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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15554, 2022 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36114247

RESUMO

Life tables summarise a population's mortality experience during a time period. Sex- and age-specific life tables are needed to compute various cancer survival measures. However, mortality rates vary according to socioeconomic status. We present sex- and age-specific life tables based on socioeconomic status at the census tract level in Spain during 2011-2013 that will allow estimating cancer relative survival estimates and life expectancy measures by socioeconomic status. Population and mortality data were obtained from the Spanish Statistical Office. Socioeconomic level was measured using the Spanish Deprivation Index by census tract. We produced sex- and age-specific life expectancies at birth by quintiles of deprivation, and life tables by census tract and province. Life expectancy at birth was higher among women than among men. Women and men in the most deprived census tracts in Spain lived 3.2 and 3.8 years less than their counterparts in the least deprived areas. A higher life expectancy in the northern regions of Spain was discovered. Life expectancy was higher in provincial capitals than in rural areas. We found a significant life expectancy gap and geographical variation by sex and socioeconomic status in Spain. The gap was more pronounced among men than among women. Understanding the association between life expectancy and socioeconomic status could help in developing appropriate public health programs. Furthermore, the life tables we produced are needed to estimate cancer specific survival measures by socioeconomic status. Therefore, they are important for cancer control in Spain.


Assuntos
Expectativa de Vida , Classe Social , Feminino , Hispânico ou Latino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Tábuas de Vida , Masculino , Espanha/epidemiologia
2.
Natl Vital Stat Rep ; 71(1): 1-64, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35947823

RESUMO

Objectives-This report presents complete period life tables for the United States by Hispanic origin, race, and sex, based on age-specific death rates in 2020.


Assuntos
Hispânico ou Latino , Expectativa de Vida , Distribuição por Idade , Humanos , Lactente , Tábuas de Vida , Mortalidade , Distribuição por Sexo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
Natl Vital Stat Rep ; 71(2): 1-18, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36043888

RESUMO

Objectives-This report presents complete period life tables for each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia (D.C.) by sex based on age-specific death rates in 2020.


Assuntos
Expectativa de Vida , District of Columbia , Humanos , Tábuas de Vida , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
4.
Acta Trop ; 235: 106625, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35914565

RESUMO

The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1895) is the anthropophilic and day-biter mosquito, residing in peridomestic habitats and is responsible for vector-borne diseases, i.e., chikungunya and dengue. The knowledge of mosquito life demographics is very important to provide a foundation for a successful vector control program. In the present study, a comparative adult life table, survival, and fecundity parameters were evaluated on desert (Jodhpur, Rajasthan) and coastal (Kolkata, West Bengal) strains of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) from India under the standard laboratory conditions. The results showed significant differences between these strains for the life expectancy of males, fecundity (total eggs/cohort and eggs/female life span), oviposition days, intrinsic rate of increase (rm), finite rate of increase (λ), and doubling time (DT). Female mosquitoes lived longer than the males in both strains. Significant differences were observed in the net reproductive rate (R0) between Kolkata and Jodhpur strains. The coastal (Kolkata) strain showed a longer male life expectancy (5.6 days) than the desert strain (4.0 days). However, the fecundity (eggs/female lifespan) was higher in Kolkata (360.2) than the Jodhpur strain (229.7). The Kolkata strain showed higher R0, rm, λ, and the lower T, DT than the Jodhpur strain. Conclusively, the results indicate that the coastal strain of Ae. albopictus is more r-strategist than the desert strain. This study may help in the precise prediction of Ae. albopictus population dynamics surviving in these geographical areas for vector management.


