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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36587464

RESUMO

Conventional analysis of microbial bioproducers requires the extraction of metabolites from liquid cultures, where the culturing steps are time consuming and greatly limit throughput. To break through this barrier, the current study aims to directly evaluate microbial bioproduction colonies by way of supercritical fluid extraction-supercritical fluid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (SFE-SFC-MS/MS). The online SFE-SFC-MS/MS system offers great potential for high-throughput analysis due to automated metabolite extraction without any need for pretreatment. This is the first report of SFE-SFC-MS/MS as a method for direct colony screening, as demonstrated in the high-throughput screening of (-)-limonene bioproducers. Compared with conventional analysis, the SFE-SFC-MS/MS system enables faster and more convenient screening of highly productive strains.


Assuntos
Cromatografia com Fluido Supercrítico , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Limoneno , Cromatografia com Fluido Supercrítico/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos
2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 71(2): 1067-1076, 2023 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36598383

RESUMO

A total of 12 OBPs were identified in the antennae of ladybird Hippodamia variegata. HvarOBP1/2/5/6/10/11 were highly expressed in adults, whereas HvarOBP3/4/7/8/9/12 had higher expression levels in larvae. In adults, HvarOBP1/2/4/5/6/7/8/11/12 were highly expressed in antennae. Among these, recombinant HvarOBP5 strong bound with (E)-ß-farnesene (EßF), (R)-(+)-limonene, (E,E)-4,8,12-trimethyltrideca-l,3,7,11-tetraene (TMTT), (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT), hexyl hexanoate, and geranyl acetate. Molecular docking indicated that Leu42, Lys43, and His64 were the key binding sites of HvarOBP5. All six ligands evoked electroantennography (EAG) responses in ladybirds. Moreover, (R)-(+)-limonene and hexyl hexanoate were attractive to both sexes. After RNA interference for 72 h, the EAGs of dsRNA-injected ladybirds to DMNT and hexyl hexanoate were significantly decreased by 73.8 and 78.6%, respectively. Both dsRNA-injected males and females showed significantly lower behavioral preferences for DMNT and hexyl hexanoate. These findings suggest that HvarOBP5 in H. variegata plays an important role in the perception of semiochemical cues from preys and habitat plants.


Assuntos
Feromônios , Receptores Odorantes , Feminino , Masculino , Animais , Feromônios/metabolismo , Caproatos , Limoneno , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Receptores Odorantes/metabolismo , Percepção , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Antenas de Artrópodes/metabolismo
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(2)2023 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36675314

RESUMO

Brown planthopper (BPH), a monophagous phloem feeder, consumes a large amount of photoassimilates in rice and causes wilting. A near-isogenic line 'TNG71-Bph45' was developed from the Oryza sativa japonica variety 'Tainung 71 (TNG71) carrying a dominant BPH-resistance locus derived from Oryza nivara (IRGC 102165) near the centromere of chromosome 4. We compared the NIL (TNG71-Bph45) and the recurrent parent to explore how the Bph45 gene confers BPH resistance. We found that TNG71-Bph45 is less attractive to BPH at least partially because it produces less limonene. Chiral analysis revealed that the major form of limonene in both rice lines was the L-form. However, both L- and D-limonene attracted BPH when applied exogenously to TNG71-Bph45 rice. The transcript amounts of limonene synthase were significantly higher in TNG71 than in TNG71-Bph45 and were induced by BPH infestation only in the former. Introgression of the Bph45 gene into another japonica variety, Tainan 11, also resulted in a low limonene content. Moreover, several dominantly acting BPH resistance genes introduced into the BPH-sensitive IR24 line compromised its limonene-producing ability and concurrently decreased its attractiveness to BPH. These observations suggest that reducing limonene production may be a common resistance strategy against BPH in rice.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Oryza , Hiperplasia Prostática , Animais , Masculino , Humanos , Oryza/genética , Limoneno , Genes de Plantas , Hiperplasia Prostática/genética , Hemípteros/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(2)2023 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36675321

