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1.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500622

RESUMO

Glucosinolates (GSLs) from Lepidium graminifolium L. were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively by their desulfo-counterparts using UHPLC-DAD-MS/MS technique and by their volatile breakdown products-isothiocyanates (ITCs) using GC-MS analysis. Thirteen GSLs were identified with arylaliphatic as the major ones in the following order: 3-hydroxybenzyl GSL (glucolepigramin, 7), benzyl GSL (glucotropaeolin, 9), 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzyl GSL (11), 3-methoxybenzyl GSL (glucolimnanthin, 12), 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzyl GSL (3,5-dimethoxysinalbin, 8), 4-hydroxybenzyl GSL (glucosinalbin, 6), 3,4-dimethoxybenzyl GSL (10) and 2-phenylethyl GSL (gluconasturtiin, 13). GSL breakdown products obtained by hydrodistillation (HD) and CH2Cl2 extraction after hydrolysis by myrosinase for 24 h (EXT) as well as benzyl ITC were tested for their cytotoxic activity using MTT assay. Generally, EXT showed noticeable antiproliferative activity against human bladder cancer cell line UM-UC-3 and human glioblastoma cell line LN229, and can be considered as moderately active, while IC50 of benzyl ITC was 12.3 µg/mL, which can be considered as highly active.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucosinolatos/química , Glucosinolatos/farmacologia , Lepidium/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Glioblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Hidrólise , Isotiocianatos/química , Isotiocianatos/farmacologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Tiocianatos/química , Tiocianatos/farmacologia , Tioglucosídeos/química , Tioglucosídeos/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/tratamento farmacológico
2.
Andrologia ; 53(11): e14239, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520070

RESUMO

This study was aimed to investigate the protective effects of Lepidium draba L. (L. draba) extract on oxymetholone (OM)-induced testicular injury in rat. Six groups of n = 5 adult male rats were used as; 1: control, 2: OM (5 mg/kg OM orally), 3, 4 and 5: L. draba extract (100, 200 and 400 mg kg-1  day-1 ) +OM (5 mg kg-1  day-1 OM) and 6:400 mg/kg/d L. draba extract for 30 days. Serum testosterone (T), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinising hormone (LH), inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, IL-1ß), oxidative stress (OS) indicators [superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and nitric oxide (NO)], apoptotic related genes (Bcl-2, p53, caspase-3 (c3) and Bax) were investigated. OM significantly increased the serum levels of T, proinflammatory cytokines and pro-apoptotic genes expression. Also, it decreased LH and FSH, sperm viability, count and motility. L. draba extract especially could markedly normalise the serum levels of LH and FSH, and T, restore serum antioxidant enzymes and suppressed the pro-inflammatory cytokines. Also, germ cells apoptosis was inhibited against via downregulating the p53, c3, Bax and upregulating Bcl-2. It concluded that L. draba extract could protect the function and structure of testis against OM-induced testicular toxicity via its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.


Assuntos
Lepidium , Testículo , Animais , Hormônio Luteinizante/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Oximetolona , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta , Ratos , Testículo/metabolismo
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(40): 11856-11866, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34590863

RESUMO

Four active partition layers and ten isolates, including (5R)- and (5S)-macapyrrolidone A (1a, 1b), and four new alkaloids, (5R)- and (5S)-macapyrrolidone B (2a, 2b) and macapyrrolins D, E (3, 4), were isolated from maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.), an indigenous food plant from Peru. Derived from the n-hexane layer, the macamide-rich fraction exhibited pro-angiogenic activity on EPC and HUVEC cells. Anti-thrombotic activity was displayed by the polar part of maca extracts (n-butanol and water layers). Both 75% methanol aq. (midlower polar part) and n-hexane (low polar part) layers, which showed signs of fatty acid content, markedly inhibited superoxide and elastase release in an anti-inflammatory assay. The 75% methanol aq. layer showed strong anti-allergic activity, and macapyrrolin A (5) was found active based on ß-hexosaminidase release inhibition assays and a ChemGPS-NP experiment. These valuable bioactivity results suggest that maca is a food plant with good benefits for human health.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Antialérgicos , Lepidium , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
4.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443522

