relatively high and low proviral load suggests that some host factors are involved in the control of virus replication. To better understand the role of the genes involved in the host response to SRLV infection, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) method was used to compare whole gene expression profiles in goats carrying both a high (HPL) and low (LPL) proviral load of SRLV and uninfected animals. Data enabled the identification of 1130 significant differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between control and LPL groups: 411 between control and HPL groups and 1434 DEGs between HPL and LPL groups. DEGs detected between the control group and groups with a proviral load were found to be significantly enriched in several gene ontology (GO) terms, including an integral component of membrane, extracellular region, response to growth factor, inflammatory and innate immune response, transmembrane signaling receptor activity, myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88)-dependent toll-like receptor signaling pathway as well as regulation of cytokine secretion. Our results also demonstrated significant deregulation of selected pathways in response to viral infection. The presence of SRLV proviral load in blood resulted in the modification of gene expression belonging to the toll-like receptor signaling pathway, the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) signaling pathway, the cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, the phagosome, the Ras signaling pathway, the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT) (PI3K-Akt) signaling pathway and rheumatoid arthritis. It is worth mentioning that the most predominant in all pathways were genes represented by toll-like receptors, tubulins, growth factors as well as interferon gamma receptors. DEGs detected between LPL and HPL groups were found to have significantly enriched regulation of signaling receptor activity, the response to toxic substances, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) dehydrogenase complex assembly, cytokine production, vesicle, and vacuole organization. In turn, the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway tool classified DEGs that enrich molecular processes such as B and T-cell receptor signaling pathways, natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity, Fc gamma R-mediated phagocytosis, toll-like receptor signaling pathways, TNF, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling and forkhead box O (Foxo) signaling pathways, etc. Our data indicate that changes in SRLV proviral load induced altered expression of genes related to different biological processes such as immune response, inflammation, cell locomotion, and cytokine production. These findings provide significant insights into defense mechanisms against SRLV infection. Furthermore, these data can be useful to develop strategies against SRLV infection by selection of animals with reduced SRLV proviral concentration that may lead to a reduction in the spread of the virus.


Assuntos
Vírus da Artrite-Encefalite Caprina/genética , Cabras/virologia , Vírus Visna-Maedi/genética , Imunidade Adaptativa/genética , Animais , Expressão Gênica/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Doenças das Cabras/virologia , Cabras/genética , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/genética , Imunidade Inata/genética , Infecções por Lentivirus/veterinária , Lentivirus Ovinos-Caprinos/genética , Provírus/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Transcriptoma/genética , Carga Viral/métodos , Replicação Viral
2.
Pol J Vet Sci ; 24(2): 313-317, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34250784

RESUMO

Small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV), which causes caprine arthritis encephalitis in goats and ovine progressive pneumonia (maedi-visna disease) in sheep, is classified in genus Lentiviruses belonging to Retroviridae family. It persists in infected goats and sheep, which mostly are sub- clinical. A serological survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of small ruminant lentivirus infection in Thai goat population. Serum samples were taken from 1,925 goats distributed throughout the country, then they were tested for the presence of SRLV antibodies using commercial indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test kits. Results revealed that a total of 68 goats were found seropositive, representing the apparent prevalence and true prevalence of 3.57% and 2.60%, respectively. The seroprevalence, revealed in this study, was lower than in the previous reports. The decreasing of seroprevalence might be caused by successful control strategies from Department of Livestock Development (DLD).


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras/virologia , Infecções por Lentivirus/veterinária , Lentivirus Ovinos-Caprinos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Cabras , Infecções por Lentivirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Lentivirus/virologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Tailândia/epidemiologia
3.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 37(1): 199-208, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541699

RESUMO

Small ruminant lentiviruses (SLRVs) have been recognized throughout the world for decades. SLRVs are a heterogenous group of viruses that can infect sheep, goats, and wild ruminants. Evidence supports cross-species infection. These viruses cause lifelong infections where they target specific organs, which can result in production losses due to diminished milk production, consequential increases in neonatal death and diminished growth, and premature culling of prime age animals. No vaccine or treatments have proved effective. Control programs rely on an understanding of viral transmission and application of highly sensitive, specific, and frequent testing regimens.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras/virologia , Infecções por Lentivirus/veterinária , Lentivirus Ovinos-Caprinos/fisiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/virologia , Animais , Cabras , Infecções por Lentivirus/virologia , Lentivirus Ovinos-Caprinos/patogenicidade , Ruminantes , Ovinos
4.
Prev Vet Med ; 165: 71-75, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30851930