RESUMO

Eugenol, cinnamaldehyde and D-limonene, the main components of natural essential oils, are endowed with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties which allow them to induce beneficial effects on intestinal, cardiac and neuronal levels. In order to characterize their pharmacokinetic profiles and aptitude to permeate in the central nervous system after intravenous and oral administration to rats, new analytical procedures, easily achievable with HPLC-UV techniques, were developed. The terminal half-lives of these compounds range from 12.4 ± 0.9 (D-limonene) and 23.1 ± 1.6 min (cinnamaldehyde); their oral bioavailability appears relatively poor, ranging from 4.25 ± 0.11% (eugenol) to 7.33 ± 0.37% (cinnamaldehyde). Eugenol evidences a marked aptitude to permeate in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of rats following both intravenous and oral administrations, whereas cinnamaldehyde appears able to reach the CSF only after intravenous administration; limonene is totally unable to permeate in the CSF. Eugenol was therefore recruited for in vitro studies of viability and time-/dose-dependent dopamine release in neuronal differentiated PC12 cells (a recognized cellular model mimicking dopaminergic neurons), evidencing its ability to increase cell viability and to induce dopamine release according to a U-shaped time-course curve. Moreover, concentration-response data suggest that eugenol may induce beneficial effects against Parkinson's disease after oral administration.


Assuntos
Dopamina , Eugenol , Ratos , Animais , Eugenol/farmacologia , Limoneno , Células PC12 , Acroleína/farmacologia , Encéfalo
5.
Nutrients ; 15(2)2023 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36678138

RESUMO

D-limonene (LIM) is a common monoterpene compound, principally found in citrus essential oils. This study investigated the anti-obesity effect of LIM on the 5'-adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and high-calorie diet-induced obese rats and confirmed the optimally effective dose of LIM. The 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with 0.05-0.4 mg/mL LIM for 10 days and oil red O and triglyceride (TG) content were used to determine the levels of lipid accumulation. The results showed that more than 0.05 mg/mL LIM inhibited lipid accumulation by reducing oil red O in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Masses of 0.2 and 0.4 mg/mL LIM also decreased the TG contents in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. On the other hand, Wistar rats were given high-calorie diets, combined with LLIM (154 mg/kg) and HLIM (1000 mg/kg) treatments, for 16 weeks. The result shows that LLIM and HLIM decreased body weight, total fat tissue weight, and serum low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDLc) levels. HLIM reduced serum TG and increased serum lipase and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDLc) levels. Moreover, the anti-obesity metabolic pathway showed that LIM (>0.05 mg/mL) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and LIM (>154 mg/kg) in high-calorie diet-induced obese rats could activate the AMPK signaling pathway. The activated AMPK regulated the mRNA expression related to adipogenesis (PPARγ, C/EBPα, FABP4), lipogenesis (SREBP-1c, ACC, FAS), and lipolysis (ATGL, HSL) to inhibit obesity. This finding demonstrates that LIM has anti-obesity properties. Namely, it is seen that LIM acts by regulating the AMPK signaling pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and high-calorie diet-induced obese rats. In terms of dose-response, LIM (154 mg/kg) would be an optimal effective dose for anti-obesity induced by a high-calorie diet.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP , Fármacos Antiobesidade , Camundongos , Ratos , Animais , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Limoneno/farmacologia , Células 3T3-L1 , Fármacos Antiobesidade/uso terapêutico , Ratos Wistar , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Adipócitos , Adipogenia , Transdução de Sinais , Triglicerídeos , Colesterol , Dieta , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos
6.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 123: 327-340, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36521996

RESUMO

A compilation of new advances made in the research field of laboratory reaction kinetics in China's Key Development Project for Air Pollution Formation Mechanism and Control Technologies was presented. These advances are grouped into six broad, interrelated categories, including volatile organic compound (VOC) oxidation, secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation, new particle formation (NPF) and gas-particle partitioning, ozone chemistry, model parameters, and secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) formation, highlighting the laboratory work done by Chinese researchers. For smog chamber applications, the current knowledge gained from laboratory studies is reviewed, with emphasis on summarizing the oxidation mechanisms of long-chain alkanes, aromatics, alkenes, aldehydes/ketones in the atmosphere, SOA formation from anthropogenic emission sources, and oxidation of aromatics, isoprene, and limonene, as well as SIA formation. For flow tube applications, atmospheric oxidation mechanisms of toluene and methacrolein, SOA formation from limonene oxidation by ozone, gas-particle partitioning of peroxides, and sulfuric acid-water (H2SO4-H2O) binary nucleation, methanesulfonic acid-water (MSA-H2O) binary nucleation, and sulfuric acid-ammonia-water (H2SO4-NH3-H2O) ternary nucleation are discussed.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Ozônio , Cinética , Limoneno , Aerossóis/análise , Ozônio/química , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Água , China , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise
7.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 194: 499-512, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36516537