RESUMO

Five new thiohydantoin derivatives (1-5) were isolated from the rhizomes of Lepidium meyenii Walp. NMR (1H and 13C NMR, 1H-1H COSY, HSQC, and HMBC), HRESIMS, and ECD were employed for the structure elucidation of new compounds. Significantly, the structure of compound 1 was the first example of thiohydantoins with thioxohexahydroimidazo [1,5-a] pyridine moiety. Additionally, compounds 2 and 3 possess rare disulfide bonds. Except for compound 4, all isolates were assessed for neuroprotective activities in corticosterone (CORT)-stimulated PC12 cell damage. Among them, compound (-)-3 exhibited moderate neuroprotective activity (cell viability: 68.63%, 20 µM) compared to the positive control desipramine (DIM) (cell viability: 88.49%, 10 µM).


Assuntos
Lepidium/química , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Tioidantoínas/química , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Corticosterona/farmacologia , Desipramina/farmacologia , Humanos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Células PC12 , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Piridinas/química , Ratos , Tioidantoínas/isolamento & purificação
5.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443422

RESUMO

A significant increase in the production of plastic materials and the expansion of their areas of application contributed to the accumulation of a large amount of waste of polymeric materials. Most of the polymer composition is made up of plasticizers. Phthalate plasticizers have been recognized as potentially hazardous to humans and the environment due to the long period of their biodegradation and the formation of persistent toxic metabolites. It is known that the industrial plasticizer dioctyl adipate is characterized by reduced toxicity and a short biodegradation period. The paper describes the synthesis of a number of new asymmetric esters based on adipic acid and ethoxylated butanol by azeotropic esterification. The receipt of the products was confirmed by IR spectra. The physicochemical properties of the synthesized compounds were investigated. The glass transition temperatures of PVC composites plasticized with alkyl butoxyethyl adipates were determined using DSC analysis. The ecological safety of esters was assessed by the phytotesting method. Samples of adipates were tested for fungal resistance, and the process of their biodegradation in soil was also studied. It is shown that the synthesized esters have good plasticizing properties and are environmentally safe. When utilized under natural conditions, they can serve as a potential source of carbon for soil microorganisms and do not form stable toxic metabolites; therefore, they are not able to accumulate in nature; when the plasticizers under study are disposed of in the soil, toxic substances do not enter.


Assuntos
Adipatos/toxicidade , Ecotoxicologia , Etanol/química , Plastificantes/toxicidade , Adipatos/síntese química , Adipatos/química , Biodegradação Ambiental , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Etanol/síntese química , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Vidro/química , Lepidium/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloreto de Polivinila/química , Raphanus/efeitos dos fármacos , Solo , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho , Temperatura de Transição
6.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202092

RESUMO

(1) Background: The COVID-19 pandemic lacks treatments; for this reason, the search for potential compounds against therapeutic targets is still necessary. Bioinformatics tools have allowed the rapid in silico screening of possible new metabolite candidates from natural resources or repurposing known ones. Thus, in this work, we aimed to select phytochemical candidates from Peruvian plants with antiviral potential against three therapeutical targets of SARS-CoV-2. (2) Methods: We applied in silico technics, such as virtual screening, molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulation, and MM/GBSA estimation. (3) Results: Rutin, a compound present in Peruvian native plants, showed affinity against three targets of SARS-CoV-2. The molecular dynamics simulation demonstrated the high stability of receptor-ligand systems during the time of the simulation. Our results showed that the Mpro-Rutin system exhibited higher binding free energy than PLpro-Rutin and N-Rutin systems through MM/GBSA analysis. (4) Conclusions: Our study provides insight on natural metabolites from Peruvian plants with therapeutical potential. We found Rutin as a potential candidate with multiple pharmacological properties against SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Antivirais/química , Antivirais/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Plantas/química , Plantas/metabolismo , Asteraceae/química , Asteraceae/metabolismo , Proteases 3C de Coronavírus/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteases 3C de Coronavírus/química , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo de Coronavírus/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo de Coronavírus/química , Proteases Semelhantes à Papaína de Coronavírus/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteases Semelhantes à Papaína de Coronavírus/química , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Lepidium/química , Lepidium/metabolismo , Ligantes , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Peru , Fosfoproteínas/antagonistas & inibidores , Fosfoproteínas/química , Rutina/química , Rutina/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Phytochemistry ; 190: 112863, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34242970

