Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 553
Filtrar
1.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 167: 619-629, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479030

RESUMO

Lily is one of the most economically important flowers worldwide due to its elegant appearance and appealing scent, which is mainly composed of monoterpene ocimene, linalool and benzenoids. Sugars are the primary products of plants, with fructose and hexose sugars being the substrate material for most organic compounds and metabolic pathways in plants. Herein, we isolated and functionally characterized hexokinase (LoHXK) and fructokinase (LoFRK) from Lilium 'Siberia' flower, which indicated their potential roles in floral aroma production. Real-time PCR analysis showed that LoHXK and LoFRK were highly expressed in the flower filament. Overexpression and virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) assays revealed that LoHXK and LoFRK significantly modified the emission of ß-ocimene and linalool contents via regulation of expression of key structural volatile synthesis genes (LoTPS1 and LoTPS3). Under exogenous glucose and fructose application, the volatile contents of ß-ocimene and linalool were increased and the expression levels of key structural genes were upregulated. The emission of ß-ocimene and linalool followed a diurnal circadian rhythm. Determination of carbon fluxes via 13C-labeled glucose and 13C-labeled fructose experiments showed that the mass spectra of ocimene and linalool significantly increased, however, the m/z ratio of ethyl benzoate did not change. Furthermore, yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assays showed that LoFRK interacted with LoMYB1 and LoMYB2 proteins. Together, these results suggest that hexokinase and fructokinase may play significant roles in the regulation of ocimene and linalool biosynthesis in Lilium 'Siberia'.


Assuntos
Lilium , Flores , Frutoquinases/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Hexoquinase/genética , Lilium/genética , Odorantes , Sibéria
2.
Planta ; 254(3): 59, 2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34427790

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Through combined analysis of the transcriptome and targeted metabolome of lily bulbs, the possible molecular mechanism of dormancy release was revealed. Regulation of bulb dormancy is critical for ensuring annual production and high-quality cultivation. The application of low temperatures is the most effective method for breaking bulb dormancy, but the molecular mechanism underlying this response is unclear. Herein, targeted metabolome and transcriptome analyses were performed on Lilium davidii var. unicolor bulbs stored for 0, 50, and 100 days at 4 °C. Dormancy release mainly depended on the accumulation of gibberellins GA4 and GA7, which are synthesized by the non-13-hydroxylation pathway, rather than GA3, and ABA was degraded in the process. The contents of nonbioactive GA9, GA15, and GA24, the precursors of GA4 synthesis, increased with bulb dormancy release. Altogether, 113,252 unique transcripts were de novo assembled through high-throughput transcriptome sequences, and 639 genes were continuously differentially expressed. Energy sources during carbohydrate metabolism mainly depend on glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway. Screening of transcription factor families involved in bulb dormancy release showed that MYB, WRKY, NAC, and TCP members were significantly correlated with the targeted metabolome. Coexpression analysis further confirmed that ABI5, PYL8, PYL4, and PP2C, which are vital ABA signaling elements, regulated GA3ox and GA20ox in the GA4 biosynthesis pathway, and XERICO may be involved in the regulation of ABA and GA4 signaling through the ubiquitination pathway. WRKY32, WRKY71, DAM14, NAC8, ICE1, bHLH93, and TCP15 also participated in the ABA/GA4 regulatory network, and ICE1 may be the key factor linking temperature signals and hormone metabolism. These results will help to reveal the bulb dormancy molecular mechanism and develop new strategies for high-quality bulb production.


