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1.
J Fish Dis ; 45(1): 165-175, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34741552

RESUMO

The half-smooth tongue sole, Cynoglossus semilaevis, is an important cultured flatfish species. Vibrio harveyi is a common pathogen to this fish, which may result in great economic loss to C. semilaevis culture industry. piRNAs, a non-coding RNAs with 26-32 nt, have been regarded as promising biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and fish diseases. Here, we extracted the RNA from mucus of C. semilaevis and constructed the differential expression profiles of piRNAs between the sick fish (MS) and healthy fish (MC). We identified 45,696 differentially expressed piRNAs including 22,735 up-regulated piRNAs and 22,961 down-regulated piRNAs in MS group compared with MC group. The GO enrichment and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses of the differential piRNAs were carried out. The result showed immunity-related target genes mainly involved in immune system process, response to stimulus, cell killing, immune system, infectious diseases and cell growth and death. The 10 most differentially expressed piRNAs were chosen to perform the qRT-PCR, while only seven piRNAs were consistent with the sequence result. Compared with MC group, the expression levels of piR-mmu-72173>piR-rno-62831>piR-xtr-704880, piR-dme-15546979, piR-mmu-49941660, piR-mmu-29283297 and piR-mmu-1758399 were significantly lower, and piR-gga-10574 and piR-gga-134812 were significantly higher in MS group. These piRNAs may be potential biomarkers during the V. harveyi infection of C. semilaevis. This study could provide a new method to identify the infection status of C. semilaevis and understand better about the innate and adaptive immune system in C. semilaevis during bacterial infection.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes , Linguados , Vibrioses , Vibrio , Animais , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Linguados/genética , Muco , RNA Interferente Pequeno , Vibrio/genética , Vibrioses/veterinária
2.
Gene ; 809: 146032, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34673208

RESUMO

Gap junction (GJ), a special intercellular junction between different cell types, directly connects the cytoplasm of adjacent cells, allows various molecules, ions and electrical impulses to pass through the intercellular regulatory gate, and plays vital roles in response to bacterial infection. Up to date, the information about the GJ in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) is still limited. In current study, 43 gap junction genes were identified in turbot, phylogeny analysis suggested that gap junctions from turbot and other species were clustered into six groups, GJA, GJB, GJC, GJD, GJE and PANX, and turbot GJs together with respective GJs from Japanese flounder, half-smooth tongue sole and large yellow croaker, sharing same ancestors. In addition, these 43 GJ genes distributed in different chromosomes unevenly. According to gene structure and domain analysis, these genes (in GJA-GJE group) were highly conserved in that most of them contain the transmembrane area, connexin domain (CNX) and cysteine-rich domain (connexin CCC), while PANXs contain Pfam Innexin. Although only one tandem duplication was identified in turbot gap junction gene, 235 pairs of segmental duplications were identified in the turbot genome. To further investigate their evolutionary relationships, Ka/Ks was calculated, and results showed that most ratios were lower than 1, indicating they had undergone negative selection. Finally, expression analysis showed that gap junction genes were widely distributed in turbot tissues and significantly regulated after Vibrio anguillarum infection. Taken together, our research could provide valuable information for further exploration of the function of gap junction genes in teleost.


Assuntos
Conexinas/genética , Doenças dos Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Linguados/genética , Vibrioses/veterinária , Animais , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Evolução Molecular , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Linguados/imunologia , Linguados/microbiologia , Duplicação Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Filogenia , Vibrio/patogenicidade , Vibrioses/imunologia
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 150188, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798736

RESUMO

Microplastics and nanomaterials are applied in a myriad of commercial and industrial applications. When leaked to natural environments, such small particles might threaten living organisms' health, particularly when considering their potential combination that remains poorly investigated. This study investigated the physiological and biochemical effects of polyethylene (PE; 64-125 µm in size, 0.1, 1.0, and 10.0 mg·L-1) single and combined with an engineered nanomaterial applied in antifouling coatings, the copper-aluminium layered double hydroxides (Cu-Al LDH; 0.33, 1.0, and 3.33 mg·L-1) in the flatfish Solea senegalensis larvae (8 dph) after 3 h exposure, in a full factorial design. Particles ingestion, histopathology, and biochemical biomarkers were assessed. Fish larvae presented <1 PE particles in their gut, independently of their concentration in the medium. The histological health index showed minimal pathological alterations at PE combined exposure, with a higher value observed at 1 mg LDH·L-1 × 0.1 mg PE·L-1. Gut deformity and increased antioxidant defences (catalase), neurotransmission (acetylcholinesterase), and aerobic energy production (electron transport system) were observed at PE ≥ 1.0 mg·L-1. No oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation) or alterations in the detoxification capacity (glutathione-S-transferase) was observed on single and combined exposures. PE, combined or not with Cu-Al LDH, does not seem to compromise larvae's homeostasis considering levels reported so far in the marine and aquaculture environments. However, harsh effects are expected with MP contamination rise, as projections suggest.