Assuntos
Aedes , Animais , Feminino , Fertilidade , Humanos , Índia , Tábuas de Vida , Masculino , Mosquitos Vetores
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35897329

RESUMO

The aims of this study were (1) to develop a comprehensive risk-of-death and life expectancy (LE) model and (2) to provide data on the effects of multiple risk factors on LE. We used data for Canada from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study. To create period life tables for males and females, we obtained age/sex-specific deaths rates for 270 diseases, population distributions for 51 risk factors, and relative risk functions for all disease-exposure pairs. We computed LE gains from eliminating each factor, LE values for different levels of exposure to each factor, and LE gains from simultaneous reductions in multiple risk factors at various ages. If all risk factors were eliminated, LE in Canada would increase by 6.26 years for males and 5.05 for females. The greatest benefit would come from eliminating smoking in males (2.45 years) and high blood pressure in females (1.42 years). For most risk factors, their dose-response relationships with LE were non-linear and depended on the presence of other factors. In individuals with high levels of risk, eliminating or reducing exposure to multiple factors could improve LE by several years, even at a relatively advanced age.


Assuntos
Carga Global da Doença , Expectativa de Vida , Feminino , Humanos , Tábuas de Vida , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Fumar
6.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 87(2-3): 175-194, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35867194

RESUMO

The effects of hexythiazox on life-history traits and demographic parameters of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) were evaluated using the age-stage two-sex life table (in fecundity-based and fertility-based variants), with emphasis on its transovarial toxicity. Hexythiazox was applied when T. urticae females were either in the preovipositional period or in the first day of oviposition. In the F0 generation bioassay, treatments with concentrations of 50, 12.5 and 3.125 mg/l significantly reduced the longevity of females and their fecundity. These effects were mostly the result of mortality of treated females (18-23%) over the 24-h exposure period. Even though the net reproductive rate (R0) decreased significantly, the intrinsic rate of increase (r), finite rate of increase (λ) and doubling time (D) were not significantly different from the control. The strongest transovarial toxic effect occurred within the first 4 days following treatment, when 52-89% of the eggs laid by treated females (96% in control) hatched. Fertility was significantly reduced by concentrations of 50, 12.5, 3.125, 0.781 and 0.195 mg/l. These concentrations caused significant reductions in R0 (34-54%), r (12-24%) and λ (3-5%), whereas D was extended for 0.4-0.7 days. In the F1 generation bioassay, 50, 12.5, 3.125, 0.781, 0.049 and 0.012 mg/l caused significant reductions in R0 (34-92%), r (10-68%) and λ (3-17%), whereas extending D for 0.3-5.6 days. These effects were mostly the consequence of transovarial toxicity. Application of the fecundity-based life table underestimated population-level effects of hexythiazox on T. urticae.


Assuntos
Tetranychidae , Tiazolidinas , Animais , Feminino , Tábuas de Vida , Oviposição/efeitos dos fármacos , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Tetranychidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Tiazolidinas/toxicidade
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11472, 2022 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35794195

RESUMO

Crapemyrtle Bark Scale (Acanthococcus lagerstroemiae; CMBS) is an invasive pest species that primarily infest crapemyrtles (Lagerstroemia spp.) in the United States. Recent reports have revealed the dire threat of CMBS to attack not only crapemrytles but also the U.S. native species with expanded host plants such as American beautyberry (Callicarpa spp.) and Hypericum kalmianum L. (St. Johnswort). A better understanding of plant-insect interaction will provide better and environmental-friendly pest management strategies. In this study, we constructed the first comprehensive life table for CMBS to characterize its biological parameters, including developmental stages, reproductive behavior, and fecundity. The indirect effects of three plant nutrient conditions (water, 0.01MS, and 0.1MS) on CMBS populations were examined using the age-stage, two-sex life table. The demographic analyses revealed that the plant nutrient conditions had significantly altered CMBS development in terms of the intrinsic rate of increase (r), the finite rate of increase (λ), the net reproductive rate (R0), and mean generation time (T). Higher r, λ, and R0 were recorded under nutrient-deficient conditions (water), while CMBS reared on plants with healthier growing conditions (0.1MS) had the most prolonged T. Overall, CMBS shows better insect performance when reared on plants under nutrient-deficient conditions.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Casca de Planta , Animais , Tábuas de Vida , Nutrientes , Água
8.
Environ Entomol ; 51(4): 780-789, 2022 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35834261

