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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35816443

RESUMO

A novel actinomycete strain PM05-2T was isolated from the lichen Parmotrema praesorediosum (Nyl.) Hale collected from Chaiyaphum Province, Thailand. The taxonomic position of the strain was studied using the polyphasic approach. Based on the morphology and chemotaxonomic properties, strain PM05-2T was identified as a member of the genus Actinomadura. The whole-cell hydrolysate contained meso-diaminopimelic acid, rhamnose, ribose, xylose, madurose, glucose and galactose. The polar lipids were phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannoside, one unidentified phosphoglycolipid, four unidentified phospholipids and one unidentified lipid. The menaquinones were MK-9(H6), MK-9(H4), MK-9(H2), MK-9(H8) and MK-9(H0). The major cellular fatty acids were C16:0 and C18:1 ω9c. Strain PM05-2T showed the highest 16S rRNA gene similarity to Actinomadura hibisca NBRC 15177T (98.58%), Actinomadura kijaniata NBRC 14229T (98.29 %) and Actinomadura namibiensis DSM 44197T (98.14 %). The phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that strain PM05-2T was related to A. hibisca NBRC 15177T, A. kijaniata NBRC 14229T, A. namibiensis DSM 44197T and Actinomadura macrotermitis RB68T. The genomic analysis revealed that average nucleotide identity values based on both blast and MUMmer between strain PM05-2T and the relative type strains ranged from 77.6 to 86.4%. The digital DNA-DNA hybridization values among the strains were lower than the threshold for assigning to the same species. The taxonomic results suggested that strain PM05-2T represented a novel species of the genus Actinomadura for which the name Actinomadura parmotrematis is proposed. The type strain is PM05-2T (=TBRC 15492T=NBRC 115416T).


Assuntos
Actinomycetales , Líquens , Actinomadura , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Parmeliaceae , Fosfolipídeos/análise , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Microbiologia do Solo , Vitamina K 2
2.
J Med Food ; 25(7): 770-777, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35834632

RESUMO

Umbilicaria esculenta (UE), an edible lichen, is widespread in northeast Asian countries, including China, Japan, and Korea. In the present study, we examined the antiwrinkle activity of UE. We observed that the UE extract (UEE) suppressed ultraviolet (UV)-induced matrix metalloprotein-1 (MMP-1) expression and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in a human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT) and human skin tissue. In addition, UEE reversed the UV-induced decrease in collagen in the human skin tissue. Excessive and chronic UV exposure is a key factor underlying skin wrinkle formation via MMP-1 expression. As treatment with UEE disrupted the UV-activated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway, we applied an antibody array to unveil the underlying mechanism of UEE. Interestingly, UEE treatment inhibited ErbB2 phosphorylation, but not epidermal growth factor receptor phosphorylation, a heterodimerization partner with ErbB2. Furthermore, UEE treatment enhanced UV-suppressed phosphatase activity via ROS suppression. Collectively, our findings indicate that UEE enhances ErbB2 dephosphorylation to suppress UV-induced MMP-1 expression.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Receptor ErbB-2 , Envelhecimento da Pele , Pele , Extratos de Tecidos , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Células HaCaT/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HaCaT/metabolismo , Humanos , Líquens , Metaloproteinase 1 da Matriz/genética , Metaloproteinase 1 da Matriz/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/metabolismo , Pele/patologia , Envelhecimento da Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos de Tecidos/farmacologia , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos
3.
Arch Microbiol ; 204(8): 523, 2022 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35881248

RESUMO

The present meta-analysis provides literature data on the effect of lichen extracts and single secondary metabolites used against Fusarium spp. moulds. Lichen extracts were obtained from 51 corticolous, 17 terricolous and 18 saxicolous lichen species and 37 secondary compounds were tested against eight fungal species, i.e., Fusarium acuminatum, F. avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. fujikuroi, F. oxysporum, F. roseum, F. solani and F. udum. The researchers used several test methods, mostly to determine MIC and IZ. Extracts were obtained using several solvents, mainly organic ones with use of the Soxhlet apparatus. The most frequently tested species was F. oxysporum, against which lichen substances from Alectoria sarmentosa, Cladonia mitis, C. rangiferina, Flavoparmelia caperata, Hypotrachyna cirrhata, Leucodermia leucomelos, Parmotrema austrosinense, P. reticulatum, Physcia aipolia, Pseudevernia furfuracea, Roccella montagnei and Umbilicaria nylanderiana and secondary metabolites such as 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy-3,6-dimethylbenzoic acid, atranorin, lecanoric and (+)-usnic acids showed the highest antifungal potential. These agencies could compete with the potential of fungicides, such as flucytosine and fluconazole. Other species have been poorly investigated. Statistical analysis of literature data showed that the fungistatic potential of lichen extracts is significantly different from individual secondary metabolites. Similarly, the potential of secondary metabolites often differs significantly from that of non-lichen substances. This meta-analysis indicates the potential of lichen substances as future anti-fusarial agents.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais , Fusarium , Líquens , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia
4.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0271035, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35802691