Assuntos
Linguados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Acetilcolinesterase , Animais , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Polietileno/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
4.
Genet Sel Evol ; 53(1): 85, 2021 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34742227

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The high fecundity of fish species allows intense selection to be practised and therefore leads to fast genetic gains. Based on this, numerous selective breeding programmes have been started in Europe in the last decades, but in general, little is known about how the base populations of breeders have been built. Such knowledge is important because base populations can be created from very few individuals, which can lead to small effective population sizes and associated reductions in genetic variability. In this study, we used genomic information that was recently made available for turbot (Scophthalmus maximus), gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata), European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to obtain accurate estimates of the effective size for commercial populations. METHODS: Restriction-site associated DNA sequencing data were used to estimate current and historical effective population sizes. We used a novel method that considers the linkage disequilibrium spectrum for the whole range of genetic distances between all pairs of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and thus accounts for potential fluctuations in population size over time. RESULTS: Our results show that the current effective population size for these populations is small (equal to or less than 50 fish), potentially putting the sustainability of the breeding programmes at risk. We have also detected important drops in effective population size about five to nine generations ago, most likely as a result of domestication and the start of selective breeding programmes for these species in Europe. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight the need to broaden the genetic composition of the base populations from which selection programmes start, and suggest that measures designed to increase effective population size within all farmed populations analysed here should be implemented in order to manage genetic variability and ensure the sustainability of the breeding programmes.


Assuntos
Bass , Carpas , Linguados , Dourada , Animais , Humanos , Densidade Demográfica , Seleção Artificial
5.
Zootaxa ; 5039(1): 1-55, 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811099

RESUMO

Species of Symphurus (Pleuronectiformes: Cynoglossidae) are relatively small-sized tonguefishes occurring worldwide in tropical, subtropical, and warm-temperate seas. In the Indo-West Pacific Ocean, species of Symphurus inhabiting waters shallower than 200 m are rarely reported; only five have been described, S. microrhynchus (Weber, 1913), S. holothuriae Chabanaud, 1948, S. monostigmus Munroe, 2006, S. leucochilus Lee et al. 2014, and S. longirostris Lee et al. 2016. Examination of museum and recently collected specimens yielded over 100+ Symphurus captured in relatively shallow waters off Japan, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, Taiwan, and Vietnam. All of these specimens, except S. monostigmus (with 14 caudal-fin rays), were originally tentatively identified as S. microrhynchus because of shared similarities (small size, low meristic values, 12 caudal-fin rays, shared pigmentation traits). Detailed comparisons revealed that, although similar, specimens from allopatric locations have small differences in meristic, morphometric and pigmentation features. In previous literature, these small differences were thought to represent intraspecific variation among populations of a widespread species, S. microrhynchus. However, further study, including molecular data, has revealed that such minor differences among specimens from allopatric locations actually represent interspecific, and not population-level, variations. Where available, molecular differences among these allopatric populations, in contrast to the morphological features, were significantly different (9.0 to 26.3%), providing additional strong support for the hypothesis that more than one species is represented among fishes examined. Combined data from morphological and molecular characters, and species delimitation analysis, reveal that five, undescribed, cryptic species should be recognized: S. brachycephalus n. sp. from Vietnam, S. hongae n. sp. from Taiwan, S. leptosomus n. sp. from the Philippines, S. polylepis n. sp. from Papua New Guinea, and S. robustus n. sp. from Japan. Also, based on new information, the previous decision to place S. holothuriae Chabanaud in the synonymy of S. microrhynchus was determined to be premature. This species should be recognized as valid until additional specimens are captured and the taxonomic status of this nominal species re-evaluated. At least 10 species of Indo-West Pacific shallow-water Symphurus are now known. Eight are members of the Symphurus microrhynchus species complex with hypothesized closer relationship to each other than to the other two species of shallow-water tonguefishes. Included in this study are redescriptions of S. microrhynchus and S. holothuriae based on their holotypes, including an expanded number of morphological characters not previously used to diagnose these species; redescriptions are also provided for comparative purposes of three other shallow-water species; five new cryptic species are described; and lastly, detailed comparisons and an identification key to all 10 species of shallow-water Symphurus occurring in the Indo-West Pacific Ocean are provided. Two additional populations are also identified that likely represent other undescribed taxa belonging to the S. microrhynchus species complex. Adequate specimens are not available at this time to formally describe these nominal species. This study contributes further understanding about species diversity within Symphurus inhabiting shallow waters of the Indo-West Pacific Ocean. Several other nominal species of small-sized cynoglossid and soleid flatfishes are currently considered to have widespread distributions in the Indo-West Pacific. Many of these species also have junior synonyms available based on nominal species described from allopatric sites within their geographic ranges. How many of these presumed populations of widespread species will be resurrected from synonymy once additional specimens and their genetic information becomes available remains an interesting question for future study.