RESUMO

The western flower thrip (WFT) Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) is a serious agricultural pest with a wide host range which has developed resistance to several groups of insecticides. In this study, the effect of insecticide resistance on WFT host adaptability was explored by examining changes in detoxification enzyme activities and thrip development, and reproduction on preferred and less preferred host plants, eggplant Solanum melongena L. and broad bean Vicia faba L., respectively. Thrips were screened with spinetoram on kidney bean for six generations. Activities of glutathione S-transferase (GST), mixed function oxidases (MFOs), and cytochrome P450 enzyme (P450) in a resistant strain (RS) reared on broad bean were significantly higher than those in a sensitive strain (SS), and only carboxylesterase (CarE) increased in the RS when reared on eggplant, compared with the SS. Activities of the four detoxification enzymes in the RS reared on broad bean were significantly higher than in those reared-on eggplant. On broad bean, RS adult longevity was lower and developmental duration of offspring was shorter than those of the SS, but fecundity increased. On eggplant, RS fecundity was lower and developmental duration of offspring was shorter than those of the SS. In addition, fecundity was higher and developmental duration was longer in the RS reared on broad bean than in those reared-on eggplant. The results indicated that spinetoram resistance could change WFT host preference and that those changes might be associated with detoxification enzyme activities. Thus, it was hypothesized that adaptability of the RS to the less preferred host broad bean increased, whereas adaptability to the preferred host eggplant decreased.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Tisanópteros , Animais , Resistência a Inseticidas , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Tábuas de Vida , Macrolídeos
9.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e263276, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35894351

RESUMO

The Asian lady beetle Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is a biological control agent that also may adversely impact other coccinellid species. Life table parameters were used to assess the population growth potential and the effects of interspecific competition between the invasive lady beetle H. axyridis and the native coccinellids Hippodamia convergens and Cycloneda sanguinea (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) under laboratory conditions at 25 °C, using Schizaphis graminum (Hemiptera: Aphididae) as prey. The effects of the abiotic factors air temperature and humidity on these coccinellids by conducting a survey in a sorghum crop under average conditions of 18.1 °C and 53.5%, respectively, were also assessed. Fecundity was higher in C. sanguinea (1021.0 eggs per female) and H. axyridis (1029.2 eggs per female) than in H. convergens (484.5 eggs per female). The majority of the life table parameters showed no significant differences. The instantaneous rates of population increase (rm) of C. sanguinea, H. axyridis, and H. convergens were 0.195, 0.198, and 0.194 d-1, respectively. Based on the life table parameters obtained in this study, all three species of Coccinellidae showed a similar capacity to control a S. graminum population.


Assuntos
Afídeos , Besouros , Animais , Agentes de Controle Biológico , Feminino , Humanos , Larva , Tábuas de Vida
10.
Malar J ; 21(1): 178, 2022 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35676692

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Water pollution due to uncontrolled release of chemical pollutants is an important global problem. Its effect on medically important insects, especially mosquitoes, is a critical issue in the epidemiology of mosquito-borne diseases. METHODS: In order to understand the effect of water pollutants on the demography of Anopheles stephensi, colonies were reared in clean, moderately and highly polluted water for three consecutive generations at 27 °C, 75% RH, and a photoperiod of 12:12 h (L:D). The demographic data of the 4th generation of An. stephensi were collected and analysed using the age-stage, two-sex life table. RESULTS: The intrinsic rate of increase (r), finite rate of increase (λ), mean fecundity (F) and net reproductive rate (R0) of An. stephensi in clean water were 0.2568 d-1, 1.2927 d-1, 251.72 eggs, and 109.08 offspring, respectively. These values were significantly higher than those obtained in moderately polluted water (r = 0.2302 d-1, λ = 1.2589 d-1, 196.04 eggs, and R0 = 65.35 offspring) and highly polluted water (r = 0.2282 d-1, λ = 1.2564 d-1, 182.45 eggs, and R0 = 62.03 offspring). Female adult longevity in moderately polluted (9.38 days) and highly polluted water (9.88 days) were significantly shorter than those reared in clean water (12.43 days), while no significant difference in the male adult longevity was observed among treatments. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study showed that An. stephensi can partially adapt to water pollution and this may be sufficient to extend the range of mosquito-borne diseases.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Doenças Transmissíveis , Malária , Poluentes da Água , Adaptação Psicológica , Animais , Feminino , Tábuas de Vida , Masculino , Mosquitos Vetores , Poluentes da Água/farmacologia , Qualidade da Água
11.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 33(6): 1652-1660, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35729144

