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1.
Viruses ; 9(8)2017 08 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28786952

RESUMO

Cells have multiple means to induce apoptosis in response to viral infection. Poxviruses must prevent activation of cellular apoptosis to ensure successful replication. These viruses devote a substantial portion of their genome to immune evasion. Many of these immune evasion products expressed during infection antagonize cellular apoptotic pathways. Poxvirus products target multiple points in both the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways, thereby mitigating apoptosis during infection. Interestingly, recent evidence indicates that poxviruses also hijack cellular means of eliminating apoptotic bodies as a means to spread cell to cell through a process called apoptotic mimicry. Poxviruses are the causative agent of many human and veterinary diseases. Further, there is substantial interest in developing these viruses as vectors for a variety of uses including vaccine delivery and as oncolytic viruses to treat certain human cancers. Therefore, an understanding of the molecular mechanisms through which poxviruses regulate the cellular apoptotic pathways remains a top research priority. In this review, we consider anti-apoptotic strategies of poxviruses focusing on three relevant poxvirus genera: Orthopoxvirus, Molluscipoxvirus, and Leporipoxvirus. All three genera express multiple products to inhibit both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways with many of these products required for virulence.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Evasão da Resposta Imune , Infecções por Poxviridae/virologia , Poxviridae/fisiologia , Animais , Caspases/metabolismo , Humanos , Leporipoxvirus/patogenicidade , Leporipoxvirus/fisiologia , Molluscipoxvirus/patogenicidade , Molluscipoxvirus/fisiologia , Orthopoxvirus/patogenicidade , Orthopoxvirus/fisiologia , Poxviridae/genética , Poxviridae/patogenicidade , Infecções por Poxviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Poxviridae/fisiopatologia , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Virulência , Replicação Viral
2.
PLoS One ; 12(3): e0173056, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28257484

RESUMO

It has been well established that many vaccinia virus proteins suppress host antiviral pathways by targeting the transcription of antiviral proteins, thus evading the host innate immune system. However, whether viral proteins have an effect on the host's overall cellular transcription is less understood. In this study we investigated the regulation of heterochromatin during vaccinia virus infection. Heterochromatin is a highly condensed form of chromatin that is less transcriptionally active and characterized by methylation of histone proteins. We examined the change in methylation of two histone proteins, H3 and H4, which are major markers of heterochromatin, during the course of viral infection. Using immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry we were able to track the overall change in the methylated levels of H3K9 and H4K20. Our results suggest that there is significant increase in methylation of H3K9 and H4K20 during Orthopoxviruses infection compared to mock-infected cells. However, this effect was not seen when we infected cells with Leporipoxviruses. We further screened several vaccinia virus single and multi-gene deletion mutant and identified the vaccinia virus gene K7R as a contributor to the increase in cellular histone methylation during infection.


Assuntos
Epigênese Genética , Fibroblastos/virologia , Histonas/metabolismo , Vírus Vaccinia/genética , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Chlorocebus aethiops , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina , Embrião de Mamíferos , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Heterocromatina/metabolismo , Heterocromatina/ultraestrutura , Histonas/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Leporipoxvirus/genética , Leporipoxvirus/metabolismo , Metilação , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Mutação , Cultura Primária de Células , Vírus Vaccinia/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/genética
4.
J Virol ; 87(18): 10295-312, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23864636