Assuntos
Linguados , Linguado , Animais , Linguados/genética , Filogenia , Água
6.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257709, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34551018

RESUMO

Larval dispersal and juvenile survival are crucial in determining variation in recruitment, stock size and adult distribution of commercially important fish. This study investigates the dispersal of early-life stages of common sole (Solea solea L.) in the southern North Sea, both empirically and through modeling. Age at different life-history events of juvenile flatfish sampled along the coasts of Belgium, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom in 2013, 2014 and 2016, was determined through the counting of daily growth rings in the otoliths. Juveniles captured between August and October were estimated to be on average 140 days old with an average pelagic larval duration of 34 days. The hatching period was estimated between early April and mid-May followed by arrival and settlement in the nurseries between May and mid-June. Growth rates were higher off the Belgian coast than in the other nursery areas, especially in 2013, possibly due to a post-settlement differentiation. Empirical pelagic larval duration and settlement distributions were compared with the Larvae&Co larval dispersal model, which combines local hydrodynamics in the North Sea with sole larval behavior. Yearly predicted and observed settlement matched partially, but the model estimated a longer pelagic phase. The observations fitted even better with the modelled average (1995-2015) distribution curves. Aberrant results for the small juvenile sole sampled along the UK coast in March 2016, led to the hypothesis of a winter disruption in the deposition of daily growth rings, potentially related to starvation and lower food availability. The similarities between measured and modelled distribution curves cross-validated both types of estimations and accredited daily ageing of juveniles as a useful method to calibrate biophysical models and to understand early-life history of fish, both important tools in support of efficient fisheries management strategies.


Assuntos
Linguados , Membrana dos Otólitos , Animais , Ecossistema , Pesqueiros , Larva
7.
J Fish Dis ; 44(12): 2003-2012, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34460955

RESUMO

Intensive fish farming at high densities results in a wide range of adverse consequences on fish welfare, including pathogen spreading, stress and increased mortality rates. In this work, we have assessed whether the survival of Senegalese sole infected with the nervous necrosis virus (NNV), a pathogen responsible for severe disease outbreaks, is affected by rearing density. Based on the different fish ratios per surface area (g cm-2 ) and water volume (g L-1 ), our research showed an earlier mortality onset in the tanks containing NNV-infected fish reared at medium density (MD: 0.071 g cm-2 /5 g L-1 ) and high density (HD: 0.142 g cm-2 /10 g L-1 ), as well as higher cumulative mortality values. However, transcription analysis of hsp70, gr1 and pepck genes, well-known stress biomarkers, seems to indicate that none of the challenged fish were under high stress conditions. NNV load was slightly higher both in dead and in sampled fish from MD and HD groups, and especially in the rearing water from these groups, where peaks in mortality seemed to correlate with increasing NNV load in the water. In conclusion, our results suggest that rearing NNV-infected Senegalese sole at high densities resulted in an earlier mortality onset and higher cumulative values and viral load.


Assuntos
Aquicultura/métodos , Doenças dos Peixes/virologia , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/mortalidade , Animais , Doenças dos Peixes/mortalidade , Linguados/fisiologia , Nodaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Estresse Fisiológico , Carga Viral
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34387538

RESUMO

The present study objective was to assess polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Bizerte and Ghar El Melh Lagoons Solea solea and to assess the potential risk to human health from its consumption. To reach these objectives twenty fish samples from each site were collected and 15 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed in their muscles using high-performance liquid chromatography with a fluorescence detector. Total PAH sole concentrations from Bizerte and Ghar El Melh Lagoons were similar or lower to those recorded in other species from other regions across the world. In the studied fish species, the 2 and 3 ring PAHs are the dominated compounds that enter to the composition of PAHs which indicates that PAHs could be principally derived from a petrogenic origin for the both studied lagoons. The human health risk by sole consumption was evaluated and revealed to exhibit no hazard to the local population health concerning PAH intakes. The findings of this biomonitoring study will help in the implementation of sustainable environmental policies for effective water pollution control and the two investigated lagoons management.