RESUMO

In order to examine the effects of temperature on the growth, survival, and reproduction of Conogethes punctiferalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) feeding on corn kernels, the life table parameters of C. punctiferalis at 21, 24, 27, 30 ℃ were calculated based on the age-stage two-sex life table theory, and then population dynamics of C. punctiferalis was projected based on these parameters. The results showed that the life cycles of the pest could be finished at all the four temperature treatments. The developmental duration of each stage shortened with increasing temperature, and there were significant differences among treatments. The highest fecundity (116.7 eggs per female), preadult survival rate (84.7%), and proportion of female (0.46) were observed at 24 ℃. The intrinsic rates of increase at 24, 27, 30 ℃ were 0.1059, 0.1101, and 0.1045 d-1, respectively. The finite rates of increase were 1.1117, 1.1164, and 1.1102 d-1, respectively. There was no significant difference among the three treatments, but the r and λ values were significantly higher than those at 21 ℃. The net reproductive rates (R0) at 21, 24, 27, 30 ℃ were 17.3, 53.7, 36.9, and 19.8, respectively. R0 at 24 ℃ was the highest. It suggested that survival rates, fecundities and female proportions of C. punctiferalis population were high at 24-27 ℃, which was the suitable temperature range for its growth, survival, and reproduction.


Assuntos
Mariposas , Zea mays , Animais , Feminino , Fertilidade , Tábuas de Vida , Reprodução , Temperatura
12.
Lancet ; 400(10345): 25-38, 2022 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35717994

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are large and persistent disparities in life expectancy among racial-ethnic groups in the USA, but the extent to which these patterns vary geographically on a local scale is not well understood. This analysis estimated life expectancy for five racial-ethnic groups, in 3110 US counties over 20 years, to describe spatial-temporal variations in life expectancy and disparities between racial-ethnic groups. METHODS: We applied novel small-area estimation models to death registration data from the US National Vital Statistics System and population data from the US National Center for Health Statistics to estimate annual sex-specific and age-specific mortality rates stratified by county and racial-ethnic group (non-Latino and non-Hispanic White [White], non-Latino and non-Hispanic Black [Black], non-Latino and non-Hispanic American Indian or Alaska Native [AIAN], non-Latino and non-Hispanic Asian or Pacific Islander [API], and Latino or Hispanic [Latino]) from 2000 to 2019. We adjusted these mortality rates to correct for misreporting of race and ethnicity on death certificates and then constructed abridged life tables to estimate life expectancy at birth. FINDINGS: Between 2000 and 2019, trends in life expectancy differed among racial-ethnic groups and among counties. Nationally, there was an increase in life expectancy for people who were Black (change 3·9 years [95% uncertainty interval 3·8 to 4·0]; life expectancy in 2019 75·3 years [75·2 to 75·4]), API (2·9 years [2·7 to 3·0]; 85·7 years [85·3 to 86·0]), Latino (2·7 years [2·6 to 2·8]; 82·2 years [82·0 to 82·5]), and White (1·7 years [1·6 to 1·7]; 78·9 years [78·9 to 79·0]), but remained the same for the AIAN population (0·0 years [-0·3 to 0·4]; 73·1 years [71·5 to 74·8]). At the national level, the negative difference in life expectancy for the Black population compared with the White population decreased during this period, whereas the negative difference for the AIAN population compared with the White population increased; in both cases, these patterns were widespread among counties. The positive difference in life expectancy for the API and Latino populations compared with the White population increased at the national level from 2000 to 2019; however, this difference declined in a sizeable minority of counties (615 [42·0%] of 1465 counties) for the Latino population and in most counties (401 [60·2%] of 666 counties) for the API population. For all racial-ethnic groups, improvements in life expectancy were more widespread across counties and larger from 2000 to 2010 than from 2010 to 2019. INTERPRETATION: Disparities in life expectancy among racial-ethnic groups are widespread and enduring. Local-level data are crucial to address the root causes of poor health and early death among disadvantaged groups in the USA, eliminate health disparities, and increase longevity for all. FUNDING: National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; National Cancer Institute; National Institute on Aging; National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases; Office of Disease Prevention; and Office of Behavioral and Social Science Research, US National Institutes of Health.