RESUMO

In the perennial medicinal plant fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), persistence over years, production stability, and successful post-drought recovery are as important as plant productivity. Characterization of productivity, post-drought recovery, persistency and their association with phytochemical properties has not yet been performed in fennel. In this study, 64 fennel genotypes (from 23 different countries) from four subspecies/varieties including F. vulgare ssp. piperitum, F. vulgare var. vulgare and F. vulgare var. dulce and F. vulgare var. azoricum were evaluated in the field over four years (2015-2018), then was assessed for post-drought recovery over the next two years (2019-2020). High genotypic variation was observed among genotypes and subspecies. Based on the GC-MS analysis, trans-anethole (22.4-90.6%), estragole (2.1-25.8%), fenchone (4.9-19.8%), and limonene (0.5-11.9%) are major components in the essential oils of the studied germplasm. The highest persistence and the lowest average post-drought recovery belonged to ssp. piperitum. This subspecies also had the highest amount of limonene, fenchone, and estragole and the lowest amount of trans-anethole compared to other subspecies. The highest essential oil content and stability was observed in var. dulce. Seed yield and persistence were found to be negatively associated, suggesting that selection for more productivity may indirectly promote less persistent genotypes. Post-drought recovery was negatively associated with two main phytochemical compounds of essential oil, fenchone and estragole, but positively associated with trans-anethole. Persistence had negative correlation with estragole content. Results indicated that indirect selection for post-drought recovery and persistence may be possible through selection for phytochemical properties. The negative correlation between some essential oil components may indicate that some are isomers, which can limit the ability to select for certain combinations. Superior genotypes identified in this study can be used to construct populations for future studies and as parents of crosses to develop new varieties.


Assuntos
Foeniculum , Óleos Voláteis , Limoneno , Foeniculum/genética , Foeniculum/química , Óleos Voláteis/química
8.
Molecules ; 27(24)2022 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36558017

RESUMO

Yeasts from the Candida parapsilosis complex are clinically relevant due to their high virulence and pathogenicity potential, such as adherence to epithelial cells and emission of filamentous structures, as well as their low susceptibility to antifungals. D-limonene, a natural compound, emerges as a promising alternative with previously described antibacterial, antiparasitic, and antifungal activity; however, its mechanisms of action and antivirulence activity against C. parapsilosis complex species have not been elucidated. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to evaluate the antifungal and antivirulence action, as well as the mechanism of action of D-limonene against isolates from this complex. D-limonene exhibited relevant antifungal activity against C. parapsilosis complex yeasts, as well as excellent antivirulence activity by inhibiting yeast morphogenesis and adherence to the human epithelium. Furthermore, the apoptotic mechanism induced by this compound, which is not induced by oxidative stress, represents an important target for the development of new antifungal drugs.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Candida parapsilosis , Humanos , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Virulência , Limoneno/farmacologia , Fatores de Virulência , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Saccharomyces cerevisiae
9.
Respir Res ; 23(1): 338, 2022 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36496421