RESUMO

A longitudinal study was conducted in a single dairy goat herd to investigate the relationship between subclinical small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) infection in does and litter size (LS) or birth body weight of kids (BW). Each year kids born to seropositive and seronegative does were weighed before the first consumption of colostrum. LS and BW of each kid were recorded. BW was significantly negatively linked to LS (p = 0.006) - singletons weighed (mean ± SD) 4.20 ± 0.67 kg, twins - 3.75 ± 0.62 kg, and triplets and quadruplets - 3.38 ± 0.47 kg. Male kids were significantly heavier than female kids in twin litters (3.97 ± 0.53 kg vs. 3.52 ± 0.60 kg; p < 0.001) and triplet or quadruplet litters (3.62 ± 0.40 kg vs. 3.17 ± 0.43 kg; p < 0.001). However, BW of male and female kids from singleton litters did not differ (4.31 ± 0.71 kg vs. 4.07 ± 0.65 kg; p = 0.154). Then, two mixed models were developed to assess the relationship between LS (mixed Poisson log linear regression model) or BW (mixed linear model) and SRLV infection in the doe, controlling for potential confounders such as the effect of an individual doe, year in which the parturition took place, parity and kid's sex. Neither LS nor BW proved to be significantly associated with SRLV infection (p = 0.788 and p = 0.214, respectively). On this basis it was concluded that LS and BW were not affected by the subclinical SRLV infection of a doe.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras/virologia , Infecções por Lentivirus/veterinária , Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/veterinária , Animais , Infecções Assintomáticas , Peso ao Nascer , Feminino , Cabras/fisiologia , Cabras/virologia , Infecções por Lentivirus/complicações , Lentivirus Ovinos-Caprinos , Masculino , Paridade , Gravidez
5.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 86: e0752018, 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1046025

RESUMO

Infections by small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs) affect goats and sheep causing chronic multisystemic diseases that generate great economic losses. The caprine lentivirus (CLV) and the ovine lentivirus (OLV) present tropism for cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage, which are directly associated with the main route of transmission through the ingestion of milk and colostrum from infected animals. In this manner, controlling this route is of paramount importance. Currently, researches have investigated the use of chemical additives in milk that can preserve colostrum or milk and inactivate microbiological agents. Among the compounds, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) has been shown to be satisfactory in the chemical inactivation of HIV and CLV in milk, and also as a biocide in goat colostrum.(AU)


As lentiviroses de pequenos ruminantes (LVPRs) são infecções que afetam caprinos e ovinos, causando doenças multissistêmicas crônicas, ocasionando grandes perdas econômicas. Os agentes causadores, lentivírus caprino (LVC) e o lentivírus ovino (LVO), apresentam tropismo por células da linhagem monocítico--fagocitária, as quais estão diretamente associadas à principal via de transmissão, por meio da ingestão de leite e colostro provindos de animais infectados. Desse modo, o controle por esta via é de suma importância. Atualmente, pesquisas vêm sendo desenvolvidas para o uso de aditivos químicos no leite, que possam conservar o colostro ou leite, e inativar agentes microbiológicos presentes. Dentre estes, o dodecil sulfato de sódio (SDS) vem apresentando resultados satisfatórios na inativação química do HIV e LVC em leite, e ainda como biocida em colostro caprino.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Dodecilsulfato de Sódio/farmacologia , Ruminantes/virologia , Infecções por Lentivirus/tratamento farmacológico , Lentivirus Ovinos-Caprinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovinos/virologia , Infecções por Lentivirus/transmissão , Colostro/virologia , Leite/virologia
6.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 70(5): 1459-1467, set.-out. 2018. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-947088

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro and in vivo the effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on the caprine lentivirus (CLV) in colostrum and milk. This was performed to develop a practical and efficient method of blocking the lactogenic transmission of the virus. In the in vitro experiment, colostrum and milk were treated with 0.25%; 0.50% and 1% SDS. Then, somatic cells of colostrum and milk were submitted to co-culture with caprine synovial membrane cells (CSM). In the in vivo test, goats were fed with colostrum and milk provided from CLV-positive goats treated with SDS in the same concentrations used in the in vitro experiment. Animals were tested by nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) and Western blot (WB) assays. In the in vitro experiment, inhibitory activity against CLV without inactivation occurred in colostrum with all SDS concentrations. However, concentrations of 0.25 and 0.5% SDS presented only inhibitory activity against CLV in milk cells, and 1% concentration provided inactivation of the virus. In the in vivo tests, none of the three concentrations of SDS was effective in inactivating LVC in colostrum or goat milk, which was confirmed by seroconversion and presence of proviral DNA in animals afterwards.(AU)


O objetivo da pesquisa foi avaliar in vitro e in vivo o efeito do dodecil sulfato de sódio (SDS) sobre o lentivírus caprino (LVC) no colostro e no leite, a fim de desenvolver um método prático e eficiente no bloqueio da via de transmissão lactogênica do vírus. No experimento in vitro, o colostro e o leite de cabras positivas foram tratados com SDS a 0,25%, 0,50% e 1,0%. Em seguida, as células somáticas do colostro e do leite foram obtidas e direcionadas ao cocultivo com células de membrana sinovial caprina (MSC). No teste in vivo, os cabritos foram alimentados com colostro e leite providos de cabras positivas para LVC, tratados com SDS nas mesmas concentrações usadas no teste in vitro. Os animais foram acompanhados pelos testes de reação em cadeia da polimerase nested (nPCR) e western blot (WB). Nos resultados in vitro, no colostro, observou-se que, em todas as concentrações de SDS, ocorreu uma atividade inibitória contra o LVC, sem a inativação. Em relação às células do leite, o SDS apresentou, nas concentrações de 0,25 e 0,5%, atividade inibitória contra o LVC, e na concentração de 1%, houve inativação viral. Nos testes in vivo, as três concentrações de SDS testadas não foram efetivas na inativação do LVC no colostro e no leite caprino, o que se comprovou pela soroconversão e pela presença de DNA proviral nos animais.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Gravidez , Colostro/química , Lentivirus Ovinos-Caprinos , Dodecilsulfato de Sódio/análise
7.
Prev Vet Med ; 147: 66-78, 2017 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29254729