Assuntos
Etnicidade , Expectativa de Vida , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Tábuas de Vida , Masculino , Grupos Minoritários , Grupos Raciais , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 842: 156887, 2022 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35753471

RESUMO

Evaluating side effects of new neonicotinoids in terms of sublethal doses and transcriptome expression is a crucial but challenging part of integrated pest management (IPM) approaches. To this end, a study of lethal and sublethal effects on Coccinella septempunctata larvae was conducted, and an age-stage, two-sex life table procedure was performed to investigate life-table parameters. Cycloxaprid (CYC) was shown to have adverse effects on survival, development, total longevity, reproductive capacity, and predation ability in C. septempunctata. In addition, demographic growth parameters of the F1 generation such as net reproductive rate, and the intrinsic and finite rates of increase were significantly decreased under sublethal dosage LR30 (1.91 g ai/hm2). These results demonstrated that the population growth of C. septempunctata was impacted by a sublethal dosage of CYC. For transcriptome expression, 544 up- and 338 down-regulated significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs), were observed between LR30 treatment and control groups. Moreover, pathways related to metabolism of retinol, carcinogenesis, biosynthesis of steroid hormone, P450 metabolism, and metabolism of xenobiotics were identified in KEGG pathway analysis. Ten DEGs were chosen and confirmed with quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Based on these findings, CYC should be considered as a component of IPM strategies in the field.


Assuntos
Besouros , Inseticidas , Praguicidas , Animais , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Tábuas de Vida , Neonicotinoides , Piridinas , Transcriptoma
14.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 8029, 2022 05 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35577880

RESUMO

The ladybird Eriopis connexa is an important natural enemy of several pest arthropods in agroecosystems. High population of this predator is frequently observed in strawberry and soybean crops associated with spider mites. We used two-sex life table parameters to evaluate under laboratory conditions, the suitability of three species of spider mites (Tetranychus evansi, Tetranychus urticae, Tetranychus ogmophallos), and a species of aphid (Myzus persicae) as a prey for the predator E. connexa. Eriopis connexa completed immature development on all prey species except on T. evansi, in which all individuals of predator died before reaching the pupal stage. Among prey species that allowed the immature development of E. connexa, T. urticae and M. persicae provided a faster development time to the predator. Oviposition days, longevity and fecundity of E. connexa on T. urticae and M. persicae were substantially longer/higher than on T. ogmophallos. Net reproductive rate (R0), intrinsic rate of increase (r), and finite rate of increase (λ) of E. connexa feeding on T. urticae and M. persicae were also higher than those on T. ogmophallos. Based on the overall performance of the ladybird, the order of suitability of prey species was M. persicae > T. urticae > T. ogmophallos > T. evansi.


Assuntos
Afídeos , Besouros , Tetranychidae , Animais , Feminino , Tábuas de Vida , Oviposição , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Comportamento Predatório
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35564825

RESUMO

In 2020 COVID-19 caused 41,442 deaths in Poland. We aimed to estimate the burden of COVID-19 using years of potential life lost (YPLL) and quality-adjusted years of life lost (QALYL). YPLL were calculated by multiplying the number of deaths due to COVID-19 in the analyzed age/sex group by the residual life expectancy for that group. Standard and country-specific (local) life tables were used to calculate SPYLL and LPYLL, respectively. QALYL were calculated adjusting LPYLL due to COVID-19 death by age/sex specific utility values. Deaths from COVID-19 in Poland in 2020 caused loss of 630,027 SPYLL, 436,361 LPYLL, and 270,572 QALYL. The loss was greater among men and rose with age reaching the maximum among men aged 65-69 and among women aged 70-74. Burden of COVID-19 in terms of YPLL is proportionate to external-cause deaths and was higher than the burden of disease in the respiratory system. Differential effects by sex and age indicate important heterogeneities in the mortality effects of COVID-19 and justifies policies based not only on age, but also on sex. Comparison with YPLL due to other diseases showed that mortality from COVID-19 represents a substantial burden on both society and on individuals in Poland.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Feminino , Humanos , Expectativa de Vida , Tábuas de Vida , Masculino , Morbidade , Mortalidade , Polônia/epidemiologia
16.
Demography ; 59(3): 921-947, 2022 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35502830