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: PM2.5 exposure is associated with lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD), but the mechanism is unclear. The lack of understanding impedes our effort on prevention. This study examined a possible mechanism of lung cancer caused by PM2.5 exposure, and aimed to find a potential intervention for people living in PM2.5 polluted regions. METHODS: Electron microscopy and oil-red staining were conducted to examine the lipid droplet accumulation. Masson's trichrome staining, colony forming, scratch assay and transwell experiment were conducted to evaluate the effect of PM2.5 exposure and D-limonene intervention on the occurrence and progression of LUAD. Potential intervention targets were found by RNA-Seq and verified by luciferase reporter assay. MiR-195 KO mice constructed with CRISPR/Cas9 technology were used to investigate the pivotal role of D-limonene-miR-195-SREBP1/FASN axis. Cohort analysis of lung cancer patients, human LUAD tissues staining and human intervention trial were also conducted to validate the results of cell and animal experiments. RESULTS: Our results showed that PM2.5 exposure induced accumulation of lipid droplets in LUAD cells which accompanied by increased malignant cellular behaviors. PM2.5 exposure led to cleaved N-SREBP1 translocation into nucleus, which activated the de novo lipogenesis pathway. Same changes were also observed in normal lung epithelial cells and normal lung tissue, and mice developed pulmonary fibrosis after long-term exposure to PM2.5. Furthermore, in a cohort of 11,712 lung cancer patients, significant lipid metabolism disorders were observed in higher PM2.5 polluted areas. In view of that, D-limonene was found to inhibit the changes in lipid metabolism through upregulating the expression of miR-195, which inhibited the expression of lipogenic genes (SREBF1/FASN/ACACA) specifically. And a small human intervention trial showed that serum miR-195 was upregulated after oral intake of D-limonene. CONCLUSION: Our findings reveal a new mechanism of pulmonary fibrosis and LUAD that is related to PM2.5 exposure-induced lipid droplet accumulation. We also demonstrate that D-limonene-miR-195-SREBP1/FASN axis is a potential preventive intervention for mediating the progression and development of LUAD induced by PM2.5 exposure. Trial registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ChiCTR2000030200. Registered 25 February 2020, http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=48013.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão , Neoplasias Pulmonares , MicroRNAs , Fibrose Pulmonar , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Gotículas Lipídicas , Limoneno , Neoplasias Pulmonares/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/prevenção & controle , MicroRNAs/genética , Proliferação de Células , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica
10.
Molecules ; 27(23)2022 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36500421

RESUMO

Citrus plants are widely utilized for edible purposes and medicinal utility throughout the world. However, because of the higher abundance of the antimicrobial compound D-Limonene, the peel waste cannot be disposed of by biogas production. Therefore, after the extraction of D-Limonene from the peel wastes, it can be easily disposed of. The D-Limonene rich essential oil from the Citrus limetta risso (CLEO) was extracted and evaluated its radical quenching, bactericidal, and cytotoxic properties. The radical quenching properties were DPPH radical scavenging (11.35 ± 0.51 µg/mL) and ABTS scavenging (10.36 ± 0.55 µg/mL). There, we observed a dose-dependent antibacterial potential for the essential oil against pathogenic bacteria. Apart from that, the essential oil also inhibited the biofilm-forming properties of E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. enterica, and S. aureus. Further, cytotoxicity was also exhibited against estrogen receptor-positive (MCF7) cells (IC50: 47.31 ± 3.11 µg/mL) and a triple-negative (MDA-MB-237) cell (IC50: 55.11 ± 4.62 µg/mL). Upon evaluation of the mechanism of action, the toxicity was mediated through an increased level of reactive radicals of oxygen and the subsequent release of cytochrome C, indicative of mitotoxicity. Hence, the D-Limonene rich essential oil of C. limetta is useful as a strong antibacterial and cytotoxic agent; the antioxidant properties exhibited also increase its utility value.


Assuntos
Citrus , Óleos Voláteis , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/química , Citrus/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Staphylococcus aureus , Escherichia coli , Limoneno , Bactérias , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa
11.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 7813, 2022 12 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36535947

RESUMO

Chiral heterocyclic compounds are needed for important medicinal applications. We report an in silico strategy for the biocatalytic synthesis of chiral N- and O-heterocycles via Baldwin cyclization modes of hydroxy- and amino-substituted epoxides and oxetanes using the limonene epoxide hydrolase from Rhodococcus erythropolis. This enzyme normally catalyzes hydrolysis with formation of vicinal diols. Firstly, the required shutdown of the undesired natural water-mediated ring-opening is achieved by rational mutagenesis of the active site. In silico enzyme design is then continued with generation of the improved mutants. These variants prove to be versatile catalysts for preparing chiral N- and O-heterocycles with up to 99% conversion, and enantiomeric ratios up to 99:1. Crystal structural data and computational modeling reveal that Baldwin-type cyclizations, catalyzed by the reprogrammed enzyme, are enabled by reshaping the active-site environment that directs the distal RHN and HO-substituents to be intramolecular nucleophiles.


