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1.
Anaesthesist ; 70(11): 942-950, 2021 11.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34665266

RESUMO

In Germany, a remarkable increase regarding the usage of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and extracorporeal life support (ECLS) systems has been observed in recent years with approximately 3000 ECLS/ECMO implantations annually since 2015. Despite the widespread use of ECLS/ECMO, evidence-based recommendations or guidelines are still lacking regarding indications, contraindications, limitations and management of ECMO/ECLS patients. Therefore in 2015, the German Society of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery (GSTCVS) registered the multidisciplinary S3 guideline "Use of extracorporeal circulation (ECLS/ECMO) for cardiac and circulatory failure" to develop evidence-based recommendations for ECMO/ECLS systems according to the requirements of the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies in Germany (AWMF). Although the clinical application of ECMO/ECLS represents the main focus, the presented guideline also addresses structural and economic issues. Experts from 17 German, Austrian and Swiss scientific societies and a patients' organization, guided by the GSTCVS, completed the project in February 2021. In this report, we present a summary of the methodological concept and tables displaying the recommendations for each chapter of the guideline.


Assuntos
Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Choque , Circulação Extracorpórea , Alemanha , Humanos , Sistemas de Manutenção da Vida
2.
Med Klin Intensivmed Notfmed ; 116(8): 678-686, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34665281

RESUMO

In Germany, a remarkable increase regarding the usage of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and extracorporeal life support (ECLS) systems has been observed in recent years with approximately 3000 ECLS/ECMO implantations annually since 2015. Despite the widespread use of ECLS/ECMO, evidence-based recommendations or guidelines are still lacking regarding indications, contraindications, limitations and management of ECMO/ECLS patients. Therefore in 2015, the German Society of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery (GSTCVS) registered the multidisciplinary S3 guideline "Use of extracorporeal circulation (ECLS/ECMO) for cardiac and circulatory failure" to develop evidence-based recommendations for ECMO/ECLS systems according to the requirements of the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies in Germany (AWMF). Although the clinical application of ECMO/ECLS represents the main focus, the presented guideline also addresses structural and economic issues. Experts from 17 German, Austrian and Swiss scientific societies and a patients' organization, guided by the GSTCVS, completed the project in February 2021. In this report, we present a summary of the methodological concept and tables displaying the recommendations for each chapter of the guideline.


Assuntos
Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Choque , Circulação Extracorpórea , Alemanha , Humanos , Sistemas de Manutenção da Vida
3.
Life Sci Space Res (Amst) ; 31: 113-120, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34689943

RESUMO

To travel beyond the Earth and realize long-term survival in deep space, humans need to construct Bioregenerative Life Support System (BLSS), which reduces the requirement for supplies from the Earth by in situ regenerating oxygen, water and food needed by astronauts, and prevents pollution to extraterrestrial bodies by recycling waste. Since the 1960s, the USSR/Russia, the United States, Europe, Japan, and China carried out a number of studies with abundant achievements in BLSS systematic theories, plants/animals/microorganisms unit technologies, design/construction, and long-term operation/regulation. China's "Lunar Palace 365″ experiment realized Earth-based closed human survival for a year, with a material closure of >98%. However, a lot of research work is still needed to ultimately realize BLSS application in space, especially given the space experiment of BLSS never carried out, and the overall impact of space environment on BLSS unknown. Lunar exploration projects such as lunar village and lunar research station are successively proceeding. Therefore, future BLSS research will focus on lunar probe payload carrying experiments to study mechanisms of small uncrewed closed ecosystem in space and clarify the impact of space environmental conditions on the ecosystem, so as to correct the design and operation parameters of Earth-based BLSS. Such research will provide theoretical and technological support for BLSS application in crewed deep space exploration.


