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1.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e243774, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161430

RESUMO

The present study was conducted for the taxonomic, morphometric and limnological assessment of the commercially important ichthyofauna of Sakhakot Stream, Malakand, Pakistan. The study area was divided into three sites along the water course namely Dargai Stream, Sakhakot Stream and Shergarh Stream. Fish samples were collected randomly during January to August 2017 with the help of fish gears. A taxonomic key was designed for the collected fish specimens. Ten fish species were identified belonging to 3 orders and 4 families. Family Cyprinidae was the dominant family with seven representative species while families Siluridae, Nemacheilidae and Mastacembelidae were represented by one species each. Lower mean total length and standard length was recorded in Puntius conchonius (Hamilton, 1822) as 9.2 ± 0.6 cm and 7.3 ± 0.6 cm respectively, while highest mean total length and standard length was recorded in Mastacembelus armatus (Lacepede, 1800) as 28.1 ± 1.7 cm and 15.9 ± 2.4 cm respectively. Mean pH of the water ranged from 6.1 at Shergarh Stream in August to 8.7 at Sakhakot Stream in January. Average temperature range was recorded from 10.9 °C in January at Dargai Stream to 18.7 °C in August at Shergarh Stream. No statistically significant difference was found for temperature (p = 0.96) and pH (p = 0.14) in the three water streams. The present study will provide a baseline for the rearing and enhancement of wild stock of the commercially important ichthyofauna in the field of aquaculture and fisheries.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae , Rios , Animais , Peixes , Humanos , Limnologia , Paquistão
2.
Water Res ; 178: 115801, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348931

RESUMO

Limnologists often adhere to a discretized view of waterbodies-they classify them, divide them into zones, promote discrete management targets, and use research tools, experimental designs, and statistical analyses focused on discretization. By offering useful shortcuts, this approach to limnology has profoundly benefited the way we understand, manage, and communicate about waterbodies. But the research questions and the research tools in limnology are changing rapidly in the era of big data, with consequences for the relevance of our current discretization schemes. Here, I examine how and why we discretize and argue that selectively rethinking the extent to which we must discretize gives us an exceptional chance to advance limnology in new ways. To help us decide when to discretize, I offer a framework (discretization evaluation framework) that can be used to compare the usefulness of various discretization approaches to an alternative which relies less on discretization. This framework, together with a keen awareness of discretization's advantages and disadvantages, may help limnologists benefit from the ongoing information explosion.


Assuntos
Explosões , Limnologia , Probabilidade
3.
Water Res ; 168: 115136, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622910

RESUMO

The mixed layer, or epilimnion, is a physical concept referring to an isothermal layer at the surface of a water body. This concept is ubiquitous within limnology, is fundamental to our understanding of chemical and ecological processes, and is an important metric for water body monitoring, assessment and management. Despite its importance as a metric, many different approaches to approximating mixed depth currently exist. Using data from field campaigns in a small meso-eutrophic lake in the UK in 2016 and 2017 we tested whether different definitions of mixed depth resulted in comparable estimates and whether variables other than temperature could be assumed to be mixed within the layer. Different methods resulted in very different estimates for the mixed depth and ecologically important variables were not necessarily homogenously spread through the epilimnion. Furthermore, calculation of simple ecologically relevant metrics based on mixed depth showed that these metrics were highly dependent on the definition of mixed depth used. The results demonstrate that an idealised concept of a well-defined fully mixed layer is not necessarily appropriate. The widespread use of multiple definitions for mixed depth impairs the comparability of different studies while associated uncertainty over the most appropriate definition limits the confirmability of studies utilising the mixed depths.