RESUMO

Many lichens are well known to accumulate radiocaesium and, thus acting as biomonitors of contamination levels. However, the actual localisation and chemical forms of radiocaesium in contaminated lichens have not yet been elucidated because, despite their high radioactivity, these forms are present in trace amounts as chemical entities. Here, we use autoradiography and demonstrate for the first time in situ microscale localisation of radiocaesium within thallus tissues to investigate the radiocaesium forms and their accumulation mechanism. Radiocaesium distributions showed similar trends in lichen tissues collected two and six years after the Fukushima nuclear accident. The radiocaesium was localised in the brown pigmented parts i.e., melanin-like substances, in the lower cortex of lichen thallus. Quantum chemical calculations showed that functional group of melanin-like substances can chelate Cs+ ion, which indicates that the Cs+ ions form complexes with the substances. Based on these findings, we suggest that radiocaesium ions may be retained stably in melanin-like substances for long periods (two to six years) due to steric factors, such as those seen in porphyrin-like structures and via multimer formation in the lower cortex. In addition, electron microscopy and autoradiography were used to observe radiocaesium-bearing microparticles (CsMPs) on/in the upper cortex and around the medullary layer. Micron-sized particles appeared to adhere to the surface tissue of the thallus, as shown by electron microscopy, suggesting that the particles were trapped by development of an adhesive layer; that is, CsMPs were trapped both physically and physiologically. These findings provide information on in situ localisation of two chemical forms of radiocaesium, cations and particles, in lichen thallus tissues and their accumulation mechanisms.


Assuntos
Acidente Nuclear de Fukushima , Líquens , Monitoramento de Radiação , Radioisótopos de Césio/análise , Melaninas
5.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 18(1): 52, 2022 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35907853

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mushrooms and lichens are natural therapeutic resources whose millenary importance persists in indigenous and mestizo communities of Mexico. However, in this regard, in the northern part of the country there are few ethnobiological explorations. This study investigates the local knowledge of medicinal mushrooms and lichens used by Yuman peoples, whose native speakers are in imminent danger of extinction along with their biocultural heritage due to changes in their traditional primary activities and the usurpation of their ancestral lands. METHODS: Ethnographic techniques in the field and standard lichenological and mycological methods in the laboratory were used. RESULTS: Information was obtained on the medicinal use of 20 species, of which six are lichens of the genus Xanthoparmelia and 14 are non-lichenized fungi, mainly gasteroids. The latter are primarily used to treat skin lesions, while lichens are used in heart, urinary, and gastrointestinal diseases. The transmission of this local knowledge to future generations is discussed, as well as the intercultural cognitive convergence about the uses of medicinal mushrooms and lichens. CONCLUSIONS: The Yuman peoples preserve knowledge, practices and beliefs around mushrooms and lichens. Although increasingly less used, they still form part of their culinary and traditional medicine; even some are also used as ludic and ornamental purposes, and as trail markers. Beyond the pragmatic importance of these organisms, traditional knowledge about them is an essential part of the cultural identity that the Yuman peoples strive to preserve.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Líquens , Humanos , Conhecimento , Medicina Tradicional , México
6.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0269638, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35709144