Assuntos
Sistemas Ecológicos Fechados , Voo Espacial , Animais , Astronautas , Ecossistema , Humanos , Sistemas de Manutenção da Vida , Estados Unidos
4.
Life Sci Space Res (Amst) ; 30: 55-65, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281665

RESUMO

This paper presents an optimized composition of crop growth areas for biological life support systems with respect to nutrition and equivalent system mass. For this purpose, crop growth area compositions from literature are compared with compositions derived from an optimization algorithm. The optimization algorithm uses literature data for crop growth rates and crop nutrient content to minimize the required crop growth area required to supply all nutrients for a human. The algorithm derives the required crop growth area per crew member under different dietary boundary conditions and the resulting nutrient supply is compared to reported diets from crops for spaceflight. The primary goal of this optimization is to find the minimal area required to supply all relevant macronutrients. The minimal area for the exact desired composition of macronutrients (carbohydrates, fats and proteins) was 106.86 m² using chard, lettuce, peanut, bell pepper, snap beans and spinach. If a deviation in the macronutrient composition is allowed the required area can be reduced to 39.88 m² of wheat and white potatoes. Since the variety of crops is a relevant factor for long term food supply, a limit of the maximum growth area per crop was introduced to derive a diet with more variety, which resulted in a minimal area of 57.04 m² using drybean, rice, snap beans, sweet potato, wheat and white potato. Based on this result, a further manual adjustment of the crop growth areas was performed to also introduce lettuce and tomato in the crops provided and adjust the remaining crop compositions to receive better macro- and micronutrient conformity while maintaining a crop growth area of 57 m². One major result of this analysis is that soybeans are not the most favorable crop with regard to protein and fat productivity and the focus of NASA crop selection for full nutrient supply on soybean results in exceedingly large required crop areas of 164.15 m². The resulting crop growth areas from both the optimization and literature are then analyzed as plant growth chambers (PGC) in the Life Support Trade-Off Tool (LiSTOT) of the institute of astronautic from the Technical University of Munich (TUM). LiSTOT calculates the impact of the PGC on an ISS based environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) using averaged steady state values for the plants from literature. Based on this result LiSTOT scales the physical chemical systems and calculates the resulting equivalent system mass (ESM) of the different cases. This approach allows the consideration of not only the PGC ESM, but also the impacts the PGC has on other ECLSS systems and their ESM. The ESM values for PGC were updated to assume LEDs instead of high pressure sodium lamps resulting in a new logistic mass of the PGC of 1.28 kg/(y m²) and a lower specific system mass of 87.7 kg/m². The mass balance analysis of carbon within the overall ECLSS lead to a reduction of the plant growth area to 50.6 m² and the break-even time with the ISS ECLSS was calculated to 87.2 years. With more optimistic assumptions for the LED and using urine as nutrient supply this time can be reduced to 14.6 years. The analysis also showed that the derived crop composition is not only favorable regarding nutrient supply but also with regard to the ESM and break-even time compared to previously reported crop compositions. Only the PGC with only wheat and white potatoes has a lower ESM but also provides a less balanced nutrient supply. This PGC is downscaled to 37.55 m² to achieve carbon balance and a break-even time of 38.4 years or 10.3 years with the optimistic assumptions.


Assuntos
Sistemas Ecológicos Fechados , Voo Espacial , Biomassa , Produtos Agrícolas , Humanos , Sistemas de Manutenção da Vida
5.
Anaesthesist ; 70(7): 603-606, 2021 07.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33792740

RESUMO

Mechanical circulatory support using extracorporeal life support systems (ECLS) has significantly increased in recent years. These critically ill patients pose special challenges to the multiprofessional treatment team and require comprehensive, interdisciplinary and interprofessional concepts. For this reason, to ensure the best possible patient care a standardized ECLS training module has been created at national specialist society level, taking emergency and intensive care management into account.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Consenso , Cuidados Críticos , Humanos , Sistemas de Manutenção da Vida
6.
Life Sci Space Res (Amst) ; 29: 1-7, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33888282

RESUMO

A review of past insights of space experiments with plants outlines basic space and gravity effects as well as gene expression. Efforts to grow plants in space gradually incorporated basic question on plant productivity, stress response and cultivation. The prospect of extended space missions as well as colonization of the Moon and Mars require better understanding and therefore research efforts on biomass productivity, substrate and water relations, atmospheric composition, pressure and temperature and substrate and volume (growth space) requirements. The essential combination of using plants not only for food production but also for regeneration of waste, and recycling of carbon and oxygen production requires integration of complex biological and engineering aspects. We combine a historical account of plant space research with considerations for future research on plant cultivation, selection, and productivity based on space-related environmental conditions.