Assuntos
Linguados , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Bioacumulação , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Medição de Risco , Tunísia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
9.
J Fish Dis ; 44(12): 1993-2001, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411329

RESUMO

To make crucial prevention, reduce fish losses and minimize the economic damage of diseases on the fish farm owners, a rapid detection of fish pathogens is mandatory. In this study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay combined with hydroxynaphthol blue dye (LAMP-HNB) was developed and used for the rapid detection of Aeromonas salmonicida that caused significant economic losses in fish farming. Firstly, a pair of outer and inner primers specific for conserved fragment of vapA gene in A. salmonicida were designed and synthesized. Secondly, by optimizing the reaction conditions including reaction temperature, time, Mg2+ concentration, dNTP concentration and primer ratio, a LAMP-HNB assay was successfully established for the detection of A. salmoncida. Thirdly, the assay showed good specificity with no false-positive and false-negative results, and good sensitivity with the detection limit of 3.077 × 10-6  ng/µl, which was 102 times more sensitive than the conventional PCR. Finally, the LAMP-HNB assay was validated by the fish samples inoculated with different concentrations of A. salmoncida. This is the first development of rapid visual detection of A. salmonicida based on LAMP-HNB assay, which has great application prospect and market for diagnostic testing, health certification and active surveillance programmers.


Assuntos
Aeromonas salmonicida/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/veterinária , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/veterinária , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/veterinária , Aeromonas salmonicida/genética , Animais , Aquicultura , Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Linguados , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/microbiologia , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Naftalenossulfonatos/química , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Coloração e Rotulagem
10.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 117: 157-168, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358703

RESUMO

Infectious diseases are one of the main causes of social and economical losses in world aquaculture. Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) is an important species for aquaculture in southern Europe, whose production is affected by the appearance of bacterial diseases such as photobacteriosis, a septicemia caused by Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida (Phdp). The aim of this study was to obtain an oral DNA nanovaccine and to evaluate its efficacy against Phdp in S. senegalensis juveniles. For this purpose, the amplified product corresponding to the protein inosine-5'-monophophate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) from Phdp, was cloned into the expression vector pcDNA™6.2/C-EmGFP-GW obtaining the DNA vaccine named as pPDPimpdh. The correct transcription and protein expression was verified at 48 h post tansfection in HEK293 cells. Chitosan nanoparticles (CS-TPP NPs) were prepared by ionotropic gelation and their features were appropriate for use as oral delivery system. Therefore, pPDPimpdh was protected with chitosan CS-TPP NPs throughout complex coacervation method giving as a result a DNA nanovaccine referred as CS-TPP+pPDPimpdh NPs. Sole juveniles were vaccinated orally with CS-TPP NPs, pPDPimpdh and CS-TPP+pPDPimpdh NPs followed by a challenge with Phdp at 30 days post vaccination (dpv). The relative percentage survival (RPS) for pPDPimpdh vaccinated groups was 6.25%, probably due to its degradation in the digestive tract. RPS value obtained for CS-TPP NPs and CS-TPP+pPDPimpdh NPs was 40% and antibodies were observed in both cases. However, a delay in mortality was observed in sole juveniles vaccinated orally with CS-TPP+pPDPimpdh NPs. In fact, an upregulation of tf, mhcII, cd8a and igm in the posterior gut and c3, hamp1, tf and cd4 in spleen was observed in juveniles vaccinated with CS-TPP+pPDPimpdh NPs. After challenge, a modulation of cd8a and cd4 expression levels in the posterior gut and c3, tf, lyg, cd4, igm and igt expression levels in spleen was observed. Moreover, the concentration of lysozyme in skin mucus significantly increased in fish vaccinated orally with CS-TPP+pPDPimpdh NPs at 11 dpc. These data indicate that oral vaccination with CS-TPP+pPDPimpdh NPs could be acting through the non-specific immune responses as well as the specific humoral and cell mediated immunity and provide the first step toward a development of an oral DNA nanovaccine against Phdp in sole.