RESUMO

Recently reported specimens of the enigmatic Ediacaran fossil Dickinsonia from Russia show damage and repair that provides evidence of how they grew, and of their biological affinities. Marginal and terminal areas of wilting deformation are necrotic zones separating regenerated growth, sometimes on two divergent axes, rather than a single axis. Necrotic zones of damage to Dickinsonia are not a thick scar or callus, like a wound or amputation. Nor are they smooth transitions to a regenerated tail or arm. The wilted necrotic zone is most like damage by freezing, salt, or sunburn of leaves and lichens, compatible with evidence of terrestrial habitat from associated frigid and gypsic paleosols. Dickinsonia did not regrow by postembryonic addition of modules from a subterminal or patterned growth zone as in earthworms, myriapods, trilobites, crustaceans, and lizards. Rather Dickinsonia postembryonic regrowth from sublethal damage was from microscopic apical and lateral meristems, as in plants and lichens. Considered as fungal, Dickinsonia, and perhaps others of Class Vendobionta, were more likely Glomeromycota or Mucoromycotina, rather than Ascomycota or Basidiomycota.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Glomeromycota , Líquens , Biologia , Fósseis
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 10724, 2022 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35750715

RESUMO

Lichen-forming fungi are mutualistic symbionts of green algae or cyanobacteria. We report the comparative analysis of six genomes of lichen-forming fungi in classes Eurotiomycetes and Lecanoromycetes to identify genomic information related to their symbiotic lifestyle. The lichen-forming fungi exhibited genome reduction via the loss of dispensable genes encoding plant-cell-wall-degrading enzymes, sugar transporters, and transcription factors. The loss of these genes reflects the symbiotic biology of lichens, such as the absence of pectin in the algal cell wall and obtaining specific sugars from photosynthetic partners. The lichens also gained many lineage- and species-specific genes, including those encoding small secreted proteins. These genes are primarily induced during the early stage of lichen symbiosis, indicating their significant roles in the establishment of lichen symbiosis.Our findings provide comprehensive genomic information for six lichen-forming fungi and novel insights into lichen biology and the evolution of symbiosis.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Clorófitas , Líquens , Ascomicetos/genética , Clorófitas/genética , Clorófitas/metabolismo , Fungos/genética , Genômica , Líquens/genética , Líquens/microbiologia , Filogenia , Simbiose/genética
8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11048, 2022 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35773369

RESUMO

We show that obligate lignicoles in lichenized Micarea are predominately asexual whereas most facultative lignicoles reproduce sexually. Our phylogenetic analyses (ITS, mtSSU, Mcm7) together with ancestral state reconstruction show that the shift in reproduction mode has evolved independently several times within the group and that facultative and obligate lignicoles are sister species. The analyses support the assumption that the ancestor of these species was a facultative lignicole. We hypothezise that a shift in substrate requirement from bark to wood leads to differentiation in reproduction mode and becomes a driver of speciation. This is the first example of lichenized fungi where reproduction mode is connected to substrate requirement. This is also the first example where such an association is demonstrated to spark lichen speciation. Our main hypothesis is that obligate species on dead wood need to colonize new suitable substrata relatively fast and asexual reproduction is more effective a strategy for successful colonization.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Líquens , Filogenia , Ascomicetos/classificação , Líquens/classificação , Reprodução Assexuada
9.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0269801, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35696414

RESUMO

The DeLong Mountain Transportation System (DMTS) haul road links the Red Dog Mine-one of the world's largest zinc mines-with a shipping port on the Chukchi Sea in northwest Alaska, USA. The road traverses 32 km of National Park Service (NPS) lands managed by Cape Krusenstern National Monument (CAKR). Fugitive dusts from ore concentrate transport and mining operations have dispersed zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and metal sulfides onto NPS lands since the mine began operating in 1989. This study assessed the effects of metal-enriched road dusts on the diversity and community structure of lichens, bryophytes, and vascular plants in dwarf-shrub tundra within CAKR. In a Bayesian posterior predictions model, lichen species richness (LSR) was highly correlated to distance from the haul road and was distributed on the landscape consistently with the spatial patterns of Zn, Pb and Cd patterns published earlier in this journal. The mean modeled LSR of the 3000-4000 m distance class was 41.3, and LSR decreased progressively down to 9.4 species in the 0-50 m class. An ordination of 93 lichen species by 91 plots revealed strong community patterns based on distance from the haul road. The major community gradient was highly correlated (r = 0.99) with LSR and negatively correlated with Cd, Pb and Zn (-0.79 < r < -0.74). Ordinations of bryophyte classes showed less response than lichens to distance from the road and heavy metals values, and vascular plant ordination showed less still. Measures of bryophyte health such as the midrib blackening and frond width of Hylocomium splendens were positively correlated with distance from the haul road and negatively correlated with this same suite of elements. A total area of approximately 55 km2 showed moderate to strong impacts on lichens from fugitive dusts. This is equivalent to an area of almost 1 km on both sides of the haul road running 32 km through CAKR.