RESUMO

We provide an empirical foundation for research on the demography of loneliness at older ages. First, we use published life tables and data from the U.S.-based Health and Retirement Study for the period 2008-2016 to calculate lonely life expectancy for Americans aged 55 or older. Using Sullivan's method, we demonstrate pronounced differences in lonely life expectancy by sex, race/ethnicity, and educational attainment that correspond to well-established patterns of stratification in other dimensions of well-being. Next, we estimate models that decompose observed sex, racial/ethnic, and educational differences in three key health outcomes into the part explained (in a statistical accounting sense) by loneliness and the part accounted for by other factors. We find little evidence of an important role for loneliness in understanding disparities in mortality and the onset of physical disability and cognitive impairment among Americans aged 55 or older, net of several established correlates of health disparities. These descriptive findings provide an empirical foundation for continued development of a demography of loneliness at older ages in response to the anticipated growth in scientific and policy emphasis on loneliness and the fundamental life changes that have accompanied the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Solidão , Idoso , Humanos , Expectativa de Vida , Tábuas de Vida , Solidão/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
J Econ Entomol ; 115(3): 814-825, 2022 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35512629

RESUMO

The spider mite, Tetranychus pueraricola (Ehara & Gotoh; Acari: Tetranychidae), is a serious pest in agriculture and horticulture. Application of chemical pesticides is the main mode of this pest control. Due to pesticide residues and resistance-induced resurgence of pests, there is a need to discover alternatives for spider mite management. GC16 comprises a mixture of calcium chloride (CaCl2, 45%) and lecithin (55%), which was recently found to have acaricidal properties. We evaluated the sublethal effects of GC16 on T. pueraricola using life table and enzyme [catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), carboxylesterase (CarE), glutathione S-transferases (GST), and Ca2+-ATPase (Ca2+-ATP)] activity assays. The results showed that fecundity of T. pueraricola increased at LC30 but decreased at LC50 of GC16. The intrinsic rate of increase (r) of T. pueraricola decreased under the LC30 and LC50 of GC16. GC16 concentration and exposure time significantly influenced the activities of CAT, POD, CarE, GST, and Ca2+-ATP in adult mites. Twelve hours later after the treatment, GST and Ca2+-ATP activities were significantly inhibited by LC30 but enhanced by LC50. Moreover, the demographic parameter r and enzyme activities were negatively correlated. In sum, sublethal amounts of GC16 had an adverse effect on mites, and there was a trade-off between developmental performance and physiological enzyme activity of mites under GC16 stress, and GC16 showed an acaricidal potential for T. pueraricola. This work provides guidance for the application of GC16 to control T. pueraricola.


Assuntos
Acaricidas , Tetranychidae , Acaricidas/farmacologia , Trifosfato de Adenosina , Animais , Cálcio , Tábuas de Vida
18.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 237: 113525, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35453022

RESUMO

During the last two decades, there has been increasing concerns about the presence of antibiotics in aquatic environments. Phenicol antibiotics, such as chloramphenicol (CMP), commonly used in the veterinary and aquaculture fields to treat infections, have been often detected in aquatic environments, but scarce ecotoxicity information regarding the effects of CMP on non-target aquatic organisms is available, and multigenerational studies are seldom studied. Here we quantified the demographic responses of Brachionus calyciflorus exposed to sublethal concentrations (0, 5, 10, 30, 50, 70 and 90 mg L-1) of CMP for three successive generations (P0, F1, and F2). Our results showed that compared to the control, higher concentrations of CMP significantly decreased the life expectancy at hatching, generation time, net reproductive rate and intrinsic rate of population increase in all three generations, and the proportion of mictic offspring in the F1 generation of B. calyciflorus. With increasing generations, higher concentrations of CMP showed increased toxic effects on life expectancy at hatching and net reproductive rate, but irregular negative effects on generation time, intrinsic rate of population increase, and proportion of mictic offspring of the rotifers. These results indicate that multigenerational studies are necessary to prevent insufficient assessments of the impact of antibiotics in aquatic ecosystems.