Assuntos
Epóxido Hidrolases , Ciclização , Biocatálise , Epóxido Hidrolases/metabolismo , Limoneno , Catálise , Estereoisomerismo
12.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 7883, 2022 12 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36550126

RESUMO

Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) contributes significantly to ambient fine particulate matter that affects climate and human health. Monoterpenes represent an important class of biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and their oxidation by nitrate radicals poses a substantial source of SOA globally. Here, we investigate the formation and properties of SOA from nitrate radical oxidation of two common monoterpenes, α-pinene and limonene. When two monoterpenes are oxidized simultaneously, we observe a ~50% enhancement in the formation of SOA from α-pinene and a ~20% reduction in limonene SOA formation. The change in SOA yields is accompanied by pronounced changes in aerosol chemical composition and volatility. These non-linear effects are not observed in a sequential oxidation experiment. Our results highlight that unlike currently assumed in atmospheric models, the interaction of products formed from individual VOCs should be accounted for to accurately describe SOA formation and its climate and health impacts.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Humanos , Limoneno , Nitratos/química , Monoterpenos/química , Material Particulado , Aerossóis/química
13.
Molecules ; 27(21)2022 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36364038

RESUMO

Fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG) industry has long included many appealing essential oils in products to meet consumers' needs. Among all, the demand for limonene (LM) has recently surged due to its broad-spectrum health benefits, with applications in cosmetic, detergent, and food products. However, LM is extremely volatile, hence has often been encapsulated for a longer shelf-life. To date, mostly non-biodegradable synthetic polymers have been exploited to fabricate the microcapsule shells, and the resulting microcapsules contribute to the accumulation of microplastic in the environment. So far, information on LM-entrapping microcapsules with a natural microplastic-free shell and their mechanism of formation is limited, and there is lack of an in-depth characterisation of their mechanical and adhesive properties, which are crucial for understanding their potential performance at end-use applications. The present research aims towards developing safe microcapsules with a core of LM fabricated via complex coacervation (CC) using gum Arabic (GA) and fungally sourced chitosan (fCh) as shell precursors. The encapsulation efficiency (EE) for LM was quantified by gas chromatography (GC) separation method. The morphology of microcapsules was investigated via bright-field optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, and their mechanical properties were characterised using a micromanipulation technique. Moreover, the adhesive properties of the resulting microcapsules were studied via a bespoke microfluidic device fitted with a polyethylene-terephthalate (PET) substrate and operating at increasingly hydrodynamic shear stress (HSS). Spherical core-shell microcapsules (EE ~45%) with a mean size of 38 ± 2 µm and a relatively smooth surface were obtained. Their mean rupture force and nominal rupture stress were 0.9 ± 0.1 mN and 2.1 ± 0.2 MPa, respectively, which are comparable to those of other microcapsules with synthetic shells, e.g., urea- and melamine-formaldehyde. It was also found that the fCh-GA complexed shell provided promising adhesive properties onto PET films, leading to a microcapsule retention of ~85% and ~60% at low (≤50 mPa) and high shear stress (0.9 Pa), respectively. Interestingly, these values are similar to the adhesion data available in literature for microplastic-based microcapsules, such as melamine-formaldehyde (50-90%). Overall, these findings suggest that microplastics-free microcapsules with a core of oil have been successfully fabricated, and can offer a potential for more sustainable, consumer- and environmentally friendly applications in FMCGs.