RESUMO

Alphavirus replicase complexes are initially formed at the plasma membrane and are subsequently internalized by endocytosis. During the late stages of infection, viral replication organelles are represented by large cytopathic vacuoles, where replicase complexes bind to membranes of endolysosomal origin. In addition to viral components, these organelles harbor an unknown number of host proteins. In this study, a fraction of modified lysosomes carrying functionally intact replicase complexes was obtained by feeding Semliki Forest virus (SFV)-infected HeLa cells with dextran-covered magnetic nanoparticles and later magnetically isolating the nanoparticle-containing lysosomes. Stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture combined with quantitative proteomics was used to reveal 78 distinct cellular proteins that were at least 2.5-fold more abundant in replicase complex-carrying vesicles than in vesicles obtained from noninfected cells. These host components included the RNA-binding proteins PCBP1, hnRNP M, hnRNP C, and hnRNP K, which were shown to colocalize with the viral replicase. Silencing of hnRNP M and hnRNP C expression enhanced the replication of SFV, Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), and Sindbis virus (SINV). PCBP1 silencing decreased SFV-mediated protein synthesis, whereas hnRNP K silencing increased this synthesis. Notably, the effect of hnRNP K silencing on CHIKV- and SINV-mediated protein synthesis was opposite to that observed for SFV. This study provides a new approach for analyzing the proteome of the virus replication organelle of positive-strand RNA viruses and helps to elucidate how host RNA-binding proteins exert important but diverse functions during positive-strand RNA viral infection.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais/virologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Lisossomos/virologia , Proteoma/análise , Vírus da Floresta de Semliki/fisiologia , Replicação Viral , Alphavirus , Vírus Chikungunya , Células Epiteliais/química , Células HeLa , Humanos , Marcação por Isótopo , Leporipoxvirus , Lisossomos/química , Magnetismo , Proteômica/métodos , Vírus da Floresta de Semliki/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vírus Sindbis
5.
Vet Pathol ; 46(4): 667-72, 2009 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19276066

RESUMO

From September 2005 through October 2006, fibromatosis was diagnosed in 2 red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) and 1 gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis). All 3 squirrels had multifocal to coalescing, tan, firm alopecic cutaneous nodules. Two squirrels also had pulmonary nodules. Histologically, the cutaneous nodules had marked epidermal hyperplasia, with ballooning degeneration of keratinocytes, spongiosis, and eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions. The dermis was expanded by proliferation of atypical mesenchymal cells with cytoplasmic inclusions. Additional findings included pulmonary adenomatous hyperplasia with cytoplasmic inclusions, renal tubular epithelial hyperplasia with cytoplasmic inclusions, atypical mesenchymal proliferation in the liver, and atypical mesenchymal proliferation with cytoplasmic inclusions in the seminal vesicles. Ultrastructurally, poxviral particles were observed in skin scrapings and sections of cutaneous and pulmonary nodules. Polymerase chain reaction targeting the highly conserved Leporipoxvirus DNA polymerase gene was positive using DNA extracted from the cutaneous lesions of all 3 squirrels. Nucleotide sequence of the 390 base PCR amplicons was closely related to that of other members of the genus Leporipoxvirus. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of cutaneous and systemic poxviral disease in American red squirrels with molecular characterization of the squirrel fibroma virus.


Assuntos
Fibroma/veterinária , Leporipoxvirus/genética , Infecções por Poxviridae/veterinária , Doenças dos Roedores/patologia , Doenças dos Roedores/virologia , Sciuridae , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/veterinária , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Análise por Conglomerados , Fibroma/patologia , Fibroma/virologia , Queratinócitos/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Infecções por Poxviridae/patologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Especificidade da Espécie , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/patologia
6.
J Virol ; 79(9): 5799-811, 2005 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15827194

RESUMO

Tumorigenic leporipoxviruses encode catalytically inactive homologs of cellular Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1). The function of the orthologous myxoma virus M131R and Shope fibroma virus S131R gene products is uncertain, but they inhibit SOD1 activity by a process linked to binding its copper chaperone. Using a superoxide-sensitive dye (hydroethidine), we observed that virus infection increased intracellular superoxide levels in an M/S131R-dependent manner. To see whether this effect promotes infection, we deleted the Shope fibroma virus S131R gene and compared the clinical manifestations of wild-type and mutant virus infections in rabbits. S131RDelta virus produced significantly smaller fibroxanthosarcoma-like growths in vivo and, at a point where these growths were already receding, wild-type infections still showed extensive leukocyte infiltration, necrosis, and fibromatous cell proliferation. Coincidentally, whereas Jurkat cells are protected from mitochondria- and Fas-mediated apoptosis by wild-type myxoma virus in vitro, M131RDelta virus could not block Fas-initiated apoptosis as judged by DNA laddering, terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-fluorescein nick end labeling, and caspase 3 cleavage assays. These data suggest that tumorigenic poxviruses can modulate intracellular redox status to their advantage to stimulate infected cell growth and inhibit programmed cell death.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Divisão Celular , Leporipoxvirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Poxviridae/virologia , Superóxido Dismutase/fisiologia , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/virologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Leporipoxvirus/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Coelhos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase-1 , Regulação para Cima , Fatores de Virulência , Zinco/metabolismo
7.
Methods Mol Biol ; 269: 51-64, 2004.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15114007