RESUMO

In Poland, no systematic survey of ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs) infection was performed, neither at the national nor at the regional level and only limited knowledge exists on the prevalence of SRLVs among sheep. The aim of the present study was to establish the true prevalence of SRLVs infection in sheep from Poland at the animal and herd-levels. The blood samples used for this study were the fraction of samples collected by Veterinary Inspection during an official sampling for the national monitoring program for brucellosis. Under this program the animals and herds were randomly selected using the data available from ARMA (Agency for Restructuring and Modernisation of Agriculture). The sampling unit was the herd and the target population included at least 5% of sheep, over 6 months old, from each of 16 voievodships (provinces) of Poland. Two-stage cluster sampling design was performed in this study offering the possibility to determine the prevalence of SRLVs infection, when only a fraction of herds and a fraction of animals in the herds are tested. In total, 8233 sheep serum samples coming from 832 herds were tested by indirect ELISA. 1474 (17.9%) samples were positive and 261 (31.4%) herds with at least one seropositive animals were identified. The overall true prevalence estimated by the Bayesian framework was 9.3% (95% CI 6.8, 11.3) and 33.3% (95% CI 26.5, 38.2) on the animal and herd level, respectively. Large variation in the animal and herd prevalence between the voivodships was observed. True prevalence on the herd level varied from 0.0% (95% CI 0.0, 0.0) to 71.6% (95% CI 67.6, 75.9) whereas true prevalence on the animal level ranged from 0.0% (95% CI 0.0, 0.0) to 55.3% (95% CI 50.0, 61.2). The true prevalence of SRLVs infection at animal and herd level increased according to herd size as was proved by posterior probabilities (POPR).


Assuntos
Infecções por Lentivirus/veterinária , Lentivirus Ovinos-Caprinos/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Infecções por Lentivirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Lentivirus/virologia , Polônia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/virologia
8.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 37(8): 805-812, Aug. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-895497

RESUMO

A Artrite Encefalite Caprina se caracteriza por ser multissistêmica e infecciosa, causada por um lentivírus. O estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a transmissibilidade do Lentivírus Caprino, para fêmeas e sua prole, por meio de sêmen infectado experimentalmente. Para tanto, onze fêmeas livres de CAEV foram inseminadas artificialmente com sêmen de bode livre de CAEV ao qual foi adicionado CAEV-Cork para obter título infectante com carga viral em 105 TCID50/ml. (grupo experimental 1). Destas, seis obtiverem prenhez confirmada, e a sua prole (n=6) constituiu o grupo experimental 2. Duas cabras livres de CAEV foram inseminadas artificialmente com sêmen do mesmo bode, sem o inócuo viral, constituindo-se o grupo controle. O diagnóstico da infecção pelo Lentivírus Caprino, foi realizado por IDGA, cELISA e nested-PCR. As fêmeas foram monitoradas durante 210 dias pós inseminação artificial. Já as proles foram imediatamente separadas das mães após o nascimento, e monitoradas nos momentos hora zero, aos quinze dias de idade e mensalmente, até doze meses de idade. Em relação às cabras, 56,96%(9/158) apresentaram positividade para cELISA, 24,05% (38/158) foram positivas a IDGA e nenhuma para nested-PCR. Em relação aos cabritos, 11,28% (15/133) amostras positivas para nested-PCR, 5,26% (7/133) amostras positivas para IDGA e nenhum para cELISA. As proles do grupo controle apresentaram resultados negativos para as três técnicas. A positividade encontrada em nested-PCR pode indicar grande importância para identificação de animais infectados, porém soronegativos, em situações de soroconversão tardia. De acordo com os resultados, concluiu-se que há a transmissão do Lentivírus caprino para a prole e para as mães pelo sêmen infectado.(AU)


Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis is a multisystemic infectious disease, caused by a lentivirus. The objective of this study was to evaluate the transmissibility of caprine lentivirus to goats and their offspring, through experimentally infected semen. Therefore, eleven free-CAEV goats were artificially inseminated using semen from a free-CAEV buck experimentally infected with CAEV-Cork strain (experimental group one). Pregnancy was confirmed in only six goats and their offspring (n=6) constituted the experimental group two. Two free-CAEV females were artificially inseminated with semen from the same seronegative buck, without viral inoculum to constitute the control group. The diagnosis of caprine lentivirus infection was performed using AGID, cELISA and nested-PCR. All females were monitored for 210 days after artificial insemination. Kids were immediately separated from their mothers after birth, and monitored at zero time, 15 days old and monthly until 12 months old. Regarding goat samples, 56.96% (9/159) were positive in cELISA, 24.05% (38/158) were positive in IDGA and none was positive in nested-PCR. Regarding to the offspring samples, 11.28% (15/133) and 5.26% (7/133) were positive in nested-PCR and IDGA, respectively, while no sample was positive in cELISA. The control group showed no positives in the three techniques. The positivity observed to nested-PCR may show its importance to identify infected, but seronegative animals, in late seroconversion situations. According to results, the transmission of caprine lentivirus to offspring and their mothers through infected semen is possible.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Sêmen/virologia , Cabras , Infecções por Lentivirus/transmissão , Infecções por Lentivirus/veterinária , Lentivirus Ovinos-Caprinos , Vírus da Artrite-Encefalite Caprina , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Imunodifusão/veterinária
9.
Can J Vet Res ; 81(2): 155-159, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28408784