Assuntos
Goma Arábica , Microplásticos , Cápsulas/química , Limoneno , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Goma Arábica/química , Formaldeído
14.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19814, 2022 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36396702

RESUMO

To explore a novel kind of green composite material having excellent antibacterial, antifungal ability and specific-targeting capability for pharmaceutical uses, a novel kind of bio-composite was prepared using sodium purified clay as carrier of Caraway essential oil (CEO). Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analyses of CEO reveals that Carvone (68.30%) and Limonene (22.54%) are the two major components with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value equal to 125 mg/mL against Staphylococcus (S) aureus bacteria and Candida albicans fungi. Clay from Zaghouan was purified and characterized by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and N2 adsorption-desorption (BET method). Results obtained by chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID) show that the concentration of 130 mg/mL of essential oil and 5 h of contact with the purified clay are the optimal conditions for the bio-hybrid formation. The pseudo-second-order model can describe the kinetic study of the adsorption of Carvone and Limonene on sodium montmorillonite, and the adsorption isotherms have been established to the Langmuir type. Limonene registers a maximum adsorption value equal to 3.05 mg/g of clay however Carvone register the higher amount of adsorption (19.98 mg/g) according to its polarity and the abundance of this compound in the crude CEO. X-ray diffraction, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, elemental analyses (CHN) and X-ray fluorescence characterization valid the success adsorption of CEO in sodium montmorillonite surface. The purified clay/CEO hybrid (purified clay/CEO) combined the advantages of both the clay and the essential oil used in exerting the antibacterial and antifungal activity, and thus, the composite has a double antibacterial and antifungal activity compared to the separately uses of inactive clay and CEO, suggesting the great potential application in pharmaceutical treatments.


Assuntos
Carum , Óleos Voláteis , Argila/química , Bentonita/química , Adsorção , Limoneno , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Antifúngicos , Antibacterianos , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Sódio
15.
Molecules ; 27(22)2022 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36431837

RESUMO

Essential oils were obtained from different parts of Agastache foeniculum (Lophanthus anisatus) plants by means of extraction: green extraction using hydro-distillation (HD) and bio-solvent distillation, BiAD, discontinuous distillation, and supercritical fluid extraction, in two stages: (1) with CO2, and (2) with CO2 and ethanol co-solvent. The extraction yields were determined. The yield values varied for different parts of the plant, as well as the method of extraction. Thus, they had the values of 0.62 ± 0.020 and 0.92 ± 0.015 g/100 g for the samples from the whole aerial plant, 0.75 ± 0.008 and 1.06 ± 0.005 g/100 g for the samples of leaves, and 1.22 ± 0.011 and 1.60 ± 0.049 g/100 g for the samples of flowers for HD and BiAD, respectively. The yield values for supercritical fluid extraction were of 0.94 ± 0.010 and 0.32 ± 0.007 g/100 g for the samples of whole aerial plant, 0.9 ± 0.010 and 1.14 ± 0.008 g/100 g for the samples of leaves, and 1.94 ± 0.030 and 0.57 ± 0.003 g/100 g for the samples of flowers, in the first and second stages, respectively. The main components of Lophanthus anisatus were identified as: estragon, limonene, eugenol, chavicol, benzaldehyde, and pentanol. The essential oil from Agatache foeniculum has antimicrobial effects against Staphylococcus aureus, the Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Acclimatization of Lophantus anisatus in Romania gives it special qualities by concentrating components such as: estragole over 93%, limonene over 8%, especially in flowers; and chavicol over 14%, estragole over 30%, eugenol and derivatives (methoxy eugenol, methyl eugenol, etc.) over 30% and phenyl ether alcohol over 20% in leaves. As a result of the research carried out, it was proven that Lophanthus anisatus can be used as a medicinal plant for many diseases, it can be used as a spice and preservative for various foods, etc.