RESUMO

Poxvirus DNA is not infectious because the initiation of the infective process requires proteins encapsidated along with the virus genome. However, infectious virus can be produced if purified poxvirus DNA is transfected into cells previously infected with another poxvirus. This process is termed heterologous reactivation if the infecting virus is different from the transfected virus. We describe a method in which the high-frequency recombination and replication reactions catalyzed by the Leporipoxvirus, Shope fibroma virus (SFV), can be coupled with SFV-promoted reactivation reactions to rapidly construct recombinant vaccinia viruses in high yields (25-100% recombinant progeny). The reactivated vaccinia viruses are easily purified free of the SFV helper virus by plating mixed populations of virus on cells that support only the growth of vaccinia virus. These heterologous reactivation reactions can be used to manipulate the structure of virus genomes and produce viruses that express recombinant proteins at high levels. We illustrate the method by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) cloning the gene encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP), then using double-strand break repair reactions to produce a recombinant virus that expresses high levels of GFP.


Assuntos
DNA Viral/genética , Leporipoxvirus/genética , Orthopoxvirus/genética , Vírus Vaccinia/genética , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Cricetinae , Leporipoxvirus/fisiologia , Orthopoxvirus/fisiologia , Recombinação Genética , Vírus Vaccinia/crescimento & desenvolvimento
8.
J Virol ; 77(13): 7281-90, 2003 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12805426

RESUMO

Poxvirus DNA is not infectious because establishing an infection requires the activities of enzymes packaged in the virion. This barrier can be overcome by transfecting virus DNA into cells previously infected with another poxvirus, since the resident virus can provide the trans-acting systems needed to reactivate transfected DNA. In this study we show that cells infected with a leporipoxvirus, Shope fibroma virus (SFV), can reactivate vaccinia virus DNA. Similar heterologous packaging systems which used fowlpox-infected cells to reactivate vaccinia virus have been described, but SFV-infected cells promoted a far more efficient reaction that can produce virus titers exceeding 10(6) PFU/ micro g of transfected DNA. SFV-promoted reactions also exploit the hyperrecombinogenic systems previously characterized in SFV-infected cells, and these coupled recombination and reactivation reactions could be used to delete nonessential regions of the vaccinia virus genome and to reconstruct vaccinia virus from overlapping DNA fragments. SFV-catalyzed recombination reactions need only two 18- to 20-bp homologies to target PCR amplicons to restriction enzyme-cut vaccinia virus vectors, and this reaction feature was used to rapidly clone and express a gene encoding fluorescent green protein without the need for plaque purification or selectable markers. The ability of SFV-infected cells to reactivate fragments of vaccinia virus was ultimately limited by the number of recombinational exchanges required and one cannot reconstruct vaccinia virus from multiple PCR fragments spanning essential portions of the genome. These observations suggest that recombination is an integral part of poxvirus reactivation reactions and provide a useful new technique for altering the structure of poxvirus genomes.


Assuntos
DNA Viral/genética , Leporipoxvirus/genética , Orthopoxvirus/genética , Recombinação Genética , Ativação Viral , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Linhagem Celular , Cricetinae , Dano ao DNA , Reparo do DNA , Leporipoxvirus/fisiologia , Microscopia Confocal , Orthopoxvirus/fisiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Transfecção
9.
J Biol Chem ; 278(35): 33175-84, 2003 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12773543

RESUMO

Many Chordopoxviruses encode catalytically inactive homologs of cellular Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD). The biological function of these proteins is unknown, although the proteins encoded by Leporipoxviruses have been shown to promote a slow decline in the level of superoxide dismutase activity in virus-infected cells. To gain more insights into their function, we have further characterized the enzymatic and biochemical properties of a SOD homolog encoded by Shope fibroma virus. Shope fibroma virus SOD has retained the zinc binding properties of its cellular homolog, but cannot bind copper. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that it requires at least four amino acid substitutions to partially restore copper binding activity, but even these changes still did not restore catalytic activity. Reciprocal co-immunoprecipitation experiments showed that recombinant Shope fibroma virus SOD forms very stable complexes with cellular copper chaperones for SOD and these observations were confirmed using glutathione-S-transferase tagged proteins. Similar viral SOD/chaperone complexes were formed in cells infected with a closely related myxoma virus, where we also noted that some of the SOD antigen co-localizes with mitochondrial markers using confocal fluorescence microscopy. About 2% of the viral SOD was subsequently detected in gradient-purified mitochondria extracted from virus-infected cells. These poxviral SOD homologs do not form stable complexes with cellular Cu,Zn-SOD or affect its concentration. We suggest that Leporipoxvirus SOD homologs are catalytically inert decoy proteins that are designed to interfere in the proper metallation and activation of cellular Cu,Zn-SOD. This reaction might be advantageous for tumorigenic poxviruses, since higher levels of superoxide have been proposed to have anti-apoptotic and tumorigenic activity.