Assuntos
Lilium , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Lilium/genética , Metabolômica , Dormência de Plantas , Sementes , Transcriptoma
3.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 9930210, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34395628

RESUMO

The present study was aimed at isolating endophytic fungi from the Asian culinary and medicinal plant Lilium davidii and analyzing its antifungal and plant growth-promoting effects. In this study, the fungal endophyte Acremonium sp. Ld-03 was isolated from the bulbs of L. davidii and identified through morphological and molecular analysis. The molecular and morphological analysis confirmed the endophytic fungal strain as Acremonium sp. Ld-03. Antifungal effects of Ld-03 were observed against Fusarium oxysporum, Botrytis cinerea, Botryosphaeria dothidea, and Fusarium fujikuroi. The highest growth inhibition, i.e., 78.39 ± 4.21%, was observed for B. dothidea followed by 56.68 ± 4.38%, 43.62 ± 3.81%, and 20.12 ± 2.45% for B. cinerea, F. fujikuroi, and F. oxysporum, respectively. Analysis of the ethyl acetate fraction through UHPLC-LTQ-IT-MS/MS revealed putative secondary metabolites which included xanthurenic acid, valyl aspartic acid, gancidin W, peptides, and cyclic dipeptides such as valylarginine, cyclo-[L-(4-hydroxy-Pro)-L-leu], cyclo(Pro-Phe), and (3S,6S)-3-benzyl-6-(4-hydroxybenzyl)piperazine-2,5-dione. Other metabolites included (S)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-((S)-pyrrolidine-2-carboxamido)propanoic acid, dibutyl phthalate (DBP), 9-octadecenamide, D-erythro-C18-Sphingosine, N-palmitoyl sphinganine, and hydroxypalmitoyl sphinganine. The strain Ld-03 showed indole acetic acid (IAA) production with or without the application of exogenous tryptophan. The IAA ranged from 53.12 ± 3.20 µg ml-1 to 167.71 ± 7.12 µg ml-1 under different tryptophan concentrations. The strain was able to produce siderophore, and its production was significantly decreased with increasing Fe(III) citrate concentrations in the medium. The endophytic fungal strain also showed production of organic acids and phosphate solubilization activity. Plant growth-promoting effects of the strain were evaluated on in vitro seedling growth of Allium tuberosum. Application of 40% culture dilution resulted in a significant increase in root and shoot length, i.e., 24.03 ± 2.71 mm and 37.27 ± 1.86 mm, respectively, compared to nontreated control plants. The fungal endophyte Ld-03 demonstrated the potential of conferring disease resistance and plant growth promotion. Therefore, we conclude that the isolated Acremonium sp. Ld-03 should be further investigated before utilization as a biocontrol agent and plant growth stimulator.


Assuntos
Acremonium/química , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Ascomicetos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Botrytis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fusarium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lilium/microbiologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Acetatos/química , Acetatos/farmacologia , Acremonium/isolamento & purificação , Acremonium/fisiologia , Antifúngicos/química , Ascomicetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Botrytis/efeitos dos fármacos , Cebolinha-Francesa/efeitos dos fármacos , Cebolinha-Francesa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Resistência à Doença , Endófitos/isolamento & purificação , Endófitos/fisiologia , Fusarium/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Indolacéticos/química , Ácidos Indolacéticos/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Indolacéticos/farmacologia , Metabolômica/métodos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/química , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Metabolismo Secundário , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
4.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 167: 366-375, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404007

RESUMO

Polyploid plants often show improved resistance against many diseases, but whether they show increased resistance to grey mould, a devastating disease caused by Botrytis spp. fungi, is seldom reported. Stomata and reactive oxygen species (ROS) play dual roles in defence against grey mould, and it is unclear how their roles change after polyploidization. We addressed these questions in diploid and colchicine-induced Lilium rosthornii after B. elliptica infection. Tetraploids were less susceptible to grey mould, with lower morality rates in naturally infected plants. Before the stomata closed in artificially infected leaves, tetraploids, with larger stomatal apertures, were more easily invaded by the pathogen than diploids. However, the lesion area increased more slowly in tetraploids than in diploids, which may be explained by three causes based on histological and physiological characteristics. First, the pathogen required more time to penetrate the epidermis and closed stomata in tetraploids than in diploids. Second, the pathogen penetrated the reopened stomata more easily than the epidermis, and stomatal density was lower in tetraploids than in diploids. Third, tetraploids showed faster ROS accumulation, a more effective ROS-scavenging system and less malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation than diploids. Stomatal starch and abnormal guard cell nuclei were present in the infected leaves. This phenomenon may be caused by oxalic acid, a pathogenic factor for many pathogens that promotes stomatal starch degradation and stomatal reopening in Sclerotinia spp., a pathogen closely related to Botrytis spp. This suggestion was primarily confirmed by immersing healthy leaves in oxalic acid solution.