Assuntos
Lamiaceae , Óleos Voláteis , Limoneno , Eugenol , Dióxido de Carbono , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Solventes
16.
Molecules ; 27(22)2022 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36431949

RESUMO

Finger lime is receiving growing attention as an ingredient of gastronomic preparations of haute cuisine for its delicious flavor and fragrance and for its appealing aspect. Volatile compounds play a crucial role in determining the organoleptic characteristics of the fruit and its pleasantness for consumers. The aim of the present study was to investigate the volatile profiles by headspace solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in the peel and, for the first time, in the pulp of three Australian finger lime cultivars grown in Sicily (southern Italy): Pink Pearl, Sanguinea, and Faustrime, allowing to overall identify 84 volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The analytical data showed that the three cultivars were characterized by distinct volatile chemotypes: limonene/sabinene/bicyclogermacrene in the Pink Pearl, limonene/γ-terpinene/bicyclogermacrene in the Sanguinea, and limonene/ß-phellandrene/γ-terpinene in the Faustrime. Moreover, some volatiles, found exclusively in one cultivar, could be considered potential markers of the individual cultivar. PCA allowed us to clearly discriminate the samples into three clusters: the first related to the Sanguinea peel, the second to the Faustrime peel, and a third group associated with the Pink Pearl peel along with the pulp of the three cultivars. Accordingly, the VOCs that mostly contributed to the differentiation of the three finger lime cultivars were also identified. Among them, D-limonene, sabinene γ-terpinene, α-pinene, α-phellandrene, ß-myrcene, p-cymene, linalool, δ-elemene, ledene, bicyclogermacrene ß-citronellol, α-bergamotene, α-caryophillene, and ß-bisabolene, have been previously reported to exhibit important biological activities, suggesting that these cultivars, in addition to possessing unique volatile profiles, can show promise for several applications in pharmaceutical and food industry, namely for development of functional foods.


Assuntos
Citrus , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Limoneno , Quimiometria , Austrália , Sicília
17.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2022: 9354555, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36246399

RESUMO

C. camphora is a renowned traditional Unani medicinal herb and belongs to the family Lauraceae. It has therapeutic applications in various ailments and prophylactic properties to prevent flu-like epidemic symptoms and COVID-19. This comprehensive appraisal is to familiarize the reader with the traditional, broad applications of camphor both in Unani and modern medicine and its effects on bioactive molecules. Electronic databases such as Web of Science, PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, and Research Gate were searched for bioactive molecules, and preclinical/clinical research and including 59 research and review papers up to 2022 were retrieved. Additionally, 21 classical Unani and English herbal pharmacopeia books with ethnomedicinal properties and therapeutic applications were explored. Oxidative stress significantly impacts aging, obesity, diabetes mellitus, depression, and neurodegenerative diseases. The polyphenolic bioactive compounds such as linalool, borneol, and nerolidol of C. camphora have antioxidant activity and have the potential to remove free radicals. Its other major bioactive molecules are camphor, cineole, limelol, safrole, limonene, alpha-pinene, and cineole with anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anxiolytic, analgesic, immunomodulatory, antihyperlipidemic, and many other pharmacological properties have been established in vitro or in vivo preclinical research. Natural bioactive molecules and their mechanisms of action and applications in diseases have been highlighted, with future prospects, gaps, and priorities that need to be addressed.


Assuntos
Ansiolíticos , Cinnamomum camphora , Analgésicos , Antibacterianos , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cânfora , Etnofarmacologia , Eucaliptol , Hipolipemiantes , Limoneno , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Safrol
18.
BMC Immunol ; 23(1): 50, 2022 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36261807

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Datura stramonium L. (Solanaceae) is used traditionally in west Africa to treat asthma, epilepsy, rheumatoid arthritis, filariasis microbial infections and conjunctivitis. This study investigated the immunomodulatory effects of aqueous seed extract of D. stramonium L. (ASEDS) on Wistar rats. METHODS: Thirty Wistar albino rats (180-200 g) were randomized into 6 groups (n = 5). Group 1 received distilled water only. Rats in groups 2-6 were pretreated with 10 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) Cyclophosphamide orally for 27-days to induce immunosuppression. Thereafter, they received treatment orally for 28 days as follows: Group 2 (distilled water), group 3 (5 mg/kg b.w. Levamisole), groups 4-6 (60, 90 and 120 mg/kg b.w. ASEDS, respectively). HPLC was used to determine major compounds in ASEDS. The effects of ASEDS on immune cells, immunoglobulins A, G and M levels, lipoproteins, and antioxidant status of rats were evaluated. RESULTS: ASEDS indicated high content of Acutumine, Quinine, Catechin, Chlorogenic acid, Gallic acid, Quercetin, Vanillic acid, Luteolin, Formosanin C, Saponin, Cyanidin, Tannic acid, 3-Carene, Limonene and α-terpineol. Cyclophosphamide triggered significant (p < 0.05) reduction in total leucocyte count and differentials, IgA, IgG, high-density lipoproteins (HDL), catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, vitamins A, C and E levels of untreated rats. Administration of ASEDS led to significant (p < 0.05) improvement in immune cell counts, immunoglobulin synthesis, high-density lipoprotein concentration, and antioxidant status of rats in the treated groups. CONCLUSIONS: The results obtained from the study showed the immunomodulatory activity of ASEDS, thereby indicating its potential in immunostimulatory drug discovery.