RESUMO

Infection with small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) causes a variety of chronic inflammatory conditions that limit production. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is also a major production-limiting disease of sheep and goats, which causes severe inflammation of the small intestine. Previous studies have indicated that both SRLV and MAP are widespread in small ruminants in Ontario. This study estimated the prevalence of SRLV and MAP co-infection. Serum samples that were previously tested for MAP infection were re-tested for SRLV. The apparent prevalence of co-infection was low, with 3.4% [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.9 to 5.9] and 14.3% (95% CI: 11.6 to 17.5) of sheep and goats respectively, positive for both infections. However, co-infection is widespread with 36.8% (95% CI: 19.1 to 59.1) and 71.4% (95% CI: 52.8 to 84.9) of sheep and goat farms with 1 or more co-infected animals. A significant association was found between SRLV seropositivity and MAP fecal culture (P = 0.021), suggesting that co-infected goats may be more likely to shed MAP in their feces.


L'infection par lentivirus des petits ruminants (SRLV) provoque une variété d'états inflammatoires chroniques qui limitent la production. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculose (MAP) est aussi une maladie limitant la production majeure de moutons et de chèvres, ce qui provoque une inflammation grave de l'intestin grêle. Des études antérieures ont indiqué que les deux infections de SRLV et MAP sont très répandues dans l'Ontario petits ruminants. Cette étude a été réalisée pour estimer la prévalence de SRLV et MAP co-infection. Des échantillons de sérum qui avaient été préalablement testés pour l'infection de MAP ont été utilisés pour détecter des anticorps spécifiques SLRV. La prévalence de la co-infection était faible, avec 3,4 % intervalle de confiance (95% IC : 1,9­5,9) et 14,3 % (95% IC : 11,6­17,5) des ovins et caprins, respectivement, positive pour les deux infections. Cependant la co-infection est très répandue avec 36,8 % (95% IC : 19,1­59,1) et 71,4 % (95% IC : 52,8­84,9) des élevages ovins et caprins avec un ou plusieurs animaux co-infecté. Une association significative a été trouvée entre SRLV et séropositivité MAP culture fécale (P = 0,021), ce qui suggère que les chèvres co-infectés peuvent être plus susceptibles de jeter le MAP dans leurs excréments.(Traduit par les auteurs).


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Infecções por Lentivirus/veterinária , Lentivirus Ovinos-Caprinos/isolamento & purificação , Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Paratuberculose/complicações , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Doenças das Cabras/microbiologia , Doenças das Cabras/virologia , Cabras , Infecções por Lentivirus/complicações , Infecções por Lentivirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Lentivirus/virologia , Ontário/epidemiologia , Paratuberculose/diagnóstico , Paratuberculose/epidemiologia , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/virologia
10.
Vet Pathol ; 54(3): 413-424, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28113037

RESUMO

The objective of this work was to comparatively study the tissue tropism and the associated pathology of 2 autochthonous small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) field strains using an experimental infection in sheep through the bone marrow. Fifteen male, SRLV-free lambs of the Rasa Aragonesa breed were inoculated with strain 697 (nervous tissue origin, animals A1-A6), with strain 496 (articular origin, animals B1-B6), or with uninfected culture medium (C1-C3). Clinical, serologic, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) evaluations were performed periodically. Two lambs from each infected group and a control animal were euthanized at 134, 273, and 319 days postinfection. Tissues were analyzed by gross and histopathologic evaluation; immunohistochemistry for CD3, CD4, CD8, CD68, and FoxP3 cell markers; lung morphometric evaluation; and tissue proviral quantification by PCR. All infected animals became positive either by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and/or PCR, with group B lambs showing the highest serologic values and more consistently positive PCR reactions. Group A lambs showed representative lung lesions but only mild histopathologic changes in the central nervous system (CNS) or in carpal joints. Contrarily, group B lambs demonstrated intense carpal arthritis and interstitial pneumonia but an absence of lesions in the CNS. Proviral copies in tissues were detected only in group B lambs. Experimental infection with these SRLV strains indicates that strain 496 is more virulent than strain 697 and more prone to induce arthritis, whereas strain 697 is more likely to reproduce encephalitis in Rasa Aragonesa lambs. Host factors as well as viral factors are responsible for the final clinicopathologic picture during SRLV infections.