Assuntos
Botrytis , Lilium , Diploide , Lilium/genética , Estômatos de Plantas , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Tetraploidia
5.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 166: 1087-1095, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34303268

RESUMO

Lily (Lilium spp.), with its beautiful flower, is an important horticultural crop and a popular ornamental plant, but because the abundant pollen pollutes the flowers and surroundings, its use is restricted. To solve this problem, the mechanism of pollen development in lily needs to be analyzed. However, the complex and delicate process of anther development in lily remains largely unknown. In this study, LoUDT1, a bHLH transcription factor (TF), was isolated and identified in lily. LoUDT1 was closely related to OsUDT1 of Oryza sativa and AtDYT1 of Arabidopsis. It was localized in the cytoplasm and nucleus and showed no transcriptional activation in yeast cells. LoUDT1 interacted with another bHLH TF, LoAMS, and the interaction depended on their BIF domains. LoUDT1 and LoAMS were both expressed in the anthers but showed different expression patterns. LoUDT1 was continuously expressed during the entire development of anthers, whereas LoAMS was only highly expressed early in anther development. With overexpression of LoUDT1 in Arabidopsis, normal anther development was affected and defective pollens were produced, which caused partial male sterility of transgenic plants. These defects depended on the level of LoUDT1 accumulation. By contrast, with the appropriate expression of LoUDT1 in a dyt1-3 mutant, normal pollen grains were produced, showing partial fertility. Thus, LoUDT1 might be a key regulator of anther development in lily. By further increasing the understanding of anther development, the results of this study can provide a theoretical basis for the molecular breeding of pollen-free lilies.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lilium , Proteínas de Plantas , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/fisiologia , Flores/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Lilium/genética , Lilium/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia
6.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(6)2021 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204040

RESUMO

Lily (Lilium spp.) is an important cut flower around the world. Flower senescence in lilies is characterized by the wilting and abscission of tepals, which results in a decrease in flower quality and huge economic loss. However, the mechanism underlying flower senescence in lilies is largely unknown. In this study, single-molecule, real-time (SMRT) and Illumina sequencing were carried out in L. oriental 'Siberia'. Sequencing yielded 73,218 non-redundant transcripts, with an N50 of 3792 bp. These data were further integrated with three published transcriptomes through cogent analysis, which yielded 62,960 transcripts, with an increase in N50 of 3935 bp. Analysis of differentially expressed genes showed that 319 transcription factors were highly upregulated during flower senescence. The expression of twelve NAC genes and eleven senescence-associated genes (SAGs) showed that LoNAC29 and LoSAG39 were highly expressed in senescent flowers. Transient overexpression of LoNAC29 and LoSAG39 in tepals of lily notably accelerated flower senescence, and the promoter activity of LoSAG39 was strongly induced by LoNAC29. This work supported new evidence for the molecular mechanism of flower senescence and provided better sequence data for further study in lilies.


Assuntos
Flores/genética , Lilium/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Lilium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , RNA-Seq , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
7.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 166: 103-114, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091210

RESUMO

Anthocyanins are one of the main components of pigments, that are responsible for a wide range of colors in plants. To clarify the regulatory mechanism of anthocyanin biosynthesis in oriental hybrid lily, UPLC/MS analysis was performed to identify the pigments in two cultivars (white and pink). Four major anthocyanins were identified in pink cultivar, and no anthocyanins were detected in white cultivar. Transcriptome and small RNA sequencing (sRNAseq) analyses were performed using tepal tissues at two floral developmental stages from the two cultivars. In total, 55,698 transcripts were assembled, among which 233 were annotated as putative anthocyanin-related transcripts. Differential expression analysis and qRT-PCR results confirmed that most of the anthocyanin-related structural genes had higher expression levels in pink cultivar than in white cultivar. Conversely, LhANR showed a significantly high expression level in white cultivar. Annotated transcription factors (TFs), including MYB activators, MYB repressors and bHLHs, that putatively inhibit or enhance the expression of anthocyanin-related genes were identified. LhMYBA1, an anthocyanin activator, was isolated, and its heterologous expression resulted in a remarkably high level of anthocyanin accumulation. Additionally, 73 differentially expressed microRNAs (miRNAs), including 23 known miRNAs, were detected through sRNAseq. The miRNA target prediction showed that several anthocyanin-related genes might be targeted by miRNAs. Expression profile analysis revealed that these miRNAs showed higher expression levels at later floral developmental stages in white cultivar than in pink cultivar. The results indicated that anthocyanin deficiency in white cultivar might be influenced by multiple levels of suppressive mechanisms, including mRNAs and sRNAs.