RESUMO

Lepidium meyenii Walp., known as Peruvian ginseng, is widely used in ethnomedicine. To date, L. meyenii is cultivated worldwide at high-altitude and is commonly used as a food supplement. However, its medicinal value is still controversial and its mechanism of action remains unknown, due to limited knowledge about the phytochemical constituents of this plant species. In this study, a multidisciplinary approach comprising conventional NMR- and HRMS-based structure elucidation, quantum mechanical calculation of NMR chemical shifts and UPLC-MS/MS feature-based molecular networking was applied to analyse the phytochemical profile of L. meyenii. In the current work, three previously undescribed imidazole alkaloids were identified using extensive spectroscopic techniques (HRMS, NMR), for which the names lepidiline E, F and G were adopted. In addition, two amidine alkaloids were reported, representing an undescribed class of alkaloids in L. meyenii, and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-ß-carboline-3-carboxylic acid, a well-known ß-carboline alkaloid, was also isolated from L. meyenii for the first time. Molecular networks of imidazole, amidine and ß-carboline alkaloids in L. meyenii were constructed by the Global Natural Products Social Molecular Networking (GNPS) web platform, resulting in the tentative identification of three undescribed analogues. In addition, the structure of a previously reported compound named 'macaridine' was revised as macapyrrolin C based on density functional theory (DFT) calculations and comprehensive comparison of NMR data.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Lepidium , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Extratos Vegetais , Piridinas , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
8.
Food Chem ; 364: 130453, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34186480

RESUMO

Lepidium meyenii is an edible plant that has been used as a nutritional supplement worldwide due to its medicinal properties. However, most of the studies have focused on the pharmacological activities of the extracts rather than their chemical composition. Herein, we used a combination of a multiplatform metabolite profiling approach and chemometrics to identify bioactive metabolites in L. meyenii. Extracts obtained with ethyl acetate and ethanol showed the promising antioxidant, anti-glioma and antibacterial activities. Sixty metabolites were identified by HPLC-MS, whereas fifteen were identified by GC-MS. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), and Variable Importance in Projection (VIP) successfully discriminated extracts obtained in different organic solvents from in natura dry roots and commercial product samples of L. meyenii. Additionally, correlation analysis allowed us to pinpoint potential candidates responsible for each biological activity tested for the extracts, which could be extrapolate for other food-related species.


Assuntos
Lepidium , Antioxidantes , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Peru , Extratos Vegetais
9.
Chem Biodivers ; 18(8): e2100231, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34087032

RESUMO

Meyeniines A-C (1-3), three new lignans, two known neolignans (4-5), and three known lignans (6-8) were isolated from the rhizomes of Lepidium meyenii. Their structures were identified by comprehensive spectroscopic analyses and computational methods. Compound 1 represents a unique lignan featuring an aromatic ring migration. Compounds 2 and 4-6 were analyzed by chiral HPLC column as enantiomers. Biological evaluation revealed that compound 8 could inhibit IL-6 production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced RAW264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Lepidium/metabolismo , Lignanas/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Lignanas/isolamento & purificação , Lignanas/farmacologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Camundongos , Conformação Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Células RAW 264.7
10.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e240184, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34133559