Assuntos
Cobre/metabolismo , Leporipoxvirus/enzimologia , Superóxido Dismutase/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Western Blotting , Catálise , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Vírus do Fibroma dos Coelhos/enzimologia , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Humanos , Metais/farmacologia , Microscopia Confocal , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Mutação , Mixoma/metabolismo , Myxoma virus/enzimologia , Filogenia , Plasmídeos/metabolismo , Testes de Precipitina , Ligação Proteica , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Zinco/metabolismo
10.
Virology ; 296(1): 125-35, 2002 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12036324

RESUMO

Vertebrate poxviruses encode homologs of cellular cupro-zinc superoxide dismutases (Cu-Zn SOD). In this study we have examined the molecular genetic properties of two Cu-Zn SOD homologs encoded by the Shope fibroma virus (SFV) and myxoma virus. These Leporipoxvirus proteins should be catalytically inactive as judged by the point mutations which alter a key catalytic arginine and restructure the predicted Cu-binding domain. This prediction was confirmed using in situ gel assays and recombinant proteins produced both in bacteria and in mammalian cells. Western blot analysis showed that these proteins are produced in abundance late in infection and can, upon exposure to oxidizing conditions, form disulfide cross-linked dimers. They are also virion components and not essential for growth in culture or virulence. Leporipoxvirus Cu-Zn SOD homologs affected two phenotypes. First, deletion of the myxoma M131R gene caused the mutant virus to grow better ( approximately 10-fold) in culture than does the wild-type parent. Second, expression of either native or recombinant Leporipoxvirus proteins is accompanied by a decline in cellular Cu-Zn SOD activity. We concluded that these gene products can somehow modulate the activity of host Cu-Zn SODs, but what advantage is thus gained by the virus remains to be established.


Assuntos
Leporipoxvirus/patogenicidade , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Catálise , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação para Baixo , Vírus do Fibroma dos Coelhos/genética , Vírus do Fibroma dos Coelhos/metabolismo , Deleção de Genes , Genoma Viral , Haplorrinos , Leporipoxvirus/enzimologia , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Myxoma virus/genética , Myxoma virus/metabolismo , Coelhos , Alinhamento de Sequência , Superóxido Dismutase/biossíntese , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Virulência , Replicação Viral
11.
Virology ; 264(2): 319-43, 1999 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10562495

RESUMO

We have determined the complete DNA sequence of the Leporipoxvirus Shope fibroma virus (SFV). The SFV genome spans 159.8 kb and encodes 165 putative genes of which 13 are duplicated in the 12.4-kb terminal inverted repeats. Although most SFV genes have homologs encoded by other Chordopoxvirinae, the SFV genome lacks a key gene required for the production of extracellular enveloped virus. SFV also encodes only the smaller ribonucleotide reductase subunit and has a limited nucleotide biosynthetic capacity. SFV preserves the Chordopoxvirinae gene order from S012L near the left end of the chromosome through to S142R (homologs of vaccinia F2L and B1R, respectively). The unique right end of SFV appears to be genetically unstable because when the sequence is compared with that of myxoma virus, five myxoma homologs have been deleted (C. Cameron, S. Hota-Mitchell, L. Chen, J. Barrett, J.-X. Cao, C. Macaulay, D. Willer, D. Evans, and G. McFadden, 1999, Virology 264, 298-318). Most other differences between these two Leporipoxviruses are located in the telomeres. Leporipoxviruses encode several genes not found in other poxviruses including four small hydrophobic proteins of unknown function (S023R, S119L, S125R, and S132L), an alpha 2, 3-sialyltransferase (S143R), a protein belonging to the Ig-like protein superfamily (S141R), and a protein resembling the DNA-binding domain of proteins belonging to the HIN-200 protein family S013L). SFV also encodes a type II DNA photolyase (S127L). Melanoplus sanguinipes entomopoxvirus encodes a similar protein, but SFV is the first mammalian virus potentially capable of photoreactivating ultraviolet DNA damage.