Assuntos
Lilium , Antocianinas , Cor , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Lilium/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro , Análise de Sequência de RNA
8.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(3): e20201571, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076185

RESUMO

Sturnira lilium is a frugivorous bat that is known for its high consumption of Solanaceae fruits. We captured S. lilium, using mistnets, to study its diet and diet seasonal variation in a seasonal deciduous forest in southern Brazil. We also investigated the predominance of Solanaceae and of Solanum granulosoleprosum, the main food source, correlated with the availability of ripe fruits. A total of 11 plant species were identified from 126 fecal samples. Seeds of Solanaceae species were present in 81% of the samples, with S. granulosoleprosum seeds being the most common (68.3 %). There was no seasonal variation in the diet; however ANOVA revealed that the consumption of Solanaceae and S. granulosoleprosum showed monthly differences. There was no monthly correlation and there was a weak seasonal correlation between ripe fruit availability and the consumption of S. granulosoleprosum by S. lilium, indicating that this bat species occupies broad home ranges and is capable of locating plants with mature fruits in adjacent areas during most of the year. The mobility of S. lilium and high abundance of S. granulosoleprosum in the diet suggests that this species as good disperser of plants that are characteristic of early successional stages and areas undergoing regeneration.


Assuntos
Quirópteros , Lilium , Animais , Brasil , Dieta/veterinária , Florestas , Estações do Ano
9.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 296(4): 1005-1015, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34052932

RESUMO

The spatially and temporally distinct expression of R2R3-MYB positive regulators is among the major mechanisms that create various anthocyanin color patterns in many flowers. However, we do not know how these positive regulators have gained different expression profiles. In the Asiatic hybrid lily 'Lollypop' (derived from the crosses of species belonging to Sinomartagon/Daurolirion section), MYB12 and MYB19S regulate the pigmentation at whole tepals and raised tepal spots, respectively. In the Oriental hybrid lily 'Sorbonne' (derived from the crosses of species belonging to the Archelirion section), MYB12 regulates both whole tepal and raised spot pigmentation. The genes have similar amino acid sequences with similar protein functions but exhibit different expression profiles in lily flowers. As promoters are among the most significant factors affecting gene expression profiles, their promoter sequences were determined in this study. The three genes had very different promoter sequences, and putative cis-regulatory elements were not conserved in numbers or order. To further confirm the promoter functions, tobacco plants were transformed with native promoter-driven MYB12 or MYB19S genes of 'Lollypop.' Expression levels of MYB12 were higher in corolla tubes than in lobes, while those of MYB19S were higher in corolla lobes than in tubes. Thus, the diverse promoter functions were likely to be the leading causes of their different expression profiles and generation of unique color patterns. Finally, the history of R2R3-MYB gene establishment during lily evolution was estimated using sequence data.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/biossíntese , Genes myb , Lilium , Pigmentação/genética , Antocianinas/genética , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Genes de Plantas , Genes myb/genética , Variação Genética , Lilium/genética , Lilium/metabolismo , Família Multigênica/genética , Taxa de Mutação , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Tabaco/genética , Tabaco/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
10.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2583, 2021 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33972516