RESUMO

Soil quality is usually determined by its physical-chemical characteristics without taking into account the bacterial communities that play a fundamental role in the chemical decomposition of plant nutrients. In this context, the objective of the study was to evaluate bacterial diversity in high Andean grassland soils disturbed with Lepidium meyenii cultivation under different gradients of use (first, second and third use) and crop development (pre-sowing, hypocotyl development and post-harvest). The sampling was carried out in the Bombón plateau in the central Andes of Peru, during the rainy and low water seasons, by the systematic method based on a specific pattern assigned in a geometric rectangular shape at a depth of 0 - 20 cm. The characterization of the bacterial communities was carried out through the metagenomic sequencing of the 16S rRNA. 376 families of bacteria were reported, of which it was determined that there was a significant change in bacterial composition and distribution in relation to use pressure. There were no major changes due to the development of Lepidium meyenii. The families most sensitive to use pressure and soil poverty indicators were Verrucomicrobiaceae, Acidobacteraceae and Aakkermansiaceae.


Assuntos
Lepidium , Bactérias/genética , Pradaria , Lepidium/genética , Metagenômica , Peru , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
11.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067444

RESUMO

Maca (Lepidium meyenii) has emerged as a popular functional plant food because of its medicinal properties and nutritional value. Macamides, as the exclusively active ingredients found in maca, are a unique series of non-polar, long-chain fatty acid N-benzylamides with multiple bioactivities such as antifatigue characteristics and improving reproductive health. In this study, a new kind of macamide, N-benzyl eicosapentaenamide (NB-EPA), was identified from maca. We further explore its potential neuroprotective role in hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. Our findings indicated that treatment with biosynthesized NB-EPA significantly alleviates the size of cerebral infarction and improves neurobehavioral disorders after hypoxic-ischemic brain damage in neonatal mice. NB-EPA inhibited the apoptosis of neuronal cells after ischemic challenge. NB-EPA improved neuronal cell survival and proliferation through the activation of phosphorylated AKT signaling. Of note, the protective property of NB-EPA against ischemic neuronal damage was dependent on suppression of the p53-PUMA pathway. Taken together, these findings suggest that NB-EPA may represent a new neuroprotectant for newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.


Assuntos
Amidas/química , Ácidos Graxos/química , Alimento Funcional , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Lepidium/metabolismo , Neuroproteção/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/química , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores
12.
Fitoterapia ; 152: 104916, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33945874

RESUMO

Macamides are a class of bioactive amide alkaloids found only in maca (Lepidium meyenii). Recent studies have shown that macamide-rich extracts possess various biological activities, such as antioxidative, immune-enhancing, and reproductive health-improving activities. In the present study, N-benzyl docosahexaenamide (NB-DHA), a newly identified macamide with the highest degree of unsaturation among all identified macamides, was identified from the maca extract. Microalgae oil, a docosahexaenoic acid-rich substance, was used as the starting material for the synthesis of NB-DHA. The effects of NB-DHA in colitis-induced mice were evaluated. NB-DHA significantly alleviated weight loss, shortening of colon length, and occult blood occurrence in mice with dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis. Histological analysis revealed that following the administration of NB-DHA in mice with colitis, the infiltration of inflammatory cells and levels of proinflammatory factors, such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, and myeloperoxidase, decreased, whereas the level of the anti-inflammatory factor IL-10 increased. Furthermore, the decreased expression of intestinal tight junction proteins caused by colitis was upregulated by the administration of NB-DHA. These results indicate that NB-DHA could be developed as a therapeutic agent for ulcerative colitis.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Lepidium/química , Alcaloides/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , China , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Sulfato de Dextrana , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Frutas/química , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química
13.
Bioorg Chem ; 112: 104834, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813309