Assuntos
Lagos , Limnologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fitoplâncton , Estações do Ano , Temperatura
4.
Toxins (Basel) ; 12(1)2019 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31861931

RESUMO

Cyanobacterial metabolites are increasingly studied, in regards to their biosynthesis, ecological role, toxicity, and potential biomedical applications. However, the history of cyanotoxins prior to the last few decades is virtually unknown. Only a few paleolimnological studies have been undertaken to date, and these have focused exclusively on microcystins and cylindrospermopsins, both successfully identified in lake sediments up to 200 and 4700 years old, respectively. In this paper, we review direct extraction, quantification, and application of cyanotoxins in sediment cores, and put forward future research prospects in this field. Cyanobacterial toxin research is also compared to other paleo-cyanobacteria tools, such as sedimentary pigments, akinetes, and ancient DNA isolation, to identify the role of each tool in reproducing the history of cyanobacteria. Such investigations may also be beneficial for further elucidation of the biological role of cyanotoxins, particularly if coupled with analyses of other abiotic and biotic sedimentary features. In addition, we identify current limitations as well as future directions for applications in the field of paleolimnological studies on cyanotoxins.


Assuntos
Toxinas Bacterianas/toxicidade , Cianobactérias/metabolismo , Limnologia/métodos , Toxinas Marinhas/toxicidade , Microcistinas/toxicidade , Paleontologia/métodos , Sedimentos Geológicos , Lagos/microbiologia
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(4): 722-734, Nov. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001488

RESUMO

Abstract Small hydroelectric power plants (SHP) have been considered as an alternative for the generation of electricity with reduced environmental impacts. Nevertheless, no studies have addressed changes in a particular kind of river macrohabitat commonly affected by SHPs, the knickzones. This study aimed to assess the impact of a SHP construction on the aquatic macroinvertebrate fauna associated with two basaltic knickzones located in Sapucaí-Mirim River, Southeast Brazil. The first, considered as a functional knickzone, follows the natural dynamics of the river flow and preserves the original rock substrate. The second, considered as non-functional knickzone, was permanently flooded after the SHP construction and the consolidated rock substrate was changed by fine sediment. Sampling was carried out in two seasonal periods and the data were analysed through multivariate analysis. It was observed differences in composition and structure of the macroinvertebrates community between the knickzones and periods. The functional knickzone exhibited a much higher richness, 72 taxa compared to 44 in the non-functional, as well as a large number of exclusive taxa (38, being only nine exclusive to the non-functional). Diversity, equitability and density mean values were also higher in the functional knickzone. The limnological parameters varied significantly between dry and rainy seasons but not between the distinct knickzones. This kind of macrohabitats and its potential role for the rivers biodiversity is practically unknown. In the scenery of fast SHP expansion, further studies and protection measures are necessary.


Resumo Atualmente, a instalação de pequenas centrais hidrelétricas (PCHs) tem sido a alternativa mais visada quando a questão é suprir a demanda energética, considerando-se os menores impactos ambientais possíveis. Contudo, são escassos os trabalhos que avaliam as alterações causadas por esses empreendimentos, principalmente no que se diz respeito a um tipo de macro-habitat de rios, os pedrais. Assim, este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o impacto da construção de uma PCH na fauna de macroinvertebrados aquáticos associada a dois pedrais basálticos, localizados no rio Sapucaí-Mirim, no Sudeste do Brasil. O primeiro, considerado como um pedral funcional, segue a dinâmica natural do fluxo do rio e possui o substrato rochoso original. O segundo, considerado como pedral não funcional, foi permanentemente inundado após a construção da PCH e o substrato consolidado foi alterado por sedimentos finos. A amostragem foi realizada em dois períodos sazonais e os dados foram analisados através de análise multivariada. Foram observadas diferenças na composição e estrutura da comunidade de macroinvertebrados entre os pedrais e períodos. O pedral funcional apresentou uma riqueza muito maior, 72 táxons em comparação com 44 no não funcional, bem como um grande número de táxons exclusivos (38, sendo apenas nove exclusivos do não-funcional). Os valores médios da diversidade, equitabilidade e densidade também foram maiores no pedral funcional. Os parâmetros limnológicos variaram significativamente entre as estações seca e chuvosa, mas não entre os diferentes pedrais. Este tipo de macro-habitat e seu potencial papel para a biodiversidade dos rios são praticamente desconhecidos. Assim, mais estudos e medidas de proteção são necessários, principalmente diante do atual cenário de rápida expansão das PCHs.