RESUMO

Quantitative micromechanical characterization of single cells and multicellular tissues or organisms is of fundamental importance to the study of cellular growth, morphogenesis, and cell-cell interactions. However, due to limited manipulation capabilities at the microscale, systems used for mechanical characterizations struggle to provide complete three-dimensional coverage of individual specimens. Here, we combine an acoustically driven manipulation device with a micro-force sensor to freely rotate biological samples and quantify mechanical properties at multiple regions of interest within a specimen. The versatility of this tool is demonstrated through the analysis of single Lilium longiflorum pollen grains, in combination with numerical simulations, and individual Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes. It reveals local variations in apparent stiffness for single specimens, providing previously inaccessible information and datasets on mechanical properties that serve as the basis for biophysical modelling and allow deeper insights into the biomechanics of these living systems.


Assuntos
Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Micromanipulação/instrumentação , Micromanipulação/métodos , Microscopia de Força Atômica/métodos , Análise de Célula Única/instrumentação , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Acústica , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Caenorhabditis elegans/anatomia & histologia , Caenorhabditis elegans/citologia , Parede Celular/ultraestrutura , Lilium/citologia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Morfogênese , Células Vegetais , Pólen/citologia , Pólen/ultraestrutura
11.
Microsc Res Tech ; 84(10): 2291-2301, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33876874

RESUMO

In this study, new populations of a critically endangered Himalayan herb, Lilium polyphyllum D. Don ex Royle have been reported from Chamba, Himachal Pradesh, India for the first time. Karyotypic, palynological, and spermological studies under the light microscope (LM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) have been carried out on specimens from these populations with an aim to add more knowledge to the current database of the species. Presently studied individuals depicted a diploid (2x) chromosome count of 2n = 24, which is in confirmation with the previous reports from Kashmir Himalaya. Mitotic study showed a karyotype formula of 2n = 2x = 2m + 2sm + 4st + 16t, that is, 2 metacentric +2 submetacentric +4 acrocentric +16 telocentric chromosomes. LM and SEM observations revealed that the pollen grains are monosulcate, heteropolar, elliptical in polar view, and oblate with reticulate ornamentation. Based on the criteria of number, shape, and arrangement of columellae that form the muri, pollen grains in L. polyphyllum correspond to Martagon type. This is the first SEM based study on pollen grains and seeds of endangered Himalayan white lily. Based on the present ecological data collected we confirm the status of L. polyphyllum to be critically endangered in the study area.


Assuntos
Lilium , Plantas Medicinais , Altitude , Humanos , Microscopia , Pólen
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(7)2021 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805045

RESUMO

The bulbil is an important vegetative reproductive organ in triploid Lilium lancifolium whose development is promoted by cytokinins. Type-B response regulators (RRs) are critical regulators that mediate primary cytokinin responses and promote cytokinin-induced gene expression. However, the function of cytokinin type-B Arabidopsis RRs (ARRs) in regulating bulbil formation is unclear. In this study, we identified five type-B LlRRs, LlRR1, LlRR2, LlRR10, LlRR11 and LlRR12, in L. lancifolium for the first time. The five LlRRs encode proteins of 715, 675, 573, 582 and 647 amino acids. All of the regulators belong to the B-I subfamily, whose members typically contain a conserved CheY-homologous receiver (REC) domain and an Myb DNA-binding (MYB) domain at the N-terminus. As transcription factors, all five type-B LlRRs localize at the nucleus and are widely expressed in plant tissues, especially during axillary meristem (AM) formation. Functional analysis showed that type-B LlRRs are involved in bulbil formation in a functionally redundant manner and can activate LlRR9 expression. In summary, our study elucidates the process by which cytokinins regulate bulbil initiation in L. lancifolium through type-B LlRRs and lays a foundation for research on the molecular mechanism of bulbil formation in the lily.