Assuntos
Líquens , Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Alaska , Teorema de Bayes , Cádmio/análise , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Chumbo , Metais Pesados/análise , Parques Recreativos , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Tundra , Zinco/análise
10.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 24(6): 79-93, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35695640

RESUMO

Lichens produce a myriad of bioactive compounds that can be exploited as reducing and capping agents in the green process of synthesizing nanoparticles. In this study, we exploit a simple, environmentally safe method for synthesizing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), using aqueous extracts of three lichen species (Lobaria pulmonaria, Ramalina farinacea, and Evernia prunastri) for the first time. Characterization showed that the three lichen species selected could be perfectly suitable as reducing agents to produce AgNPs. First, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy confirmed the presence of metallic silver with a maximum absorbance at 425 nm. Second, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis confirmed the chemical compounds involved in reduction. Third, the elemental composition of AgNPs was illustrated by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Finally, scanning electron microscopy images displayed the size and shape of biosynthesized particles. The prepared extracts containing AgNPs showed high contents of phenolic compounds and high antioxidant activities on three assays (DPPH, ferric reducing power, and chelating power). Moreover, since bacteria are developing resistance to many common antibiotics, AgNPs produced in an environmentally safe method are an interesting replacement. The antibacterial assessment revealed more effective activity against Gram-negative than Gram-positive bacteria and a bactericidal effect against all strains tested. In this study, we present a pioneering evaluation of acetylcholinesterase inhibition by lichen-based AgNPs. The three extracts exhibited strong enzyme inhibition, with IC50 values of 3.46 ± 0.09, 3.59 ± 0.02, and 4.34 ± 0.03 mg/mL for L. pulmonaria, R. farinacea, and E. prunastri, respectively. The green approach presented would encourage the nontoxic production of AgNPs, suggesting pharmaceutical applications.


Assuntos
Líquens , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Acetilcolinesterase , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Prata/química , Prata/farmacologia , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 841: 156779, 2022 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35724796

RESUMO

Dryland ecosystems are often nitrogen-limited, and small nitrogen inputs may produce large responses to dryland ecological processes, such as gaseous nitrogen emission. The effect of increased anthropogenic nitrogen deposition on N2O and NO emissions in desert ecosystems is unclear, especially in non-growing seasons when the surface is covered with snow. In this study, nitrogen applications were performed on biological soil crusts (lichen crust and moss crust, bare sand for control) in the Gurbantunggut Desert, Northwest China. We measured the fluxes of N2O and NO and related nitrogen cycle functional gene abundances in winter for three-years period. Nitrogen addition significantly affected N2O emissions and increased the abundances of key functional gene for nitrogen cycle, while it only slightly influenced NO emissions. These effects of nitrogen addition depended on composition of biological soil crusts. For bare sand and lichen crust, nitrogen addition significantly increased N2O emissions, whereas for moss crust, only a negligible effect was observed. Meanwhile, significant differences in nitrogen cycle functional gene abundances were found among different composition of biological soil crusts. Abundance of amoA, narG, and nosZ genes were highly related to N2O and NO emissions. Thus, our results indicate that gaseous nitrogen emissions were generally increased by nitrogen addition through their effects on related functional microbial groups. The effects were regulated by composition of biological soil crusts which can buffer the effects of increasing nitrogen addition during winter.