Assuntos
Animais , Centrais Elétricas , Biota/fisiologia , Chuva , Estações do Ano , Brasil/epidemiologia , Limnologia/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Rios , Inundações , Monitorização de Parâmetros Ecológicos/métodos , Invertebrados/classificação , Invertebrados/fisiologia
6.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0210562, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30763327

RESUMO

Two complementary measurement systems-built upon an autonomous floating craft and a tethered balloon-for lake research and monitoring are presented. The autonomous vehicle was assembled on a catamaran for stability, and is capable of handling a variety of instrumentation for in situ and near-surface measurements. The catamaran hulls, each equipped with a small electric motor, support rigid decks for arranging equipment. An electric generator provides full autonomy for about 8 h. The modular power supply and instrumentation data management systems are housed in two boxes, which enable rapid setup. Due to legal restrictions in Switzerland (where the craft is routinely used), the platform must be observed from an accompanying boat while in operation. Nevertheless, the control system permits fully autonomous operation, with motion controlled by speed settings and waypoints, as well as obstacle detection. On-board instrumentation is connected to a central hub for data storage, with real-time monitoring of measurements from the accompanying boat. Measurements from the floating platform are complemented by mesoscale imaging from an instrument package attached to a He-filled balloon. The aerial package records thermal and RGB imagery, and transmits it in real-time to a ground station. The balloon can be tethered to the autonomous catamaran or to the accompanying boat. Missions can be modified according to imagery and/or catamaran measurements. Illustrative results showing the surface thermal variations of Lake Geneva demonstrate the versatility of the combined floating platform/balloon imagery system setup for limnological investigations.


Assuntos
Aeronaves , Monitoramento Ambiental , Limnologia , Navios , Aeronaves/economia , Aeronaves/instrumentação , Monitoramento Ambiental/economia , Monitoramento Ambiental/instrumentação , Desenho de Equipamento , Lagos/análise , Limnologia/economia , Limnologia/instrumentação , Navios/economia , Navios/instrumentação , Suíça
7.
Braz J Biol ; 79(4): 722-734, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30088529

RESUMO

Small hydroelectric power plants (SHP) have been considered as an alternative for the generation of electricity with reduced environmental impacts. Nevertheless, no studies have addressed changes in a particular kind of river macrohabitat commonly affected by SHPs, the knickzones. This study aimed to assess the impact of a SHP construction on the aquatic macroinvertebrate fauna associated with two basaltic knickzones located in Sapucaí-Mirim River, Southeast Brazil. The first, considered as a functional knickzone, follows the natural dynamics of the river flow and preserves the original rock substrate. The second, considered as non-functional knickzone, was permanently flooded after the SHP construction and the consolidated rock substrate was changed by fine sediment. Sampling was carried out in two seasonal periods and the data were analysed through multivariate analysis. It was observed differences in composition and structure of the macroinvertebrates community between the knickzones and periods. The functional knickzone exhibited a much higher richness, 72 taxa compared to 44 in the non-functional, as well as a large number of exclusive taxa (38, being only nine exclusive to the non-functional). Diversity, equitability and density mean values were also higher in the functional knickzone. The limnological parameters varied significantly between dry and rainy seasons but not between the distinct knickzones. This kind of macrohabitats and its potential role for the rivers biodiversity is practically unknown. In the scenery of fast SHP expansion, further studies and protection measures are necessary.