Assuntos
Citocininas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Lilium/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Inativação Gênica , Lilium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Meristema/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Conformação Molecular , Peptídeos/química , Fenótipo , Domínios Proteicos , Transdução de Sinais
13.
Molecules ; 26(5)2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801551

RESUMO

The bulbs of several Lilium species are considered to be both functional foods and traditional medicine in northern and eastern Asia. Considering the limited information regarding the specific bioactive compounds contributing to the functional properties of these bulbs, we compared the secondary metabolites of ten Lilium bulb samples belonging to five different species, using an ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS)-based secondary metabolomics approach. In total, 245 secondary metabolites were detected; further, more metabolites were detected from purple Lilium bulbs (217 compounds) than from white bulbs (123-171 compounds). Similar metabolite profiles were detected in samples within the same species irrespective of where they were collected. By combining herbal analysis and screening differential metabolites, steroid saponins were considered the key bioactive compounds in medicinal lilies. Of the 14 saponins detected, none were accumulated in the bulbs of L. davidii var. willmottiae, also called sweet lily. The purple bulbs of L. regale accumulated more secondary metabolites, and, notably, more phenolic acid compounds and flavonoids. Overall, this study elucidates the differential metabolites in lily bulbs with varying functions and colors and provides a reference for further research on functional foods and the medicinal efficacy of Lilium species.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/análise , Hidroxibenzoatos/análise , Lilium/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Análise Discriminante , Lilium/química , Lilium/classificação , Raízes de Plantas/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
14.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 163: 250-260, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33866146

RESUMO

Lilium is an important commercial flowering species, and there are many varieties and more than 100 species of wild Lilium. Lilium × formolongi is usually propagated from seedlings, and the flowering of these plants is driven mainly by the photoperiodic pathway. Most of the other lily plants are propagated via bulblets and need to be vernalized; these plants can be simply divided into pretransplantation types and posttransplantation types according to the time at which the floral transition occurs. We identified three Lilium FLOWERING LOCUS T (LFT) family members in 7 Lilium varieties, and for each gene, the coding sequence of the different varieties was identical. Among these genes, the LFT1 gene of Lilium was most homologous to the AtFT gene, which promotes flowering in Arabidopsis. We analyzed the expression patterns of LFT genes in Lilium × formolongi seedlings and in different Lilium varieties, and the results showed that LFT1 and LFT3 may promote floral induction. Compared with LFT3, LFT1 may have a greater effect on floral induction in Lilium, which is photoperiod sensitive, while LFT3 may play a more important role in the floral transition of lily plants, which have a high requirement for vernalization. LFT2 may be involved in the differentiation of bulblets, which was verified by tissue culture experiments, and LFT1 may have other functions involved in promoting bulblet growth. The functions of LFT genes were verified by the use of transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants, which showed that both the LFT1 and LFT3 genes can promote early flowering in Arabidopsis. Compared with LFT3, LFT1 promoted flowering more obviously, and thus, this gene could be an important promoter of floral induction in Lilium.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Lilium , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Lilium/genética , Lilium/metabolismo , Fotoperíodo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo
15.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 190, 2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33879043

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs play pivotal roles in plant vegetative phase change and flowering induction via integrating into multiple flowering pathways. Lilium × formolongi is an important ornamental lily cultivar that can flower within one year after sowing. However, it remains unresolved how miRNA-mediated regulation networks contribute to the L. × formolongi characteristics of a short vegetative growth period and rapid flowering. RESULTS: In this study, the small RNA libraries and one degradome library were constructed for L. × formolongi during vegetative growth and flowering initiation, and 366 conserved miRNAs and 32 novel miRNAs were identified. Additionally, 84 miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed during development. A total of 396 targets of 185 miRNAs were identified and validated through degradome sequencing. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analyses showed that functions of the targets were top enriched in the cold and cadmium ion responses, pentose phosphate pathway and carbon fixation in photosynthetic organisms. Furthermore, among 23 differentially expressed miRNA-target pairs, the miR156s-LfSPL2, miR172a-LfAP2 and miR164a-LfNAC pairs as well as miR159a-LfSPL2 were found to be relevant to flowering based on the correlation analysis of expression profiles in the miRNA libraries, degradome and transcriptome. A coexpression regulatory network focused on differentially expressed pairs was also constructed by WGCNA, and 14 miRNAs were considered putative key miRNAs during vegetative development and flowering induction. miR156a/ d/ e showed particularly strong relationships with other miRNAs in the coexpression network. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides cues for the further exploration of the regulatory mechanisms of short vegetative development and flowering in L. × formolongi.