Assuntos
Sistemas Ecológicos Fechados , Voo Espacial , Agricultura , Biologia , Sistemas de Manutenção da Vida , Lua , Plantas/genética
7.
Life Sci Space Res (Amst) ; 29: 15-21, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33888283

RESUMO

Waste management and treatment is vital to health care and material circulation, especially in the Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) with finite resources for long-duration manned space missions. A closed ecological-cycle integrated 4-crew 180-day experiment platform was established to investigate the key technologies such as effective cultivation of higher plant, water treatment and recycling, waste management and treatment. In this study, generated waste during the integrated experiment was classified as renewable and non-renewable waste. The renewable waste including all crew feces and part of inedible plant biomass were treated in a biological system where the aerobic composting technology was utilized. The performance in relation to degradation effect, phytotoxicity and nutrient evaluation was examined during the continuous 180 days. The long-term operation results displayed that 96.26 kg feces and 74.4 kg wheat straw were treated, and 90.6 kg compost product was discharged in nine batches. The microbial community variation was analyzed and Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria enriched in the compost. The phytotoxicity of compost was examined by seed germination index (GI) and GI of Chinese cabbage ranged from 88% to 132% for all batches. Compared to grown in vermiculite only, the lettuce yield increased 19% when grown in a mixture of vermiculite and processed compost. The summary of this work will be helpful to facilitate future applications of aerobic composting technology as the bio-based waste treatment technology in CELSS.


Assuntos
Sistemas Ecológicos Fechados , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Biomassa , Sistemas de Manutenção da Vida , Solo , Triticum
8.
Life Sci Space Res (Amst) ; 29: 30-37, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33888285

RESUMO

Long-term manned space-exploration missions and the permanence of human colonies on orbital stations or planetary habitats will require the regeneration of resources onboard or in-situ. Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSSs) are artificial environments where different compartments, involving both living organisms and physical-chemical processes, are integrated to achieve a safe, self-regulating, and chemically balanced Earth-like environment to support human life. Higher plants are key elements of such systems and Space greenhouses represent the producers' compartment. Growing plants in Space requires the knowledge of their growth responses not only to all environmental factors acting on Earth, but also to specific Space constraints such as altered gravity, ionizing radiations and confined volume. Moreover, cultivation techniques need to be adjusted considering such limitations. The type and intensity of environmental factors to be taken into account depend on the mission scenarios. Here, we summarize constraints and opportunities of cultivating higher plants in Space to regenerate resources and produce fresh food onboard. Both biological and agro-technological issues are considered briefly going through experiments both ground-based on Earth and in Space.


Assuntos
Sistemas Ecológicos Fechados , Voo Espacial , Ausência de Peso , Biologia , Produção Agrícola , Humanos , Sistemas de Manutenção da Vida
9.
Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed ; 106(2): 184-188, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943530

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand the dynamics of conversations between neonatologists and parents concerning limitation of life-sustaining treatments. DESIGN: Formal conversations were recorded, transcribed and analysed according to the conventions and methods of conversation analysis. SETTING: Two tertiary neonatal intensive care units. PARTICIPANTS: Consultant neonatal specialists and families. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We used conversation analysis and developed an inductive coding scheme for conversations based on the introduction of limiting life-sustaining treatments and on the parental responses. RESULTS: From recordings with 51 families, we identified 27 conversations about limiting life support with 20 families and 14 doctors. Neonatologists adopted three broad strategies: (1) 'recommendations', in which one course of action is presented and explicitly endorsed as the best course of action, (2) a 'single-option choice' format (conditional: referring to a choice that should be made, but without specifying or listing options), and (3) options (where the doctor explicitly refers to or lists options). Our conversation analysis-informed coding scheme was based on the opportunities available for parents to ask questions and assert their preference with minimal interactional constraint or pressure for a certain type of response. Response scores for parents presented with conditional formats (n=15, median 5.0) and options (n=10, median 5.0) were significantly higher than for those parents presented with 'recommendations' (n=16, median 3.75; p=0.002) and parents were more likely to express preferences (p=0.005). CONCLUSION: Encouraging different approaches to conversations about limitation of life-supporting treatment may lead to better parent engagement and less misalignment between the conversational partners.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Neonatologistas/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Relações Profissional-Família , Assistência Terminal/psicologia , Comunicação , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Sistemas de Manutenção da Vida , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Centros de Atenção Terciária
10.
Rev. bioét. derecho ; (50): 99-112, nov. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-191348