Assuntos
Medula Óssea/virologia , Infecções por Lentivirus/veterinária , Lentivirus Ovinos-Caprinos/patogenicidade , Tropismo Viral , Animais , Medula Óssea/patologia , Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , Sistema Nervoso Central/virologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Articulações/patologia , Articulações/virologia , Infecções por Lentivirus/patologia , Infecções por Lentivirus/virologia , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Ovinos/virologia , Tropismo Viral/fisiologia
11.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 84: e0542016, 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-887837

RESUMO

Caprine arthritis encephalitis causes considerable losses in goat production. The main form of the caprine arthritis encephalitis virus transmission is through the ingestion of colostrum or milk from infected females. However, some transmissions cannot be explained in this manner. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate transplacental transmission of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus. Blood samples were collected from 283 newborn kids of Anglo-Nubian and Saanen breeds born from seropositive and seronegative goats. Samples were collected immediately after birth and analyzed with agarose gel immunodiffusion and western blot. All samples were negative in the agarose gel immunodiffusion. However, the western blot test demonstrated that four kids were born positive for caprine arthritis encephalitis virus. This result indicates that although in a low frequency (1.4%), there is a possibility of transplacental transmission of small ruminant lentivirus.(AU)


A artrite encefalite caprina causa perdas consideráveis para a produção caprina. A principal forma de transmissão do vírus da artrite encefalite caprina é a ingestão de colostro ou leite de fêmeas infectadas. No entanto, algumas transmissões não podem ser explicadas por esta via. Dessa forma, este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a transmissão do vírus da artrite encefalite caprina por via transplacentária (vertical). Foram realizadas coletas de sangue em 283 crias recém-nascidas das raças Anglo-Nubiana e Saanen, provenientes de progenitores soropositivos e soronegativos. As amostras foram coletadas logo após o nascimento e analisadas pelas técnicas de imunodifusão em gel de agarose e western blot. No teste de imunodifusão em gel de agarose, nenhum cabrito foi detectado reagente. Porém, no teste de western blot, quatro cabritos nasceram soropositivos. Esse resultado indica que, apesar de baixa frequência (1,4%), existe a possibilidade de transmissão via transplacentária do lentivírus de pequenos ruminantes.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Recém-Nascido , Ruminantes , Lentivirus Ovinos-Caprinos , Vírus da Artrite-Encefalite Caprina , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas , Indústria Agropecuária , Animais Recém-Nascidos/virologia
12.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 84: e0302015, 2017. tab, mapas
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-887862

RESUMO

Lentivírus de pequenos ruminantes (LV) é o termo genérico utilizado para designar os vírus da artrite encefalite caprina e Maedi-Visna, os quais pertencem à família Retroviridae, subfamília Orthoretrovirinae, gênero Lentivirus. Tais vírus infectam caprinos e ovinos, causando enfermidades de curso lento com lesões inflamatórias, crônicas e degenerativas que podem atingir vários órgãos, provocando caquexia e morte. Os animais infectados eliminam o vírus sobretudo por meio de secreções e excreções e transmitem-no especialmente em situações de estreito contato. Não há tratamento até o momento. O controle é baseado na criação segregada, no manejo e no sacrifício dos positivos. Esse agente infeccioso já foi relatado em várias partes do mundo, sendo responsável por perdas econômicas significativas. Por o agente ter sido verificado em vários estados do Brasil e por não existirem dados soroepidemiológicos nas mesorregiões sudeste e sudoeste piauiense, esta pesquisa teve por objetivo realizar inquérito sorológico para investigar a ocorrência de anticorpos para o LV em ovinos e caprinos nas microrregiões do Alto Médio Canindé, Picos e Floriano, no Piauí. Para tanto, foram coletadas 1.280 e 1.360 amostras de soro caprino e ovino, respectivamente, oriundos de 20 municípios, distribuídos nas três microrregiões, sendo o número de amostras proporcional ao rebanho efetivo de cada município. As amostras de soro foram analisadas utilizando o teste de imunodifusão em gel de agarose (IDGA). Nenhum dos soros pesquisados reagiu positivamente, constatando-se soroprevalência nula. Ressalta-se a importância da implantação de um rigoroso programa de controle para que se possa evitar a introdução e/ou a disseminação desse agente infeccioso nessas microrregiões.(AU)


Small ruminant lentiviruses (LV) is the generic term for the caprine arthritis-encephalitis and ­­Maedi-Visna viruses, which belong to the Retroviridae family, Orthoretrovirinae subfamily, Lentivirus genus. The virus infects goats and sheep, causing slow course of disease with inflammatory, chronic and degenerative lesions, which can reach several organs, provoking cachexia and death. Infected animals eliminate the virus mainly through secretions and excretions and transmit it especially in close contact situations. There is no treatment to date. The control is based on segregated creation, management and sacrifice of the positive. This infectious agent has been reported in various parts of the world and is responsible for significant economic losses. It was verified in several states of Brazil and there are seroepidemiological data in southeast and southwest mesoregions of Piauí, Brazil. This research aimed to perform serological survey to investigate the occurrence of antibodies to LV in sheep and goats, in the regions of Alto Médio Canindé, Picos and Floriano. So, 1,280 and 1,360 serum goats and sheep samples, respectively, were collected, coming from 20 municipalities, distributed in the 3 microregions. The number of samples was proportional to the actual herd of each municipality. The samples were analyzed using the agar gel immunodiffusion test. None of the surveyed sera reacted positively, though there is a null seroprevalence. It was emphasized the importance of implementing a rigorous control program in order to prevent the introduction and spread of this infectious agent in these microregions.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Vírus Visna-Maedi , Lentivirus Ovinos-Caprinos , Meningoencefalomielite Ovina , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
13.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 68(5): 1292-1300, set.-out. 2016. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-827885