Assuntos
Biota/fisiologia , Centrais Elétricas , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Monitorização de Parâmetros Ecológicos/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Inundações , Invertebrados/classificação , Invertebrados/fisiologia , Limnologia/métodos , Chuva , Rios , Estações do Ano
8.
Rev. biol. trop ; 66(3): 1223-1231, jul.-sep. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-977379

RESUMO

Abstract Lotic ecosystems are altered at various spatial scales leading to the simplification of water bodies and the dominance or exclusion of certain organisms. In streams, species may have limitations generated by the environment that result in a more abundant or rare occurrence. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of water physical-chemical variables and land use in the drainage basin on the composition of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera (EPT) assemblages in the streams of Atlantic Forest. We collected water samples and aquatic insects from 18 streams in Atlantic Forest in southern Brazil. We evaluated the relationship between physical-chemical variables of water and land use and the dissimilarity of EPT assemblages in three different situations: (i) matrix with all organisms collected, (ii) matrix containing only common genera and (iii) matrix containing only the rare genera. We collected 6 023 EPT larvae from 41 genera; 62 % of the individuals belonged to the order Trichoptera, 32 % to the order Ephemeroptera and 6 % to the order Plecoptera. The most common organisms (10 genera) accounted for 86 % of the total abundance of identified individuals. On the other hand, rare genera corresponded to 76 % of the total richness, but only 6 % of the total abundance. For the three matrices studied, the pH, electrical conductivity and riparian vegetation were correlated with the dissimilarity matrix of the three biological datasets used. In our study, we observed that the pH, electric conductivity, exposed soil and riparian vegetation variables were the most important for the dissimilarity of the EPT assemblages. In addition, our results demonstrated that variables at different scales (stream and riparian zone) structure stream insect assemblages. Rev. Biol. Trop. 66(3): 1223-1231. Epub 2018 September 01.


Resumen Los ecosistemas lóticos se alteran a diversas escalas espaciales que conducen a la simplificación de los cuerpos de agua y a la dominancia o exclusión de ciertos organismos. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la influencia de las variables físico-químicas del agua y el uso del suelo en la porción alta de la cuenca del Río Uruguay sobre la composición de los órdenes Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera y Trichoptera (EPT), en los arroyos del bosque atlántico. Se recogieron muestras de agua e insectos acuáticos de 18 arroyos en el bosque atlántico del sur de Brasil. Se evaluó la relación entre las variables físico-químicas del agua y uso del suelo así como la disimilitud de las agrupaciones de EPT en tres situaciones diferentes: (i) matriz con todos los organismos, (ii) matriz que contiene solo géneros comunes y (iii) géneros raros. Se recolectaron 6 023 larvas EPT de 41 géneros; 62 % de los individuos pertenecían al orden Trichoptera, 32 % a Ephemeroptera y 6 % Plecoptera. Los organismos más comunes (10 géneros) representaron el 86 % de la abundancia total de individuos identificados. Por otro lado, la riqueza de géneros raros correspondía al 76 % de la riqueza total, pero sólo al 6 % de la abundancia total. Para las tres matrices estudiadas, el pH, la conductividad eléctrica y la vegetación ribereña se correlacionaron con la matriz de disimilitud de los tres conjuntos de datos biológicos utilizados. En nuestro caso observamos que las variables de pH, conductividad eléctrica, suelo expuesto y vegetación de ribera fueron las más importantes por la disimilitud de los ensamblajes de EPT. Además, nuestros resultados demostraron que las variables a diferente escala (arroyo y zona ribereña) pueden estructurar insectos acuáticos en los arroyos.