Assuntos
Briófitas , Líquens , China , Ecossistema , Gases , Nitrogênio , Óxido Nitroso/análise , Areia , Estações do Ano , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
12.
Chem Biodivers ; 19(7): e202200408, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35652525

RESUMO

In this study, the cytotoxic activity of acetone extracts of Cladonia mitis was assessed with respect to the content of usnic acid, a secondary metabolite commonly present in this species. Following quantitative HPLC analysis of the extracts, usnic acid was isolated by preparative chromatography. The study of cytotoxic activity was performed using the MTT test on three melanoma cell lines - HTB140, A375 and WM793. The selectivity of action was also assessed by comparing the effect towards normal human keratinocytes HaCaT. The results showed a dose-dependent cytotoxic activity of the extracts tested and usnic acid itself, but no relationship was found between the content of usnic acid and the activity of the extracts. Furthermore, the extracts showed varied, but rather low anti-tyrosinase activity. Other in vitro and in vivo studies are necessary to demonstrate that C. mitis extracts may be useful in the adjuvant external treatment of skin melanoma.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Líquens , Melanoma , Acetona , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Ascomicetos , Benzofuranos , Humanos , Líquens/química , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico
13.
Environ Pollut ; 308: 119678, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35753543

RESUMO

Lichens serve as important bioindicators of air pollution in cities. Here, we studied the diversity of epiphytic lichens in the urban area of Munich, Bavaria, southern Germany, to determine which factors influence species composition and diversity. Lichen diversity was quantified in altogether 18 plots and within each, five deciduous trees were investigated belonging to on average three tree species (range 1-5). Of the 18 plots, two were sampled in control areas in remote areas of southern Germany. For each lichen species, frequency of occurrence was determined in 10 quadrats of 100 cm2 on the tree trunk. Moreover, the cover percentage of bryophytes was determined and used as a variable to represent potential biotic competition. We related our diversity data (species richness, Shannon index, evenness, abundance) to various environmental variables including tree traits, i.e. bark pH levels and species affiliation and air pollution data, i.e. NO2 and SO2 concentrations measured in the study plots. The SO2 levels measured in our study were generally very low, while NO2 levels were rather high in some plots. We found that the species composition of the epiphytic lichen communities was driven mainly by NO2 pollution levels and all of the most common species in our study were nitrophilous lichens. Low NO2 but high SO2 values were associated with high lichen evenness. Tree-level lichen diversity and abundance were mainly determined by tree traits, not air pollution. These results confirm that ongoing NO2 air pollution within cities is a major threat to lichen diversity, with non-nitrophilous lichens likely experiencing the greatest risk of local extinctions in urban areas in the future. Our study moreover highlights the importance of large urban green spaces for species diversity. City planners need to include large green spaces when designing urban areas, both to improve biodiversity and to promote human health and wellbeing.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Líquens , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio , Árvores
14.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 174: 107543, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35690378

RESUMO

While advances in sequencing technologies have been invaluable for understanding evolutionary relationships, increasingly large genomic data sets may result in conflicting evolutionary signals that are often caused by biological processes, including hybridization. Hybridization has been detected in a variety of organisms, influencing evolutionary processes such as generating reproductive barriers and mixing standing genetic variation. Here, we investigate the potential role of hybridization in the diversification of the most speciose genus of lichen-forming fungi, Xanthoparmelia. As Xanthoparmelia is projected to have gone through recent, rapid diversification, this genus is particularly suitable for investigating and interpreting the origins of phylogenomic conflict. Focusing on a clade of Xanthoparmelia largely restricted to the Holarctic region, we used a genome skimming approach to generate 962 single-copy gene regions representing over 2 Mbp of the mycobiont genome. From this genome-scale dataset, we inferred evolutionary relationships using both concatenation and coalescent-based species tree approaches. We also used three independent tests for hybridization. Although different species tree reconstruction methods recovered largely consistent and well-supported trees, there was widespread incongruence among individual gene trees. Despite challenges in differentiating hybridization from ILS in situations of recent rapid radiations, our genome-wide analyses detected multiple potential hybridization events in the Holarctic clade, suggesting one possible source of trait variability in this hyperdiverse genus. This study highlights the value in using a pluralistic approach for characterizing genome-scale conflict, even in groups with well-resolved phylogenies, while highlighting current challenges in detecting the specific impacts of hybridization.