RESUMO

This study aimed to isolate cells from the Wharton's jelly of umbilical cord (WJUC) of sheep collected during natural parturition using different culture media, in addition to reporting for the first time the permissiveness of these cells to in vitro infection by small ruminant lentiviruses. Ten umbilical cords were collected from healthy sheep. Each cord explants were grown in different media consisting of MEM, low glucose DMEM, M199, and RPMI-1640. The permissiveness of infection of sheep cells from WJUC was tested with CAEV-Cork and MVV-K1514 strains, inoculating 0.1 MOI of each viral strain. Four supernatants from each strain were obtained from WJUC sheep cell cultures infected in different media. The results demonstrated the presence of cytopathic effect after the in vitro infection by CAEV-Cork and MVV-K1514 with all of the tested culture media. Nested-PCR detected proviral DNA in all supernatants. Supernatants containing CAEV-Cork viruses had TCID 50/ml titres of 10 5.5 in MEM, 10 4.0 in low glucose DMEM, 105.0 in M199, and 10 5.7 in RPMI-1640. Supernatants containing the MVV-K1514 virus had TCID 50/ml titres of 10 4.3 in MEM, 10 3.5 in low-glucose DMEM, 10 4.7 in M199, and 10 3.5 in RPMI-1640. Sheep cells from WJUC are permissive to in vitro infection by small ruminant lentivirus.(AU)


O objetivo deste estudo foi isolar células da geleia de Wharton do cordão umbilical (GWCU) ovino coletado por ocasião do parto natural, utilizando-se diferentes meios de cultivo, além de relatar, pela primeira vez, sua permissividade à infecção in vitro por lentivírus de pequenos ruminantes (LVPRs). Dez cordões umbilicais foram coletados de ovelhas hígidas e soronegativas para LVPRs pelo teste de imunodifusão em gel de agarose (IDGA). De cada cordão, explantes foram cultivados em quatro meios distintos que consistiram em MEM, DMEM baixa glicose, meio 199 e RPMI-1640, todos acrescidos de 10% de soro fetal bovino em estufa com atmosfera úmida e 5% de CO2 a 37ºC. A permissividade de infecção das células GWCU ovino foi testada frente às cepas CAEV-Cork e MVV-K1514, inoculando-se 0,1 MOI de cada cepa viral e corando as monocamadas com May Grunwald Giemsa para visualização do efeito citopático. Foram obtidos quatro sobrenadantes CAEV-Cork e quatro MVV-K1514, provenientes do cultivo de células GWCU ovino infectadas por 21 dias em meios distintos, dos quais foram realizadas titulação em membrana sinovial caprina e extração do DNA pró-viral para realização de nested-PCR e eletroforese em gel de agarose a 2%. Os resultados demonstraram a presença de efeito citopático na infecção in vitro tanto por CAEV-Cork como por MVV-K1514 em todos os meios de cultivo, sendo visualizados sincícios e lise celular em microscópio invertido. A nested-PCR detectou o DNA pró-viral tanto do CAEV-Cork como do MVV-K1514 em todos os sobrenadantes. Os sobrenadantes contendo o vírus CAEV-Cork apresentaram títulos em TCID50/mL de 10 5,5 em MEM, 10 4,0 em DMEM baixa glicose, 10 5,0 em meio 199 e 10 5,7 em RPMI-1640. Os sobrenadantes contendo o vírus MVV-K1514 apresentaram título em TCID 50/mL de 10 4,3 em MEM, 10 3,5 em DMEM baixa glicose, 10 4,7 em meio 199 e 10 3,5 em RPMI-1640. Células GWCU ovino são permissivas à infecção in vitro pelos lentivírus de pequenos ruminantes CAEV-Cork e MVV-K1514.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Vírus da Artrite-Encefalite Caprina , Técnicas In Vitro/veterinária , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/patologia , Ruminantes , Infecções/veterinária , Lentivirus Ovinos-Caprinos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária
14.
Theriogenology ; 86(8): 1953-1957.e1, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27461580

RESUMO

The transmission frequency of small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs) through the placenta is controversial and may be associated with breed susceptibility. In Mexico, SRLV infections in sheep have been poorly studied. This work explores the presence of antibodies and proviral DNA in Mexican Pelibuey sheep. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs; three commercial kits and two on the basis of synthetic peptides) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR; amplifying the long terminal repeat and gag segments) were performed to diagnose SRLV infection in 25 adult Pelibuey ewes with an average age of 2.5 years and 32 fetuses with gestational ages ranging from 40 to 90 days without clinical signs of SRLV. Two of the three commercial ELISAs and the synthetic peptide-based ones were positive for SRLV antibody detection in 28% and 24% of the ewes, respectively, whereas none of the fetuses were positive by any of the ELISAs. By PCR, 31% of the ewes and, interestingly, two fetuses were positive. Characteristic SRLV lesions were not found in the fetal and/or ewe tissues, including those with positive PCR results. These findings demonstrate the susceptibility of Pelibuey sheep to SRLV infection and the low transmission frequency through the placenta.