Assuntos
Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lilium/fisiologia , MicroRNAs/genética , RNA de Plantas/genética , Sequência de Bases , Flores/genética , Lilium/genética , Lilium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Reprodução
16.
Physiol Plant ; 172(4): 2022-2033, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33860540

RESUMO

At the reproductive stage, lily plants bear two morphological types of mature leaves, one at the lower and one at the upper part of the stem. At the vegetative stage, all the leaves are similar to each other and to the reproductive plant's lower leaves. This heterophylly has not yet been explored. In this study, we show that it is not a result of the plant's age but rather an outcome of floral induction. The induction appears as an on-going process, during which the meristem still produces leaves but progressively becomes committed to reproduction. This intermediate period lasts until the ultimate switch to flower primordia occurs. The leaves produced during floral induction, termed here as "inductive," appear at the upper part of the stem. Besides their typical higher stomata density, these leaves have a poly-layered palisade mesophyll, whose cells exhibit a unique morphology and contain more chlorophyll than leaves of vegetative plants. These leaves display higher carbon assimilation, soluble sugar production, and chloroplast-lipid accumulation. Accordingly, genes associated with stomata, chloroplast, and photosynthesis are upregulated in these leaves. Our results were obtained when floral induction was achieved either by vernalization or photoperiod signals, ruling out a mere environmental effect. We suggest that lily plants prepare themselves for the high-energy-demanding bloom by producing leaves with enhanced photosynthetic capacity, leading to an increase in soluble sugars. These novel findings introduce an adjacent affinity between photosynthesis and flowering and provide a nondestructive tool for identifying the plant's developmental stage-vegetative or reproductive.


Assuntos
Lilium , Meristema , Flores , Folhas de Planta , Reprodução
17.
Physiol Plant ; 172(4): 1919-1930, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33748992

RESUMO

Previous studies have shown that methane (CH4 ) has promoting roles in the adventitious root (AR) and lateral root (LR) formation in plants. However, whether CH4 could trigger the bulblet formation in scale cutting of Lilium davidii var. unicolor has not been elucidated. To gain insight into the effect of CH4 on the bulblet formation, different concentrations (1, 10, 50, and 100%) of methane-rich water (MRW) and distilled water were applied to treat the scale cuttings of Lilium. We observed that treatment with 100% MRW obviously induced the bulblet formation in scale cuttings. To explore the mechanism of CH4 -induced bulblet formation, the transcriptome of scales was analyzed. A total of 2078 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. The DEGs were classified into different metabolic pathways, especially phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, starch and sucrose metabolism, and plant signal transduction. Of these, approximately 38 candidate DEGs involved in the plant signal transduction were further studied. In addition, the expression of AP2-ERF/ERF, WRKY, GRAS, ARF, and NAC transcription factors (TFs) was changed by MRW treatment, suggesting their potential involvement in bulblet formation. As for hormones, exogenous IAA, GA, and ABA could induce the bulblet formation. Additional experiments suggested that MRW could increase the endogenous IAA, GA, and JA levels, but decrease the levels of ABA during bulblet formation, which showed that higher IAA, GA, JA levels and lower ABA content might facilitate bulblet formation. In addition, the levels of endogenous hormones were consistent with the expression level of genes involved in phytohormone signal transduction. Overall, this study has revealed that CH4 might improve the bulblet formation of cutting scales in Lilium by regulating the expression of genes related to phytohormone signal transduction and TFs, as well as by changing the endogenous hormone levels.