RESUMO

En el marco de una pandemia a escala mundial como la que representa el COVID-19 uno de los mayores dilemas bioéticos que se plantean es el de la gestión de determinados medios asistenciales escasos, tales como los respiradores (ventilación mecánica asistida), pues del acceso a los mismos dependen las posibilidades de supervivencia de numerosos pacientes en estado crítico. El presente trabajo trata de determinar los criterios para la gestión de dichos soportes vitales en un contexto de escasez extrema de los mismos para hacer frente a las necesidades de la totalidad de los pacientes que los requieren, analizando la literatura comparada sobre el particular, así como diferentes informes institucionales y de organismos en la esfera de la bioética


In the context of a worldwide pandemic such as COVID-19, one of the greatest bioethical dilemmas that arise is the management of certain scarce medical devices, such as ventilators (mechanical ventilation), since the survival of many critically ill patients depends on the access to these ventilators. The present paper tries to determine the criteria applicable for the management of these medical devices in a context of extreme scarcity to face the needs of all the patients who require them. To this end, the comparative literature on the subject as well as different institutional and academic reports in the field of bioethics are analysed


En el marc d'una pandèmia a escala mundial com la que representa la COVID-19 un dels majors dilemes bioètics que es plantegen és el de la gestió de determinats mitjans assistencials escassos, com ara els respiradors (ventilació mecànica assistida), ja que de l'accés als mateixos depenen les possibilitats de supervivència de nombrosos pacients en estat crític. El present treball pretén determinar els criteris per a la gestió d'aquests suports vitals en un context d'escassetat extrema dels mateixos per fer front a les necessitats de la totalitat dels pacients que els requereixen, analitzant la literatura comparada sobre el particular, així com diferents informes institucionals I d'organismes en l'esfera de la bioètica


Assuntos
Humanos , Sistemas de Manutenção da Vida/estatística & dados numéricos , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pandemias , Triagem , Respiração Artificial , Ventiladores Mecânicos/provisão & distribuição , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/provisão & distribuição
12.
Life Sci Space Res (Amst) ; 26: 163-172, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32718682

RESUMO

Bioregenerative Life Support System (BLSS) is a closed artificial ecosystem and could provide oxygen, food, water and other substrates for long-term deep space survival. The treatment and recycle of the solid waste are crucial and rate-limiting steps in BLSS, and it's reported that the solid waste such as the inedible plants and human feces could be fermented aerobically and then reused as fertilizer for growing plants in BLSS, which may be an effective way to improve the solid waste recycling rate. However, the recycling performance and the effect on the system need to be evaluated. In this study, the fermented and decomposed solid waste product from the 365d BLSS experiment with human involved in Lunar Palace 1 was utilized, and was added to the Hoagland nutrient solution as a supplementary fertilizer in the weight proportion of 5% and 10%, respectively, for the cultivation of wheat (Group-5% and Group-10%). Then, the effects on wheat germination, morphology, photosynthesis, biomass, the conductivity of the cultured substrates and microorganisms were detected and compared with those of the CK group cultured using only Hoagland nutrient solution. The results showed that this planting method had no inhibitory effect on the wheat germination, root length and yield, and might even promote the vegetative growth of wheat in terms of Vigor index, plant height, leaf area and net photosynthesis rate to some extent. The added solid waste fermentation substrate as well as the planting environment in Lunar Palace 1 both had significant influences on the rhizosphere microorganisms of wheat. The bacteria diversity was more abundant than fungi at phylum level, and the relative abundance varied along with the wheat growth period. The relative abundance of the cellulose degrading microorganisms including Actinobacteria and Ascomycota increased in Group-5% and Group-10% compared with CK group along with the growth of wheat. Moreover, the proper reuse of the fermentation substrate could reduce the use of inorganic salts by 9.8%-11.9% and save 40L•m - 2 of water for wheat cultivation. This research has considerable application significance in future deep space exploration.