Assuntos
Infecções por Lentivirus/veterinária , Lentivirus Ovinos-Caprinos/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Ovinos/virologia , Animais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Feminino , Infecções por Lentivirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Lentivirus/virologia , Lentivirus Ovinos-Caprinos/classificação , México/epidemiologia , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia
15.
Virology ; 475: 159-71, 2015 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25462356

RESUMO

The molecular epidemiology of small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs) is constantly changing due to animal movements, cross species transmission and because of their rapid evolutionary rate. This study reports a comprehensive genetic and phylogenetic analysis based on consensus gag and pol sequences covering 3kb of the SRLV genome from small ruminants in Québec, Canada. A group of strains obtained from goats originating from different flocks, segregated in a unique clade distinct from currently known SRLV groups. Genetic dissection of the gag gene from these strains revealed that it originated as a result of a recombination event between parental strains currently circulating in small ruminants of the country. Following HIV nomenclature, we propose to call this group of strains, circulating recombinant form 1 SRLV, or CRF01_AB SRLV. In addition, the study confirms the existence of genetically distinct and homogeneous populations of SRLVs infecting sheep and goats housed in single species flocks.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras/virologia , Infecções por Lentivirus/veterinária , Lentivirus Ovinos-Caprinos/genética , Lentivirus Ovinos-Caprinos/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Ovinos/virologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , DNA Viral/genética , Proteínas de Fusão gag-pol/química , Proteínas de Fusão gag-pol/genética , Variação Genética , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Cabras , Infecções por Lentivirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Lentivirus/virologia , Lentivirus Ovinos-Caprinos/classificação , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Quebeque/epidemiologia , Alinhamento de Sequência , Testes Sorológicos , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia
16.
Pol J Vet Sci ; 17(3): 501-6, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25286660

RESUMO

Diagnostic performance of ID Screen MVV-CAEV Indirect Screening ELISA in identifying goats infected with small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) was evaluated. In total 299 serum samples from the collection of the Laboratory of Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics--109 truly positive and 190 truly negative--were used. To be enrolled in the study a serum sample had to come from at least 2 year-old goat which had reacted identically in two serological surveys preceding sample collection and was kept in a herd of stable serological status confirmed at least twice during preceding 5 years. Moreover, in seropositive herds at least 20% of goats had to be serologically positive at the moment when the serum sample was collected for the study. The test proved to have high accuracy. Area under curve was 98.8% (95% CI: 97.5%, 100%). Diagnostic performance of the test was almost identical (Youlden's index of 90%, sensitivity > 90% and specificity > 95%) within a fairly wide range of cut-off values--between 20% and 60%. At manufacturer's cut-off of 50% sensitivity and specificity were 91.7% (95% CI: 85.0%, 95.6%) and 98.9% (95% CI: 96.2%, 99.7%), respectively. For this cut-off positive likelihood ratio was 87 (95% CI: 22, 346) and negative likelihood ratio was 0.08 (95% CI: 0.04, 0.16). In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that ID Screen MVV-CAEV Indirect Screening ELISA is a highly accurate diagnostic test for SRLV infection.


Assuntos
Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Doenças das Cabras/virologia , Infecções por Lentivirus/veterinária , Lentivirus Ovinos-Caprinos , Animais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Doenças das Cabras/diagnóstico , Cabras , Infecções por Lentivirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Lentivirus/virologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
17.
Anim Genet ; 45(2): 297-300, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24303974

RESUMO

Ovine lentivirus (OvLV) is a macrophage-tropic lentivirus found in many countries that causes interstitial pneumonia, mastitis, arthritis and cachexia in sheep. There is no preventive vaccine and no cure, but breed differences suggest marker-assisted selective breeding might improve odds of infection and control of OvLV post-infection. Although variants in TMEM154 have consistent association with odds of infection, no variant in any gene has been associated with host control of OvLV post-infection in multiple animal sets. Proviral concentration is a live-animal diagnostic measure of OvLV control post-infection related to severity of OvLV-induced lesions. A recent genome-wide association study identified a region including four zinc finger genes associated with proviral concentration in one Rambouillet flock. To refine this region, we tested additional variants and identified a small insertion/deletion variant near ZNF389 that showed consistent association with proviral concentration in three animal sets (P < 0.05). These animal sets contained Rambouillet, Polypay and crossbred sheep from multiple locations and management conditions. Strikingly, one flock had exceptionally high prevalence (>87%, including yearlings) and mean proviral concentration (>950 copies/µg), possibly due to needle sharing. The best estimate of proviral concentration by genotype, obtained from all 1310 OvLV-positive animals tested, showed insertion homozygotes had less than half the proviral concentration of other genotypes (P < 0.0001). Future work will test additional breeds, management conditions and viral subtypes, and identify functional properties of the haplotype this deletion variant tracks. To our knowledge, this is the first genetic variant consistently associated with host control of OvLV post-infection in multiple sheep flocks.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Infecções por Lentivirus/veterinária , Deleção de Sequência , Doenças dos Ovinos/genética , Animais , Genótipo , Infecções por Lentivirus/genética , Infecções por Lentivirus/imunologia , Lentivirus Ovinos-Caprinos/imunologia , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/imunologia
18.
BMC Vet Res ; 9: 172, 2013 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24004524