Assuntos
Limnologia , Ambiente Aquático , Alteração Ambiental , Biodiversidade , Avaliação Rápida da Integridade Ambiental , Variação Biológica da População
9.
Braz J Biol ; 78(2): 375-385, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28793033

RESUMO

The knickzones are defined as locally steep riverbed segments, such as a convex reach in a concave-up longitudinal profile. They are worldwide distributed and geologically well studied, but despite their distinctiveness as a particular kind of macrohabitat there is a notorious lack of ecological knowledge. In this context, this research proposal aims to provide a physical description, in terms of kind of habitats, and a limnological characterization of a basaltic knickzone. Information is based on a case study carried out in the Sapucaí-Mirim River, Southeast Brazil. Samplings were performed in three different habitats well represented in the knickzone (runs, riffles and pools) during rainy and dry conditions. A clear discrimination in terms of habitat type and seasonality was demonstrated through a principal component analysis. Pools exhibited higher amplitude of variation for most limnological parameters when compared to runs and riffles, probably due to a great influence of the internal metabolism (photosynthetic production and community respiration). Despite of their geological ancient formation and the little understanding of their ecological role, the knickzones are in imminent threat in several regions of the world by hydropower dams implementation. The lack of ecological information on knickzones is probably due to inherent access difficulties and how to compare the distinct kinds of habitats. Thereby, further studies should be encouraged.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Limnologia , Rios , Animais , Brasil
10.
Braz. j. biol ; 77(2): 323-331, Apr.-June 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-888751

RESUMO

Abstract Limnological features of two reservoirs were studied in dry (August 2013) and rainy (January 2014) periods to evaluate the water quality that supply the city of Guarulhos, southeast Brazil. Water samples were collected in three depths and the following characteristics were measured: alkalinity, dissolved O2, free and total CO2, HCO3, soluble reactive silica, dissolved and total nitrogen and phosphorus, and chlorophyll-a. Water transparency was also measured and temperature, pH and electric conductivity profiles were obtained. Great seasonal and low spatial variability of the water characteristics occurred in the reservoirs. High values of water transparency, free CO2 availability, and low of pH, soluble reactive silica and total and dissolved nutrients values were recorded at the dry period, and different conditions were found at the rainy season. The two reservoirs were characterized by low nutrients, chlorophyll-a and turbidity, and high transparency, these features being typical of oligotrophic systems. The two reservoirs still remain under low anthropogenic impact conditions, and are presently considered reference systems for the SPMR, São Paulo Metropolitan Region. The need for actions that will reduce the input of nutrients from the neighboring cities and the main tributaries of the hydrographic basin is emphasized to maintain the ecological quality of the reservoirs and their reference conditions among the SPRM reservoirs.


Resumo Características limnológicas de dois reservatórios foram estudadas durante os períodos seco (Agosto 2013) e de chuvas (Janeiro 2014) para avaliar a qualidade da água que abastece a cidade de Guarulhos, Brasil sudeste. Amostras de água foram coletadas em três profundidades e as características estudadas foram: alcalinidade, O2 dissolvido, CO2 livre e total, HCO3, sílica reativa solúvel e nitrogênio e fósforo dissolvido e total e clorofila-a. Transparência da água foi medida e obtidos os perfis de temperatura, pH e condutividade elétrica. Grande variabilidade sazonal e espacial das características da água ocorreu nos reservatórios. Altos valores de transparência da água, disponibilidade de CO2 livre e menores de pH, sílica reativa solúvel e nutrientes totais e dissolvidos foram documentados durante o período seco; e condições diferentes durante o período de chuvas. Os dois reservatórios foram caracterizados por baixos teores de nutrientes, clorofila-a e turbidez e alta transparência, características estas típicas de sistemas oligotróficos. Os dois reservatórios ainda permanecem sob condição de baixo impacto antropogênico e são atualmente considerados sistemas de referência para a RMSP, Região Metropolitana de São Paulo. A necessidade de ações para diminuir e até frear a entrada de nutrientes provenientes das cidades vizinhas e dos principais afluentes da bacia hidrográfica é enfatizada para manter a qualidade ecológica dos reservatórios e suas condições de referência entre os reservatórios da RMSP.