Assuntos
Sistemas Ecológicos Fechados , Fermentação , Sistemas de Manutenção da Vida , Resíduos Sólidos/análise , Voo Espacial , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biomassa , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Rev. esp. anestesiol. reanim ; 67(6): 301-315, jun.-jul. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-199522

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Este estudio tuvo como objetivo identificar formas de mejorar el sistema de emergencia médica (SEM) en sus diferentes componentes, e inferir las causas de fallo de activación del equipo de emergencia médica (EEM). MÉTODOS: Se realizó un cuestionario sobre opiniones y actitudes hacia el SEM, dirigido a todos los profesionales del hospital, que tiene un SEM implementado con soporte vital básico (SVB) desde 1998. RESULTADOS: El 32% (n=585) de los profesionales del hospital respondió, de estos el 37,8% no eran médicos ni enfermeras. En promedio pasaron 6 años desde la certificación SVB, sin embargo, 102 profesionales (17,4%) no lo habían hecho. Un porcentaje relevante admitió no estar familiarizado con los diferentes componentes del SEM (criterios de activación 16,4%, número de teléfono 4,1%, contenido de los aparatos de reanimación 42,4% y monitor desfibrilador 47,4%), porcentajes disminuidos entre aquellos que habían tomado el curso SVB. La mayoría de los profesionales valoraran la EEM como muy importante, sin embargo 83 (23%) no pudieron confirmar que el informe y 17 (4,4%) que la asignación de tareas sucedió después y durante la activación, respectivamente. Al activar la EEM 52 (18,1%) admitieron temor a las críticas y 38 (13,3%) acordaron que necesitaban validación por parte de otro profesional, factores no influenciados por la finalización del curso SVB. Ciento veintisiete (45,7%) de los encuestados señalaron una carga de trabajo excesiva como barrera para reconocer a los pacientes enfermos. CONCLUSIÓN: A pesar de los esfuerzos educativos y de auditoría, el SEM no está completamente integrado en la cultura hospitalaria. La certificación SVB para todos los profesionales y las habilidades no técnicas de EEM identificadas son áreas de potencial mejoría del SEM. La falta de familiaridad con los criterios de activación, el miedo a las críticas y la carga de trabajo excesiva se identificaron como fallos en las causas de activación


OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify ways to improve the Medical Emergency System (MES) in its different components and infer Medical Emergency Team (MET) activation failure causes. METHODS: A questionnaire regarding opinions and attitudes towards the MES was conducted, targeting all professionals at the hospital, which has an implemented MES with Basic Life Support (BLS) since 1998. RESULTS: Thirty two percent (n=585) of hospital professionals answered, from these 37.8% were neither doctors nor nurses. In mean six years passed since the BLS certification, yet 102 professionals (17.4%) had not done it. A relevant percentage admitted to not being familiarized with the different components of the MES (activation criteria 16.4%, telephone number 4.1%, content of the resuscitation trolleys 42.4% and defibrillator-monitor 47.4%), percentages lessened among those had taken the BLS course. The majority highly valued MET, however 83 (23%) could not confirm that debriefingand 17 (4.4%) that allocation of tasks happened after and during activation, respectively. When activating MET 52 (18.1%) admitted fear of criticism and 38 (13.3%) agreed that they needed validation by another professional, factors not influenced by BLS course completion. Excessive workload as a barrier to recognize ill patients was pointed by 127 (45.7%) of the respondents. CONCLUSION: Despite educational and auditing efforts, the MES is not fully integrated into hospital culture. BLS certification for all professionals and non-technical skills of MET were identified has major areas for MES improvement. Unfamiliarity with activation criteria, fear of criticism and excessive workload were identified as failure of activation causes