Assuntos
Líquens , Fungos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Hibridização Genética , Líquens/genética , Líquens/microbiologia , Filogenia
15.
J Trace Elem Med Biol ; 73: 127021, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35753173

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine whether the residents living closer to the core industrial zone (Fos-sur-Mer) had higher trace metals blood and urinary levels than residents who lived further away (Saint-Martin-de-Crau). MATERIALS AND METHODS: As part of The INDEX study, we measured the following trace metals into blood and urine samples of 138 participants (80 in the core industrial zone and 58 in the reference area): Antimony, Arsenic, Cadmium, Chromium, Cobalt, Mercury, Nickel, Lead and Vanadium. Participants were recruited using a stratified random sampling method and had to meet the following inclusion criteria: 30-65 years old, living in the area since at least 3 years, not working in the industrial sector, non-smoker. We used single-pollutant multivariate linear regression models, using substitution when censored data were under 15 % and Tobit models alternatively, adjusting for personal physiological, social, dietary, housing characteristics and leisure activities. We also measured these trace metals in samples of lichens (Xanthoria parietina) and atmospheric particles (PM2.5). RESULTS: We showed higher lichen and air levels of several metals (Cd, Cr, Co, Ni and Pb) in the exposed area. Living close to the core industrial zone was significantly associated with an increase in blood levels of lead (adjusted geometric mean = 17.2 [15.8-18.7] vs 15.1 [13.7-16.7] µg.L-1, p < 0.05). We report significant increase of some metals urinary levels among residents of the industrial port zone, as the result of the use of the environment, itself contaminated by industrial activities: dietary history of self-consumption of vegetables (Cadmium), eggs and poultries (Vanadium). However, Vanadium levels were greater among self-consumers of poultry in the reference area and gardeners had circulatory levels of Lead greater than non-gardeners only in the reference area. Consumption of non-local sea-products increased the level of Cadmium. CONCLUSIONS: These results brought interesting clues, in complement to national programs, regarding the exposure to trace metals of residents living in a major industrial harbor.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Poluentes Ambientais , Líquens , Metais Pesados , Oligoelementos , Adulto , Idoso , Arsênio/urina , Cádmio/urina , Exposição Dietética , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vanádio
16.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(7): 496, 2022 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35691975

RESUMO

The utilisation of biological organisms, especially lichens in the environmental biomonitoring approach, has been proven to be an effective and low-cost technique suitable for developing countries like Malaysia. Index of Atmospheric Purity (IAP) tracked compositional changes in lichen communities which correlate with changes in levels of atmospheric pollution. Gunung Jerai was formed during the Cambrian Period; thus, it is a biodiversity hotspot ideal for a diverse range of lichens. In the present work, a total of 44 corticolous lichen species were sampled and identified to evaluate the pollution status of Gunung Jerai using IAP, starting from 80 to 1200 m with 300 m intervals. The samples were collected within 10 × 50 cm sampling grids attached to 60 trees, bringing a total of 120 000 cm2 of the sampling area. The air quality of the sampling area was determined by IAP score, a low score indicated by high levels of pollution. Results showed that the lowest IAP score was recorded at 300 m; meanwhile, the highest IAP score was recorded at 900 m elevation. Elevational gradient and pollution have a significant effect on the IAP score of Gunung Jerai. On average, Gunung Jerai is indicated as having a low pollution status. However, several elevations of the rainforest showed high and moderate pollution status. The IAP method is best to assess environmental pollution and provide quicker results than chemical monitoring methods. Further research could be done to evaluate the other sampling sites adjacent to other areas of Gunung Jerai.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Líquens , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Líquens/química , Malásia
17.
Fungal Biol ; 126(6-7): 438-448, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35667831

RESUMO

Water use traits in lichens are important attributes that determine the duration of hydration and metabolically active periods. In this study, the water holding capacity (WHC) and specific thallus mass (STM) were measured for seven macrolichen species (Parmelia sulcata, Parmelina tiliacea, Evernia prunastri, Ramalina farinacea, Lobaria pulmonaria, Lobarina scrobiculata and Nephroma resupinatum) from a Temperate-Mediterranean fragmented landscape. Twenty Quercus forests with different environmental conditions were selected to gather therein five lichen samples of each species in order to analyse their interspecific and intraspecific variation in WHC and STM. The type of photobiont was mainly responsible for differences in the WHC and the water content per biomass among species. Lichens with cyanobacteria as the main or secondary photobiont showed the highest value for both parameters. However, particular features of species were more important in modulating STM, while growth form had a minor explanatory importance. At the intraspecific level, variation in WHC relied on climatic, microclimatic and forest structure factors, while STM variability was only dependent on the two last predictors. Future research should be focused on other drivers at the microscale to unveil the environmental conditions that shape WHC and STM in lichens.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias , Líquens , Biomassa , Florestas , Água
18.
Chemosphere ; 304: 135281, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35691402