Assuntos
Lilium , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Lilium/genética , Metano , Raízes de Plantas , Transdução de Sinais , Água
18.
J Sci Food Agric ; 101(12): 5038-5048, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33570774

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polyphenols have the potential to reduce the risk of many metabolic disorders. Lily bulbs are rich in polyphenols; however, their effects on lipid metabolism remain unclear. This study aimed to explore the effects of lily bulbs' polyphenols (LBPs) on oxidative stress and lipid metabolism. RESULTS: A total of 14 polyphenolic compounds in LBPs were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with diode-array detection mass spectrometry. Total phenolic compound in LBPs was 53.76 ± 1.12 g kg-1 dry weight. In cellular experiments, LBPs attenuated the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential, impeded reactive oxygen species production, alleviated oxidative stress, and reduced lipid accumulation in oleic acid induced HepG2 cells. In in vivo studies, LBPs significantly inhibited body weight gain, reduced lipid levels in serum and liver, and improved oxidative damage in a dose-dependent manner in mice fed a high-fat diet. Moreover, LBPs ameliorated hepatic steatosis and suppressed the expression of hepatic-lipogenesis-related genes (SREBP-1c, FAS, ACC1, and SCD-1) and promoted lipolysis genes (SRB1 and HL) and lipid oxidation genes (PPARα and CPT-1) in mice fed a high-fat diet. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that LBPs are a potential complementary therapeutic alternative in the development of functional foods to curb obesity and obesity-related diseases, such as metabolic syndrome. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Fígado Gorduroso/tratamento farmacológico , Lilium/química , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Raízes de Plantas/química , Polifenóis/administração & dosagem , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Fígado Gorduroso/genética , Fígado Gorduroso/metabolismo , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/genética , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , PPAR alfa/genética , PPAR alfa/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/genética , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/metabolismo
19.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 94: 107445, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33592405

RESUMO

Studies have demonstrated that the modification of selenylation can improve the activity of polysaccharides. Lilium davidii var. unicolor Salisb (known as "lily bulb") is the dried succulent bulb of the genus Lilium in the family Liliaceae. We wished to investigate the immunoregulatory activities of the selenized polysaccharides of lily bulb (sLP). We undertook experiments in vitro and in vivo taking the unmodified polysaccharides of lily bulb (LP) as controls. The results of in vitro studies showed that sLP could promote the phagocytosis of RAW 264.7 cells significantly, increase the content of interleukin (IL)-1ß and IL-2, enhance the activity of acid phosphatase, and increase the surface molecular expression of CD86 and CD80. The results of in vivo studies showed that sLP could improve the index of immune organs, increase the contents of interferon-γ, IL-6, immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgM in serum, and promote lymphocyte proliferation. The immunoregulatory activities of sLP were significantly more robust than those of LP in vitro and in vivo. These results indicated that selenylation could enhance the immune-enhancement activity of LP significantly.


Assuntos
Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Lilium , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Linfócitos B/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/sangue , Citocinas/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Camundongos , Fagocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas , Células RAW 264.7 , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Anal Methods ; 13(10): 1226-1231, 2021 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605948

RESUMO

Establishing a fast and effective extraction method for herbs is beneficial for the determination of their main compounds and estimating their quality. In this study, deep eutectic solvents (DESs) were optimized to simultaneously extract three main types of phenolic acids, i.e., regaloside B, regaloside C, and regaloside E, and polysaccharides from the bulbs of Lilium lancifolium Thunb. Based on the optimized extraction conditions, i.e., an extraction temperature of 50 °C, an extraction time of 40 min, a solid-liquid ratio of 1 : 25, and a ratio of water in the DES of 20%, the extracted amounts of regaloside B, regaloside C, and regaloside E reached 0.31 ± 0.06 mg g-1, 0.29 ± 0.03 mg g-1, and 3.04 ± 0.38 mg g-1, respectively. The extraction efficiencies were higher than those obtained using conventional organic solvents. Next, the polysaccharide levels were measured and compared with those obtained using a conventional hot water extraction method, and equivalent extraction efficiencies were obtained with the conventional hot water extraction method. This study provides a new application of deep eutectic solvents (DESs) for simultaneously extracting phenolic acids and polysaccharides from the bulbs of L. lancifolium Thunb. Considering the biodegradability and pharmaceutical acceptability, DESs as a class of green solvents could have wide applications in the extraction of natural products.


Assuntos
Lilium , Extratos Vegetais , Polissacarídeos , Solventes , Água
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...