RESUMO

Nine new pyrrole alkaloids, including two undescribed dimeric pyrrole 2­carbaldehyde alkaloids, lepipyrrolins A-B (1-2), seven pyrrole-alkaloid derivatives, macapyrrolins D-J (3-9), along with three known ones (10-12) were isolated from the rhizomes of Lepidium meyenii. Their structures and absolute configurations were demonstrated by extensive spectroscopic data (1D, 2D NMR, HRESIMS), and calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD) experiment. Compounds 1, 3-12 were tested for their nitric oxide inhibitory effects. Furthermore, compound 1 was evaluated for its cytotoxic activity against five human tumor cell lines (HL-60, SMMC-7221, A549, MCF-7, and SW480) in vitro, and displayed selective cytotoxicity against SMMC-7721 with IC50 value of 16.78 ± 0.49 µM.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Lepidium/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/química , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Humanos , Lipopolissacarídeos/antagonistas & inibidores , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Óxido Nítrico/antagonistas & inibidores , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Células RAW 264.7 , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
14.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 199: 114063, 2021 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33862504

RESUMO

The demand and sales of dietary supplements derived from maca (Lepidium meyenii) have skyrocketed in the last decade and a variety of related nutritional and healthcare products have mushroomed into a business with market prominence. However, the lack of standard testing protocols for quality control could jeopardize the immediate benefits of these products for public health. We describe herein the development of analytical procedures for the determination of glucosinolates (GLs), the biologically active ingredients in maca. Because of the high polarity and instability caused by enzymatic hydrolysis, GLs in maca have been exclusively analyzed using desulfated GLs. This indirect analysis requires additional sample preparation steps, which is labor-intensive, and may lose the original GLs and introduce artificial compounds. Furthermore, the reported GL profiles of maca are inconsistent and incomplete, some GLs may be structurally misidentified. In this context, we focused on direct analysis of intact GLs in maca without the enzymatic desulfation. Four GLs (sinalbin, glucolepigramin, glucolimnanthin, and glucotropaeolin) were identified as the major GLs in maca root powder. An HPLC method based on ion pair chromatography was developed to determine individual and total GLs; chromatographic separations were achieved on a Luna column (C18, 4.6 × 100 mm,3 mm) using 0.1 % TFA in water and in methanol as mobile phase in a gradient elution mode. The developed procedures were validated within the calibration range of 10-500 µg/mL. Inter- and intra-day precision were shown to be lower than 3% at all concentrations levels with recovery between 100.2 % and 103.3 %. The procedures were applied to a total of 42 maca root powder products from 11 manufacturers. Sample analysis revealed a consistent correlation of glucotropaeolin: glucolimnanthin (1: 0.19) across all products with a correlation coefficient of 0.994. The correlation in combination with total GL contents for each product could be used for authentication and GL content determination. Incorporation of the developed procedures into USP monographs will strengthen the public standards for maca powder dietary supplements.


Assuntos
Lepidium , Suplementos Nutricionais , Glucosinolatos , Extratos Vegetais , Pós
15.
Food Funct ; 12(7): 3132-3141, 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33729250

RESUMO

Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.) has emerged as a popular functional plant food due to its various pharmacological properties, including anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation and anti-fatigue activity. In this study, we investigated the role of Maca aqueous extract (ME) on muscle during exercise-induced fatigue both in vivo and in vitro. As a result, ME significantly enhanced mouse leg grip-strength and increased exercise endurance in the rota-rod test. ME could clear the accumulation of metabolites - blood lactic acid (BLA), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels after weight-loaded forced swimming. Focusing on muscle, we found that the administration of ME strengthened mouse muscle structures so that exercise-induced metabolic stress was alleviated by upregulating NAD+/NADH. Furthermore, ME inhibited the reduction of the viability and accumulation of ROS by treatment with H2O2 in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells. ME-induced activation of energy metabolism in skeletal muscle might up-regulate mitochondrial biogenesis and function, thereby protecting against oxidative stress-induced damage. We concluded that the effects of Maca played a crucial role in the regulation of exercise-induced fatigue in mouse muscle, which could be expected to serve as a functional food supplement for improving exercise performance and alleviating physical fatigue.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Lepidium , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Fadiga , Alimento Funcional , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Fitoterapia , Natação
16.
Zygote ; 29(4): 325-330, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33563356