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Melhoria de Qualidade/organização & administração , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Tratamento de Emergência/métodos , Sistemas de Manutenção da Vida/estatística & dados numéricos , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Capacidade de Resposta ante Emergências/organização & administração
14.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233966, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32484818

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Laypersons' efforts to initiate basic life support (BLS) in witnessed Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest (OHCA) remain comparably low within western society. Therefore, in order to shorten no-flow times in cardiac arrest, several police-based first responder systems equipped with automated external defibrillators (Pol-AED) were established in urban areas, which subsequently allow early BLS and AED administration by police officers. However, data on the quality of BLS and AED use in such a system and its impact on patient outcome remain scarce and inconclusive. METHODS: A total of 85 Pol-AED cases were randomly assigned to a gender, age and first rhythm matched non-Pol-AED control group (n = 170) in a 1:2 ratio. Data on quality of BLS were extracted via trans-thoracic impedance tracings of used AED devices. RESULTS: Comparing Pol-AED cases and the control group, we observed a similar compression rate per minute (p = 0.677) and compression ratio (p = 0.651), mirroring an overall high quality of BLS administered by police officers. Time to the first shock was significantly shorter in Pol-AED cases (6 minutes [IQR: 2-10] vs. 12 minutes [IQR: 8-17]; p<0.001). While Pol-AED was not associated with increased sustained return of spontaneous circulation (p = 0.564), a strong and independent impact on survival until hospital discharge (adj. OR: 1.85 [95%CI: 1.06-3.23; p = 0.030]) and a borderline significance for the association with favorable neurological outcome (adj. OR: 1.58 [95%CI: 0.96-2.89; p = 0.052) were observed. CONCLUSION: We were able to demonstrate an early start and a high quality of BLS and AED use in Pol-AED assessed OHCA cases. Moreover, the presence of Pol-AED care was associated with better patient survival and borderline significance for favorable neurological outcome.


Assuntos
Socorristas , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Polícia , Idoso , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Desfibriladores , Cardioversão Elétrica , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Sistemas de Manutenção da Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/fisiopatologia
16.
Life Sci Space Res (Amst) ; 25: 136-142, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32414487

RESUMO

Bioregenerative Life Support System (BLSS) is a closed artificial ecosystem and could provide oxygen, food, water and other substances for space survival. Solid waste treatment is a key rate-limiting step in BLSS. In this study, solid wastes including wheat straw, human and yellow mealworm feces were disposed in a semi-continuous bio-convertor for 105 days in a ground-based experimental BLSS platform (Lunar Palace 1). Solid wastes at different periods were sampled and the microbial community variation, functional genes and metabolic pathways were analyzed. The results showed phyla Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria predominated in all samples. While microbial community structures at genus level were significantly different, indicating selective enrichment during the 105-day process. The abundance of functional gene related to carbohydrate transport and metabolism was predicted higher on 45-day and 70-day. The metabolic pathway analysis revealed the degradation mechanisms and provided evidence for metabolic regulation.


Assuntos
Sistemas Ecológicos Fechados , Fermentação , Microbiota , Eliminação de Resíduos/métodos , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/genética , Fezes , Humanos , Sistemas de Manutenção da Vida , Resíduos Sólidos , Tenebrio , Triticum
17.
Life Sci Space Res (Amst) ; 25: 42-52, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32414492

RESUMO

The feasibility and design of the CultCube 12U CubeSat hosting a small Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) for the autonomous cultivation of a small plant in orbit is described. The satellite is aimed at running experiments in fruit plants growing for applications in crewed vehicles for long-term missions in space. CultCube is mainly composed of a pressurized vessel, constituting the outer shell of the ECLSS, and by various environmental controls (water, nutrients, air composition and pressure, light, etc.) aimed at maintaining a survivable habitat for the fruit plants to grow. The plant health status and growth performances is monitored using hyperspectral cameras installed within the vessel, able to sense leaves' chlorophyll content and temperature, and allowing the estimation of plant volume in all its life cycle phases. The paper study case is addressed to the in-orbit experimental cultivation of a dwarf tomato plant (MicroTom), which was modified for enhancing the anti-oxidants production and for growing in stressful environments. While simulated microgravity tests have been passed by the MicroTom plant, the organism behaviour in a real microgravity environment for a full seed-to-seed cycle needs to be tested. The CultCube 12U CubeSat mission presents no particular requirements on the kind of orbit, whereas its minimum significative duration corresponds to one seed-to-seed cycle for the plant, which is 90 days for the paper study case. In the paper, after an introduction on the importance of an autonomous testbed for plant cultivation, in the perspective of the implementation of bioregenerative systems on-board future manned long-term missions, the satellite design and the MicroTom engineered plant for in-orbit growth are described. In addition to the description of the whole set of subsystems, with focus on the payload and its controllers and instrumentation, the system budgets are presented. Finally, the first tests conducted by the authors are briefly reported.