Assuntos
DNA Viral/análise , Vírus do Fibroma dos Coelhos/genética , Genoma Viral , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Linhagem Celular , Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica , Genes Virais , Humanos , Leporipoxvirus/genética , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Vírus do Molusco Contagioso/genética , Coelhos , Sequências Repetitivas de Ácido Nucleico , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Transcrição Genética , Vírus Vaccinia/genética , Vírus da Varíola/genética , Proteínas Virais/genética
12.
Exp Mol Pathol ; 66(1): 31-8, 1999 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10331962

RESUMO

We studied the impact of tumorigenic poxviral infection on key regulators of cell cycle progression. Malignant fibroma virus (MV) is a virulent poxvirus that causes severe immunological impairment in vivo and in vitro. It also directs expression of important cellular regulatory proteins, such as p53. Its avirulent relative, Shope fibroma virus (SFV), has little effect on the immune system or p53. Accordingly we examined the effects of MV and SFV on the cell cycle in RK-13 rabbit kidney fibroblasts. MV caused an accumulation of cells in G2/M phase and decreased the percentage of cells in G0/G1. Prolongation of G2/M phase was associated with increased levels of cyclin B protein, decreases in cyclin A and cdc2 proteins, and diminished cdc2 activity. In contrast SFV did not affect cellular cycling detectably. SFV infection was accompanied by large increases in cyclin A and cdc2 proteins and increased cdc2 activity. Thus alterations in cell cycle transit during virus infection may reflect active direction in which virus induces changes in cell cycle regulators. Such changes may be important in the differences in virulence between MV and SFV.


Assuntos
Ciclo Celular/fisiologia , Vírus do Fibroma dos Coelhos/fisiologia , Vírus do Fibroma dos Coelhos/patogenicidade , Leporipoxvirus/fisiologia , Leporipoxvirus/patogenicidade , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Fibroblastos , Rim , Cinética , Coelhos , Fatores de Tempo , Virulência
13.
J Virol ; 73(3): 2376-84, 1999 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9971821

RESUMO

A 4.7-kb region of DNA sequence contained at the right end of the myxoma virus EcoRI-G2 fragment located 24 kb from the right end of the 163-kb genome has been determined. This region of the myxoma virus genome encodes homologs of the vaccinia virus genes A51R, A52R, A55R, A56R, and B1R; the myxoma virus gene equivalents have been given the prefix M. The MA55 gene encodes a protein belonging to the kelch family of actin-binding proteins, while the MA56 gene encodes a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily related to a variety of cellular receptors and adhesion molecules. A novel myxoma virus early gene, MST3N, is a member of the eukaryotic sialyltransferase gene family located between genes MA51 and MA52. Detergent lysates prepared from myxoma virus-infected cell cultures contained a virally encoded sialyltransferase activity that catalyzed the transfer of sialic acid (Sia) from CMP-Sia to an asialofetuin glycoprotein acceptor. Analysis of the in vitro-sialylated glycoprotein acceptor by digestion with N-glycosidase F and by lectin binding suggested that the MST3N gene encodes an enzyme with Galbeta1,3(4)GlcNAc alpha2,3-sialyltransferase specificity for the N-linked oligosaccharide of glycoprotein. Lectin binding assays demonstrated that alpha2,3-sialyltransferase activity is expressed by several known leporipoxviruses that naturally infect Sylvilagus rabbits. The sialyltransferase is nonessential for myxoma virus replication in cell culture; however, disruption of the MST3N gene caused attenuation in vivo. The possible implications of the myxoma virus-expressed sialyltransferase in terms of the host's defenses against infection are discussed.


Assuntos
Myxoma virus/enzimologia , Sialiltransferases/fisiologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Linhagem Celular , Chlorocebus aethiops , Leporipoxvirus/enzimologia , Masculino , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Myxoma virus/genética , Myxoma virus/patogenicidade , Fases de Leitura Aberta , RNA Mensageiro/análise , Coelhos , Sialiltransferases/genética , Virulência
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