Assuntos
Qualidade da Água , Lagos/química , Estações do Ano , Abastecimento de Água , Brasil , Limnologia
11.
PLoS One ; 12(3): e0174499, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28358822

RESUMO

Studies in freshwater ecosystems are seeking to improve understanding of carbon flow in food webs and stable isotopes have been influential in this work. However, variation in isotopic values of basal production sources could either be an asset or a hindrance depending on study objectives. We assessed the potential for basin geology and local limnological conditions to predict stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values of six carbon sources at multiple locations in four Neotropical floodplain ecosystems (Paraná, Pantanal, Araguaia, and Amazon). Limnological conditions exhibited greater variation within than among systems. δ15N differed among basins for most carbon sources, but δ13C did not (though high within-basin variability for periphyton, phytoplankton and particulate organic carbon was observed). Although δ13C and δ15N values exhibited significant correlations with some limnological factors within and among basins, those relationships differed among carbon sources. Regression trees for both carbon and nitrogen isotopes for all sources depicted complex and in some cases nested relationships, and only very limited similarity was observed among trees for different carbon sources. Although limnological conditions predicted variation in isotope values of carbon sources, we suggest the resulting models were too complex to enable mathematical corrections of source isotope values among sites based on these parameters. The importance of local conditions in determining variation in source isotope values suggest that isotopes may be useful for examining habitat use, dispersal and patch dynamics within heterogeneous floodplain ecosystems, but spatial variability in isotope values needs to be explicitly considered when testing ecosystem models of carbon flow in these systems.


Assuntos
Carbono/química , Ecossistema , Cadeia Alimentar , Fitoplâncton/química , Carbono/metabolismo , Radioisótopos de Carbono/química , Radioisótopos de Carbono/metabolismo , Água Doce , Isótopos/química , Lagos , Limnologia , Radioisótopos de Nitrogênio/química , Radioisótopos de Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fitoplâncton/metabolismo , Rios , Estações do Ano
12.
Braz J Biol ; 77(2): 323-331, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27683805

RESUMO

Limnological features of two reservoirs were studied in dry (August 2013) and rainy (January 2014) periods to evaluate the water quality that supply the city of Guarulhos, southeast Brazil. Water samples were collected in three depths and the following characteristics were measured: alkalinity, dissolved O2, free and total CO2, HCO3, soluble reactive silica, dissolved and total nitrogen and phosphorus, and chlorophyll-a. Water transparency was also measured and temperature, pH and electric conductivity profiles were obtained. Great seasonal and low spatial variability of the water characteristics occurred in the reservoirs. High values of water transparency, free CO2 availability, and low of pH, soluble reactive silica and total and dissolved nutrients values were recorded at the dry period, and different conditions were found at the rainy season. The two reservoirs were characterized by low nutrients, chlorophyll-a and turbidity, and high transparency, these features being typical of oligotrophic systems. The two reservoirs still remain under low anthropogenic impact conditions, and are presently considered reference systems for the SPMR, São Paulo Metropolitan Region. The need for actions that will reduce the input of nutrients from the neighboring cities and the main tributaries of the hydrographic basin is emphasized to maintain the ecological quality of the reservoirs and their reference conditions among the SPRM reservoirs.


Assuntos
Lagos/química , Qualidade da Água , Brasil , Limnologia , Estações do Ano , Abastecimento de Água
13.
Acta sci., Biol. sci ; 38(4): 439-446, oct.-dec. 2016. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-831628

RESUMO

This study assessed the limnology from the Medium Uruguay River Basin in Uruguaiana, Brazil, with a focus on the concentration of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, and Mn), to assess the toxicological potential (cytotoxicity and genotoxicity) for humans using as biological matrix of study human leukocyte cells. The conductivity, resistivity, and dissolved O2 levels exceeded the limits recommended by the National Environmental Council (Conselho Nacional do Meio Ambiente - CONAMA). The percentage of non-viable human leukocyte cells exposed to water samples was approximately 20% higher than that of the negative control (<3%), but similar to the positive control. The DNA damage index was high for all heavy metal concentrations assayed when compared to the negative control 12±2.96, p < 0.0001, with a range of 155.66±23.89 to 194.33±23.23, but similar to the positive control (210.62±27.48). Moreover, the leukocyte degeneration index was higher in all samples containing heavy metals than in the negative control (4%), which demonstrates to be due the presence of Cu (11.8-12.5%), Cd (13-15.6%), and Mn (15.6-22.5%). Taken together, our results show that the quality from water samples analyzed is below than recommended by CONAMA and offers risk of contamination by heavy metals for the general population.