Assuntos
Sistemas Ecológicos Fechados , Sistemas de Manutenção da Vida/instrumentação , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produção Agrícola/instrumentação , Sistemas de Manutenção da Vida/economia , Voo Espacial/economia , Voo Espacial/instrumentação , Astronave , Ausência de Peso
18.
Life Sci Space Res (Amst) ; 25: 53-65, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32414493

RESUMO

The Arthrospira-B experiment is the first experiment in space ever allowing the online measurements of both oxygen production rate and growth rate of Limnospira indica PCC8005 in batch photobioreactors running on-board ISS. Four bioreactors were integrated in the ISS Biolab facility. Each reactor was composed of two chambers (gas and liquid) separated by a PTFE membrane and was run in batch conditions. Oxygen production was monitored by online measurement of the total pressure increase in the gas chamber. The experiments are composed of several successive batch cultures for each reactor, performed in parallel on ISS and on ground. In this work, a model for the growth of the cyanobacterium Limnospira indica PCC8005 (also known as Arthrospira or spirulina) in these space membrane photobioreactors was proposed and the simulation results obtained are compared to the experimental results gathered in space and on ground. The photobioreactor model was based on a light transfer limitation model, already used to describe and predict the growth and oxygen production in small to large scale ground photobioreactors. It was completed by a model for pH prediction in the liquid phase allowing assessment of the pH increase associated to the bicarbonate consumption for the biomass growth. A membrane gas-liquid transfer model is used to predict the gas pressure increase in the gas chamber. Substrate limitation is considered in the biological model. A quite satisfactory fit was achieved between experimental and simulation results when a suitable mixing of the liquid phase was maintained. The data showed that microgravity has no first order effect on the oxygen production rate of Limnospira indica PCC8005 in a photobioreactor operating in space in zero gravity conditions.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fotobiorreatores , Cianobactérias/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Sistemas de Manutenção da Vida/instrumentação , Luz , Modelos Teóricos , Astronave , Ausência de Peso
20.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 2796510, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32280684

RESUMO

Physiological changes in humans are evident under environmental conditions similar to those on a Mars mission involving both a space factor (long-term isolation) and a time factor (the Mars solar day). However, very few studies have investigated the response of the liver to those conditions. Serum protein levels, bilirubin levels, aminotransferase activities, blood alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, lipid levels, and serum cytokines interleukin-6 and interferon-γ levels were analyzed 30 days before the mock mission; on days 2, 30, 60, 75, 90, 105, 120, 150, and 175 of the mission; and 30 days after the mission, in four subjects in 4-person 180-day Controlled Ecological Life Support System Experiment. Serum protein levels (total protein and globulin) decreased and bilirubin increased under the isolation environment from day 2 and exhibited chronic acclimatization from days 30 to 175. Effects of the Mars solar day were evident on day 75. Blood lipid levels were somewhat affected. No obvious peak in any enzyme level was detected during the mission. The change tendency of these results indicated that future studies should explore whether protein parameters especially globulin could serve as indicators of immunological function exposure to the stress of a Mars mission.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Fígado/fisiologia , Adulto , Fosfatase Alcalina/sangue , Bilirrubina/sangue , Proteínas Sanguíneas/metabolismo , Feminino , Globulinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Interferon gama/sangue , Interleucina-6/sangue , Sistemas de Manutenção da Vida , Masculino , Marte , Voo Espacial , Transaminases/sangue , gama-Glutamiltransferase/sangue
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