Assuntos
Rotíferos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Cloranfenicol/toxicidade , Citidina Monofosfato/farmacologia , Ecossistema , Tábuas de Vida , Reprodução , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
19.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 6415, 2022 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35484374

RESUMO

A life table is a tabulated expression of life expectancy and mortality-related information at specified ages in a given population. This study utilised VetCompass data to develop life tables for the UK companion dog population and broken down by sex, Kennel Club breed group, and common breeds. Among 30,563 dogs that died between 1st January 2016 and 31st July 2020, life expectancy at age 0 was 11.23 [95% confidence interval (CI): 11.19-11.27] years. Female dogs (11.41 years; 95% CI: 11.35-11.47) had a greater life expectancy than males (11.07 years; 95% CI: 11.01-11.13) at age 0. Life tables varied widely between breeds. Jack Russell Terrier (12.72 years; 95% CI: 12.53-12.90) and French Bulldog (4.53 years; 95% CI: 4.14-5.01) had the longest and shortest life expectancy at age 0, respectively. Life tables generated by the current study allow a deeper understanding of the varied life trajectory across many types of dogs and offer novel insights and applications to improve canine health and welfare. The current study helps promote further understanding of life expectancy, which will benefit pet owners and the veterinary profession, along with many other sectors.


Assuntos
Expectativa de Vida , Animais de Estimação , Animais , Cruzamento , Cães , Feminino , Tábuas de Vida , Masculino , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
20.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(4): e227067, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35416991

RESUMO

Importance: Prior studies reported that US life expectancy decreased considerably in 2020 because of the COVID-19 pandemic, with estimates suggesting that the decreases were much larger among Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black populations than non-Hispanic White populations. Studies based on provisional data suggested that other high-income countries did not experience the large decrease in life expectancy observed in the US; this study sought to confirm these findings according to official death counts and to broaden the pool of comparison countries. Objective: To calculate changes in US life expectancy between 2019 and 2020 by sex, race, and ethnicity and to compare those outcomes with changes in other high-income countries. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study involved a simulation of life tables based on national death and population counts for the US and 21 other high-income countries in 2019 and 2020, by sex, including an analysis of US outcomes by race and ethnicity. Data were analyzed in January 2022. Exposures: Official death counts from the US and 21 peer countries. Main Outcomes and Measures: Life expectancy at birth and credible range (CR) based on 10% uncertainty. Results: Between 2019 and 2020, US life expectancy decreased by a mean of 1.87 years (CR, 1.70-2.03 years), with much larger decreases occurring in the Hispanic (3.70 years; CR, 3.53-3.87 years) and non-Hispanic Black (3.22 years; CR, 3.03-3.40 years) populations than in the non-Hispanic White population (1.38 years; CR, 1.21-1.54 years). The mean decrease in life expectancy among peer countries was 0.58 years (CR, 0.42-0.73 year) across all 21 countries. No peer country experienced decreases as large as those seen in the US. Conclusions and Relevance: Official death counts confirm that US life expectancy decreased between 2019 and 2020 on a scale not seen in 21 peer countries, substantially widening the preexisting gap in life expectancy between the US and peer countries. The decrease in US life expectancy was experienced disproportionately by Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black populations, consistent with a larger history of racial and ethnic health inequities resulting from policies of exclusion and systemic racism. Policies to address the systemic causes of the US health disadvantage relative to peer countries and persistent racial and ethnic inequities are essential.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Expectativa de Vida , Tábuas de Vida
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