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) are members of the Retroviridae family and infect goats and sheep worldwide. Detection of specific antibodies using AGID and ELISA is the most commonly used means of diagnosing SRLV infection. The most frequent molecular method for detecting the provirus genome is PCR, using peripheral blood leucocytes as target cells. Real time PCR has also recently been used. The aim of this study was to develop a real time PCR for detection of SRLV in order to improve molecular diagnostics of SRLV infections in sheep and goats. RESULTS: Two new real time PCR assays using TaqMan probes for the specific detection of genotype A (MVV assay) and genoptype B (CAEV assay) SRLV strains and differentiation between them were developed and validated at both analytical and diagnostic levels following MIQE guidelines. The validation results showed that the new real time PCR is 100% specific, with a reliable limit of detection of 26 (CAEV assay) and 72 (MVV assay) plasmid DNA copies, while compared to ELISA the diagnostic sensitivity of both assays was 79% when tested with Slovenian SRLV field samples. Intra-assay and inter-assay coefficients of variation showed overall good repeatability and reproducibility of the new real time PCR assays, except for the highest dilutions. CONCLUSIONS: Two new TaqMan probe based real time PCR assays for the specific detection of genotype A and B SRLV strains and differentiation between them were developed and validated. They can serve as an additional tool for confirming infection with SRLV and may also be useful for early detection of infected animals prior to seroconversion.


Assuntos
Genótipo , Lentivirus Ovinos-Caprinos/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Ruminantes , Animais , Doenças das Cabras/diagnóstico , Doenças das Cabras/virologia , Cabras , Infecções por Lentivirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Lentivirus/veterinária , Infecções por Lentivirus/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Ovinos/virologia
19.
Viruses ; 5(7): 1867-84, 2013 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23881276

RESUMO

Zoonotic events of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) from non-human primates to humans have generated the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), one of the most devastating infectious disease of the last century with more than 30 million people dead and about 40.3 million people currently infected worldwide. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 and HIV-2), the two major viruses that cause AIDS in humans are retroviruses of the lentivirus genus. The genus includes arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) and Maedi-Visna virus (MVV), and a heterogeneous group of viruses known as small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs), affecting goat and sheep. Lentivirus genome integrates into the host DNA, causing persistent infection associated with a remarkable diversity during viral replication. Direct evidence of mixed infections with these two closely related SRLVs was found in both sheep and goats. The evidence of a genetic continuum with caprine and ovine field isolates demonstrates the absence of an efficient species barrier preventing cross-species transmission. In dual-infected animals, persistent infections with both CAEV and MVV have been described, and viral chimeras have been detected. This not only complicates animal trade between countries but favors the risk that highly pathogenic variants may emerge as has already been observed in the past in Iceland and, more recently, in outbreaks with virulent strains in Spain. SRLVs affecting wildlife have already been identified, demonstrating the existence of emergent viruses adapted to new hosts. Viruses adapted to wildlife ruminants may acquire novel biopathological properties which may endanger not only the new host species but also domestic ruminants and humans. SRLVs infecting sheep and goats follow a genomic evolution similar to that observed in HIV or in other lentiviruses. Lentivirus genetic diversity and host factors leading to the establishment of naturally occurring virulent versus avirulent infections, in addition to the emergence of new strains, challenge every aspect of SRLV control measures for providing efficient tools to prevent the transmission of diseases between wild ungulates and livestock.


Assuntos
Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Lentivirus Ovinos-Caprinos/fisiologia , Adaptação Biológica , Animais , Vírus da Artrite-Encefalite Caprina/genética , Surtos de Doenças , Cabras , Islândia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Lentivirus/veterinária , Infecções por Lentivirus/virologia , Lentivirus Ovinos-Caprinos/genética , Recombinação Genética , Ovinos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Vírus Visna-Maedi/genética
20.
PLoS One ; 8(5): e63901, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23691111

RESUMO

Infectious diseases of sheep are of major economic importance causing direct and indirect losses. Among the major sheep infectious agents are Small Ruminant Lentivirus, Chlamydophila abortus and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infections, mainly due to their worldwide distribution and economic impact that they cause. Based on the differential susceptibility to infectious diseases between and within breeds and on the recent findings regarding the putative involvement of TLR9 in disease susceptibility, the aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of nucleotide variation of TLR9 and its mediator MyD88 in three sheep flocks originated from different breeds and assess their possible association with seropositivity/seronegativity for different infectious agents. The analysis indicated that the change of G to R at codon 520 of TLR9 polypeptide shows a significant association with Small Ruminant Lentivirus seropositivity. This amino-acid substitution, which can result in polarity change, might influence structure and function of LRR17, interfering with ligand binding and thus could be used in studies investigating susceptibility/resistance to Small Ruminant Lentivirus infections in sheep.


Assuntos
Lentivirus Ovinos-Caprinos/isolamento & purificação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Ovinos/genética , Receptor Toll-Like 9/genética , Animais , Frequência do Gene , Heterozigoto , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/genética , Ovinos/classificação , Especificidade da Espécie
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