RESUMO

The reproductive performances of livestock play an essential role in the economic management of the farm. The improvement of semen quantity and quality through the use of food supplements that lack substances which are forbidden in animal feeding, or that may have detrimental effects, is an important goal. Maca (Lepidium meyenii) is a plant that has been used for centuries in the Andes for nutrition and fertility enhancement in humans and animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of food supplementation of stallions with maca during the breeding season on spermatozoa parameters such as DNA fragmentation and shape, which are two predictive indexes of spermatozoa functionality. For this purpose, ejaculate volume, semen gel-free volume, sperm concentration and motility, total sperm count, sperm DNA fragmentation and sperm head parameters (length, width, perimeter, area, shape factor, roughness) were measured in four stallions. Maca food supplementation in stallions during breeding reduced the percentage of spermatozoa with fragmented DNA, increased significantly sperm concentration and exerted an elongation of the spermatozoa head, a condition that is believed to improve spermatozoa functionality, suggesting that food supplementation of maca could be useful in horse breeding during the breeding season.


Assuntos
Fragmentação do DNA , Lepidium , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Cavalos , Masculino , Melhoramento Vegetal , Espermatozoides
17.
J Mass Spectrom ; 56(2): e4690, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33410238

RESUMO

Maca is a Peruvian tuberous root of the Brassicaceae family grown in the central Andes between altitudes of 4000 and 4500 m. The medicinal plant is a nutraceutical with important biological activities and health effects. In this study, we report a rapid high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC)-(-)desorption electrospray ionization (DESI)-mass spectrometry (MS) method to profile and separate intact glucosinolates without prior biochemical modifications from the hydromethanolic extracts of two phenotypes, red and black Maca (Lepidium peruvianum) seeds. In the first stage of the plant's life cycle, aromatic glucosinolates were the main chemical constituents whereby six aromatic, three indole, and one aliphatic glucosinolate were tentatively identified. At the seedling stage, glucolepigramin/Glucosinalbin was the most predominant precursor, rather than Glucotropaeolin, which is mainly found in hypocotyls and roots. These findings lead us to suggest that glucolepigramin/glucosinalbin play a major role as active precursors in the biosynthetic pathways of other secondary metabolites in the early stages of plant development. Between red and black Maca seeds, only minor differences in the relative abundances of glucosinolates were observed rather than different plant metabolites. For the first time, we report six potential plant antibiotics, phytoanticipins: glycosylated ascorbigens and dihydroascorbigens from Maca seeds. We also investigated a targeted reverse phase C18 functionalized TLC-DESI-MS method with high sensitivity and specificity for Brassicaceae fatty acids in Maca seeds and health supplements such as black Maca root lyophilized powder and tinctures. The investigation of secondary metabolites by normal and reverse phase TLC-DESI-MS methods, described in this study, can aid in their identification as they begin to emerge in later stages of development in plant tissues such as leaves, hypocotyls, and roots.


Assuntos
Cromatografia em Camada Delgada/métodos , Glucosinolatos/análise , Lepidium/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Cromatografia de Fase Reversa/métodos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Glucosinolatos/química , Glucosinolatos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Sementes/química
18.
Chem Biodivers ; 18(3): e2000941, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507621