Assuntos
Catequina , Datura stramonium , Saponinas , Animais , Ratos , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Catalase , Ácido Clorogênico , Ciclofosfamida , Ácido Gálico/farmacologia , Glutationa Peroxidase , Imunoglobulina A , Imunoglobulina G , Terapia de Imunossupressão , Levamisol , Limoneno , Lipoproteínas HDL , Luteolina , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Quercetina , Quinina , Ratos Wistar , Sementes , Superóxido Dismutase , Taninos , Ácido Vanílico , Vitaminas , Água
19.
Mar Drugs ; 20(10)2022 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36286478

RESUMO

In this study, we have demonstrated a bioprocessing approach encompassing the exogenous addition of low-molecular-weight compounds to tune the fatty acid (FA) profile in a novel thraustochytrid strain to produce desirable FAs. Maximum lipid recovery (38%, dry wt. biomass) was obtained at 1% Tween 80 and 0.25 mg/L of Vitamin B12. The transesterified lipid showed palmitic acid (C16, 35.7% TFA), stearic acid (C18, 2.1% TFA), and oleic acid (C18:1, 18.7% TFA) as the main components of total FAs, which are mainly present in plant oils. Strikingly, D-limonene addition in the fermentation medium repressed the production of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFAs). Sulfur-polymerization-guided lipid separation revealed the presence of saturated (SFAs, 53% TFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs, 46.6% TFA) in thraustochytrid oil that mimics plant-oil-like FA profiles. This work is industrially valuable and advocates the use of sulfur polymerization for preparation of plant-like oils through tuneable thraustochytrid lipids.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos , Polissorbatos , Fermentação , Polimerização , Limoneno , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados , Ácido Oleico , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados , Óleos Vegetais , Enxofre , Ácidos Esteáricos , Vitamina B 12 , Ácidos Palmíticos
20.
Environ Sci Technol ; 56(22): 15337-15346, 2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36282674

RESUMO

Limonene is an abundant monoterpene released into the atmosphere via biogenic emissions and biomass burning. However, the atmospheric oxidation and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation mechanisms of limonene, especially during nighttime, remain largely understudied. In this work, limonene was oxidized synergistically by ozone (O3) and nitrate radicals (NO3) in a flow tube reactor and a continuous flow stirred tank reactor. Upon oxidation, many highly oxidized organic nitrates and nitrooxy peroxy radicals (RO2) were observed in the gas phase within 1 min. Combining quantum chemical calculations with kinetic simulations, we found that the primary nitrooxy RO2 (C10H16NO5) through NO3 addition at the more substituted endocyclic double bond and at the exocyclic double bond (previously considered as minor pathways) can undergo autoxidation with rate constants of around 0.02 and 20 s-1 at 298 K, respectively. These pathways could explain a major portion of the observed highly oxidized organic nitrates. In the SOA, highly oxidized mono- and dinitrates (e.g., C10H17NO7-8 and C10H16,18N2O8-10) make up a significant contribution, highlighting nitrooxy RO2 autoxidation and sequential NO3 oxidation of limonene. The same organic nitrates are also observed in ambient aerosol during biomass burning and nighttime in the southeastern United States. Therefore, the present work provides new insights into the nighttime oxidation of limonene and SOA formation in the atmosphere.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Ozônio , Limoneno , Nitratos/química , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Aerossóis/química , Ozônio/química , Compostos Orgânicos , Óxidos de Nitrogênio
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