Este estudo avaliou a limnologia de amostras de água da bacia do rio Uruguai Médio, Brasil, focando as concentrações de metais pesados (Cd, Cu e Mn), para determinar o potencial toxicológico (citotoxicidade e genotoxicidade) utilizando como matriz biológica células leucocitárias humanas. A condutividade, resistividade e níveis de O2 dissolvido nas amostras analisadas excederam o limite recomendado pelo Conselho Nacional de Meio Ambiente (CONAMA). O percentual de células leucocitárias humanas não viáveis expostos às amostras de água foi de aproximadamente 20% maior que o controle negativo (<3%), mas similar ao controle positivo. O índice de dano ao DNA foi maior para todas as concentrações de metais testadas quando comparadas ao controle negativo (12±2,96), p < 0,0001, com uma variação de 155,66±23,89 a 194,33±23,23, mas estatisticamente semelhante ao observado para o controle positivo (210,62±27,48). Adicionalmente, o índice de degeneração leucocitário foi maior em todas as amostras contendo metais pesados que o controle negativo (4%), pela presença de Cu (11,8-12,5%), Cd (13-15,6%) e Mn (15,6-22,5%). Analisando esses dados conjuntamente, nossos resultados demonstram que a qualidade das amostras de água analisadas encontra-se abaixo da recomendada pela CONAMA e oferece risco de contaminação por metais pesados para a população em geral.


Assuntos
Ecotoxicologia , Genotoxicidade , Limnologia , Metais Pesados
14.
Biofouling ; 32(4): 465-75, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26960078

RESUMO

Fouling communities on artificial marine structures are generally different from benthic communities in natural rocky habitats. However, they may also differ among different types of artificial structures. Two artificial structures in direct contact with arriving vessels were compared: floating pontoons within recreational marinas, and sea-walls within commercial harbours. Natural rocky habitats were used as a reference, and the genus Eudendrium (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) was chosen as a bioindicator. The assemblages were different among the three types of habitat studied, with different species characterising each habitat. The probability of finding an invasive Eudendrium species was significantly higher on pontoons. Diversity was the lowest on pontoons, but it was not significantly different between sea-walls and natural rocks. In general, a barrier to the spread of exotic species exists between harbours and natural rocky habitats. Floating pontoons seem to be a less suitable habitat for native fauna and a key element in marine biological invasions.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Espécies Introduzidas , Animais , Bioensaio/instrumentação , Bioensaio/métodos , Hidrozoários/fisiologia , Indústrias , Limnologia/métodos , Biologia Marinha/métodos
17.
Environ Sci Technol ; 49(1): 442-50, 2015 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25406073

RESUMO

Advanced sensor technology is widely used in aquatic monitoring and research. Most applications focus on temporal variability, whereas spatial variability has been challenging to document. We assess the capability of water chemistry sensors embedded in a high-speed water intake system to document spatial variability. This new sensor platform continuously samples surface water at a range of speeds (0 to >45 km h(-1)) resulting in high-density, mesoscale spatial data. These novel observations reveal previously unknown variability in physical, chemical, and biological factors in streams, rivers, and lakes. By combining multiple sensors into one platform, we were able to detect terrestrial-aquatic hydrologic connections in a small dystrophic lake, to infer the role of main-channel vs backwater nutrient processing in a large river and to detect sharp chemical changes across aquatic ecosystem boundaries in a stream/lake complex. Spatial sensor data were verified in our examples by comparing with standard lab-based measurements of selected variables. Spatial fDOM data showed strong correlation with wet chemistry measurements of DOC, and optical NO3 concentrations were highly correlated with lab-based measurements. High-frequency spatial data similar to our examples could be used to further understand aquatic biogeochemical fluxes, ecological patterns, and ecosystem processes, and will both inform and benefit from fixed-site data.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/instrumentação , Lagos/análise , Limnologia/instrumentação , Rios/química , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Ecossistema , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hidrologia , Lagos/química , Nitratos/análise , Compostos Orgânicos/análise
18.
Geobiology ; 13(1): 53-67, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25515686