RESUMO

The essential oil from the annual plant Lepidium virginicum L. was chemically characterized in three consecutive years (2018-2020). The essential oils were evaluated in vitro and in situ on the causal agent of anthracnose in tamarillo fruits (Solanum betaceum). The main volatile constituents were phenylacetonitrile (>60 %), linalool (>10 %), limonene (>7 %) and α-terpineol (>5 %). The essential oil (MIC, 19-30 µg mL-1 ), phenylacetonitrile (MIC, 45 µg mL-1 ) and α-terpineol (MIC, 73 µg mL-1 ) caused a significant inhibition in the conidial viability from a wild strain of Colletotrichum acutatum, which was isolated and identified as a causal agent of anthracnose. The inoculation of conidia from C. acutatum in non-symptomatic tamarillo fruits, followed by the in situ treatment with different concentrations of the essential oil (>30 µg mL-1 ), phenylacetonitrile and α-terpineol, significantly (p<0.01) avoided the degradation of anthocyanins (delphinidin 3-O-rutinoside, cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside and pelargonidin 3-O-rutinoside) and carotenoids (ß-cryptoxanthin and ß-carotene) as well as retarded yellowing and necrosis triggered by anthracnose at least for 10 days. Our results suggest the potential use of the essential oil from L. virginicum as a natural component to preserve the nutraceutical content of tamarillo fruits against C. acutatum infection.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Colletotrichum/efeitos dos fármacos , Lepidium/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Suplementos Nutricionais , Frutas/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Substâncias Protetoras/química , Substâncias Protetoras/isolamento & purificação , Solanum/química
19.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 173: 366-378, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33453257

RESUMO

In the present study, ultrasound irradiation was utilized to synthesize a novel zinc metal-organic framework (MOF). Scanning electron microscopic images, exhibited homogenous morphology with a nano-sized distribution of the Zn-MOF structure as also confirmed by X-ray diffraction patterns. Following, physical immobilization of Lepidium draba peroxidase (LDP) were optimized on the Zn-MOF in phosphate buffer (50 mM, pH 6.5), ratio amount of MOF/enzyme; 7/1 after shaking for 15 min at 25 °C, with high protein loading of 109.9 mg/g and immobilization yield of 93.3%. Immobilized enzyme (IE) exhibited more than 330% enhanced specific activity and also exhibited more than 150% specific affinity to its substrate (3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine) with respect to the free enzyme (FE). Optimum temperature of the IE was obtained at 20 °C while its was 25 °C for the FE, and thermostability of the IE augmented at temperature of 30 °C and 40 °C by the factors of 104 and 108% respectively. pH stability under neutral and basic condition and storage stability of the IE improved with respect to the FE as well as its structural stability (Tm; 73 °C for IE vs. 63 °C for FE). Furthermore, immobilization is accompanied with alteration on the enzyme structure as revealed by the intrinsic and extrinsic fluorescence spectra.


Assuntos
Lepidium/enzimologia , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/síntese química , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Zinco/química , Estabilidade Enzimática , Enzimas Imobilizadas/química , Enzimas Imobilizadas/metabolismo , Cinética , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/farmacologia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Nanoestruturas , Tamanho da Partícula , Peroxidase/química , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Difração de Raios X
20.
Nat Prod Res ; 35(3): 494-498, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242759

RESUMO

The glucosinolate (GSL) profiles (inflorescence, stem, root, and fruit) of the wild-growing plant Lepidium graminifolium L. (Brassicaceae) from Croatia was established by LC-MS analysis. During this investigation, we confirmed the presence of benzyl- (1), 3-methoxybenzyl- (2), 4-hydroxybenzyl- (4), 4-methoxyindol-3-ylmethyl- (7) GSLs and reported for the first time in the plant the presence of (2 R)-hydroxybut-3-enyl- (11), (2S)-hydroxybut-3-enyl- (12), but-3-enyl- (13), and 2-phenylethyl- (14) GSLs. Finally, 3-hydroxybenzyl GSL (3) was isolated for the first time from L. graminifolium inflorescence and characterised by spectroscopic data interpretation.


Assuntos
Glucosinolatos/química , Lepidium/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Croácia , Frutas/química , Glucosinolatos/isolamento & purificação , Inflorescência/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Caules de Planta/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
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