RESUMO

Lichens are considered to be good indicators of contamination of the terrestrial environment. In this study, we investigated the level of 137Cs and 4 K accumulated by Cladonia arbuscula and Stereocaulon alpinum along a longitudinal gradient from northern Norway, across Sweden to southern Poland. Additionally, we compared isotope contents between the selected lichen species, and investigated the correlation of the 137Cs content accumulated by C. arbuscula with 137Cs fallout after the Chernobyl disaster. The activity of 137Cs varied from 3.58 Bq kg-1 to 559 Bq kg-1 for S. alpinum, and from 1.18 Bq kg-1 to 130 Bq kg-1 for C. arbuscula. The activity of 4 K ranged from 114 Bq kg-1 to 341 Bq kg-1 for S. alpinum and from 27.2 Bq kg-1 to 314 Bq kg-1 for C. arbuscula. The 137Cs content did not differ between C. arbuscula and S. alpinum; however, the difference between species was significant for 4 K accumulation. The activity of 137Cs in C. arbuscula was significantly correlated with deposition from 1986. Based on our findings we created a spatial map of 137Cs activity in lichens measured 30 years after the event that was the primary source of this isotope. We showed that C. arbuscula can be used to assess contamination and create interpolation maps of radionuclide deposition, even if the primary deposition took place many years ago.


Assuntos
Poluentes Radioativos do Ar , Líquens , Monitoramento de Radiação , Cinza Radioativa , Poluentes Radioativos do Ar/análise , Radioisótopos de Césio/análise , Cinza Radioativa/análise , Suécia
19.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 94(suppl 1): e20210596, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35544838

RESUMO

The remote sensing techniques must be used to obtain long-term information in remote areas, like the Antarctic continent, to monitor the environmental productivity and its changes. The aim of this work was to analyze the surface reflectance profile patterns for the Antarctic biological soil crusts (algae, lichens, and mosses) in an area of Nelson Island (South Shetland Islands, maritime Antarctic), calculated from Landsat and Sentinel-2 images to identify its similarities and differences due to targets, sensors and acquired date. The surface reflectance values for Antarctic biological soil crusts are similar for those observed for biological soil crusts in other Earth extreme environments, like deserts. In Landsat images, the differences among biological soil crusts surface reflectance were identified at visible and near-infrared wavelengths and for Sentinel-2 images, the differences occur at visible, red-edge and shortwave infrared wavelengths, showing the feasibility of using surface reflectance products to identify these different crusts, despite its inherent pixel spectral mixture. Long-term biophysical parameters from such crusts as retrieved from orbital data is not possible due to very low cloud-free images over the Antarctic, which prevents building a consistent surface reflectance time-series which covers all biological soil crusts growth season.


Assuntos
Briófitas , Líquens , Regiões Antárticas , Plantas , Solo
20.
Microb Cell Fact ; 21(1): 80, 2022 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35534897

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Due to their huge biodiversity and the capability to produce a wide range of secondary metabolites, lichens have a great potential in biotechnological applications. They have, however, hardly been used as cell factories to date, as it is considered to be difficult and laborious to cultivate lichen partners in pure or co-culture in the laboratory. The various methods used to isolate lichen fungi, based on either the ascospores, the conidia, or the thallus, have so far not been compared or critically examined. Therefore, here we systematically investigate and compare the known methods and two new methods to identify the most suitable technology for isolation of fungi from lichens. RESULTS: Within this study six lichen fungi species were isolated and propagated as pure cultures. All of them formed colonies within one month. In case of lichens with ascocarps the spore discharge was the most suitable method. Spores were already discharged within 2 days and germinated within only four days and the contamination rate was low. Otherwise, the soredia and thallus method without homogenization, as described in this work, are also well suited to obtain pure fungal cultures. For the isolation of algae, we were also successful with the thallus method without homogenization. CONCLUSION: With the methods described here and the proposed strategic approach, we believe that a large proportion of the lichen fungi can be cultivated within a reasonable time and effort. Based on this, methods of controlled cultivation and co-cultivation must now be developed in order to use the potential of lichens with regard to their secondary metabolites, but also for other applications.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Líquens , Biodiversidade , Líquens/microbiologia , Esporos Fúngicos , Simbiose
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