RESUMO

Quantitative tools for deciphering the environment of microbialite formation are relatively limited. For example, the oxygen isotope carbonate-water geothermometer requires assumptions about the isotopic composition of the water of formation. We explored the utility of using 'clumped' isotope thermometry as a tool to study the temperatures of microbialite formation. We studied microbialites recovered from water depths of 10-55 m in Pavilion Lake, and 10-25 m in Kelly Lake, spanning the thermocline in both lakes. We determined the temperature of carbonate growth and the (18)O/(16)O ratio of the waters that microbialites grew in. Results were then compared to current limnological data from the lakes to reconstruct the history of microbialite formation. Modern microbialites collected at shallow depths (11.7 m) in both lakes yield clumped isotope-based temperatures of formation that are within error of summer water temperatures, suggesting that clumped isotope analyses may be used to reconstruct past climates and to probe the environments in which microbialites formed. The deepest microbialites (21.7-55 m) were recovered from below the present-day thermoclines in both lakes and yield radioisotope ages indicating they primarily formed earlier in the Holocene. During this time, pollen data and our reconstructed water (18)O/(16)O ratios indicate a period of aridity, with lower lake levels. At present, there is a close association between both photosynthetic and heterotrophic communities, and carbonate precipitation/microbialite formation, with biosignatures of photosynthetic influences on carbonate detected in microbialites from the photic zone and above the thermocline (i.e., depths of generally <20 m). Given the deeper microbialites are receiving <1% of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), it is likely these microbialites primarily formed when lower lake levels resulted in microbialites being located higher in the photic zone, in warm surface waters.


Assuntos
Carbonatos/análise , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Lagos/análise , Limnologia/métodos , Termometria , Colúmbia Britânica , Isótopos de Oxigênio/análise
19.
PLoS One ; 9(12): e114889, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25526619

RESUMO

Water level fluctuations in lakes lead to shoreline displacement. The seasonality of flooding or beaching of the littoral area affects nutrient cycling, redox gradients in sediments, and life cycles of aquatic organisms. Despite the ecological importance of water level fluctuations, we still lack a method that assesses water levels in the context of hydropower operations. Water levels in reservoirs are influenced by the operator of a hydropower plant, who discharges water through the turbines or stores water in the reservoir, in a fashion that maximizes profit. This rationale governs the seasonal operation scheme and hence determines the water levels within the boundaries of the reservoir's water balance. For progress towards a sustainable development of hydropower, the benefits of this form of electricity generation have to be weighed against the possible detrimental effects of the anthropogenic water level fluctuations. We developed a hydro-economic model that combines an economic optimization function with hydrological estimators of the water balance of a reservoir. Applying this model allowed us to accurately predict water level fluctuations in a reservoir. The hydro-economic model also allowed for scenario calculation of how water levels change with climate change scenarios and with a change in operating scheme of the reservoir (increase in turbine capacity). Further model development will enable the consideration of a variety of additional parameters, such as water withdrawal for irrigation, drinking water supply, or altered energy policies. This advances our ability to sustainably manage water resources that must meet both economic and environmental demands.


Assuntos
Hidrodinâmica , Modelos Econômicos , Movimentos da Água , Limnologia , Centrais Elétricas/economia
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