Assuntos
Quitosana/administração & dosagem , Doenças dos Peixes/prevenção & controle , Linguados , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/prevenção & controle , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Photobacterium/imunologia , Vacinas de DNA/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Animais , Linguados/microbiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/veterinária
11.
Front Immunol ; 12: 679704, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34276667

RESUMO

In mammals, forkhead box O3 (foxo3) plays important roles in liver immune system. The foxo3 can regulate cell cycle, DNA repair, hypoxia, apoptosis and so on. However, as such an important transcription factor, few studies on foxo3 in fish have been reported. The present study characterized the foxo3 in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.). Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) incubated in vitro (hepatocytes) and injected in vivo (turbot liver) were used to construct inflammatory models. The foxo3 was interfered and overexpressed to investigate its functions in liver inflammation. The open reading frame (ORF) of foxo3 was 1998 bp (base pair), encoding 665 amino acids. Sequence analysis showed that foxo3 of turbot was highly homologous to other fishes. Tissue distribution analysis revealed that the highest expression of foxo3 was in muscle. Immunofluorescence result showed that foxo3 was expressed in cytoplasm and nucleus. Knockdown of foxo3 significantly increased mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (tnf-α), interleukin-1ß (il-1ß), interleukin-6 (il-6), myeloid-differentiation factor 88 (myd88), cd83, toll-like receptor 2 (tlr-2) and protein level of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in sifoxo3 + LPS (siRNA of foxo3+ LPS) group compared with NC + LPS (negative control + LPS) group in turbot hepatocytes. Overexpressed foxo3 significantly decreased mRNA levels of tnf-α, il-6, nuclear transcription factor-kappa B (nf-κb), cd83, tlr-2 and the protein level of JNK in vitro. In vivo analysis, foxo3 knockdown significantly increased levels of GOT in serum after LPS injection compared with NC+LPS group. Overexpressed foxo3 significantly decreased levels of GPT and GOT in pcDNA3.1-foxo3+LPS group compared with pcDNA3.1+LPS group in vivo. Foxo3 knockdown significantly increased mRNA levels of tnf-α, il-1ß, il-6, nf-κb, myd88 and protein level of JNK in vivo in sifoxo3+LPS group compared with NC+LPS group in turbot liver. Overexpressed foxo3 significantly decreased mRNA levels of il-1ß, il-6, myd88, cd83, jnk and protein level of JNK in pcDNA3.1-foxo3+LPS group compared with pcDNA3.1+LPS group in turbot liver. The results indicated that foxo3 might modulate LPS-activated hepatic inflammation in turbot by decreasing the proinflammatory cytokines, the levels of GOT and GPT as well as activating JNK/caspase-3 and tlr-2/myd88/nf-κb pathways. Taken together, these findings indicated that FoxO3 may play important roles in liver immune responses to LPS in turbot and the research of FoxO3 in liver immunity enriches the studies on immune regulation, and provides theoretical basis and molecular targets for solving liver inflammation and liver injury in fish.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/etiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/metabolismo , Proteína Forkhead Box O3/metabolismo , Hepatite Animal/etiologia , Hepatite Animal/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Animais , Biomarcadores , Clonagem Molecular , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Doenças dos Peixes/patologia , Linguados , Proteína Forkhead Box O3/genética , Expressão Gênica , Hepatite Animal/patologia , Hepatócitos/patologia , Testes de Função Hepática , RNA Interferente Pequeno
12.
J Fish Biol ; 99(5): 1746-1751, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270090

RESUMO

Fish eggs of the ovate sole Solea ovata and black porgy Acanthopagrus schlegelii were identified through DNA barcoding of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COX1). Visual taxonomic features were achieved, and photographs of the eggs of both species at different developmental stages were reported for the first time. In addition, the dissolution of oil globules caused by ethanol as egg fixatives was observed. This result showed the importance of using formalin as egg fixatives in the case of morphometric analysis and the necessity of combining molecular and visual taxonomic method for morphological study.


Assuntos
Linguados , Perciformes , Animais , Perciformes/genética
13.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 116: 52-60, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216786

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary bile acids (BAs) on intestinal healthy status of tongue sole in terms of immunity, antioxidant status, digestive ability, mucosal barrier-related genes expression and microbiota. Three experimental diets were prepared with BA levels at 0 mg/kg (CT), 300 mg/kg (BA1) and 900 mg/kg (BA2) in a commercial basal diet. Each diet was fed to three replicates with 120 fish (10.87 ± 0.32 g) in each tank. After an 8-week feeding trial, growth parameters were significantly enhanced in both BAs supplementary groups (P < 0.05), and compared with CT group, survival rate in BA2 group was significantly improved (P < 0.05). Intestinal lysozyme activity and contents of immunoglobulin M and complement 3 were significantly increased in both BAs supplementary groups (P < 0.05), suggesting an enhancement effect on the non-specific immune response. BAs inclusion also significantly improved intestinal antioxidant capabilities by increasing antioxidase activities and decreasing malondialdehyde levels. In addition, compared with CT group, intestinal digestive ability was substantially enhanced as indicated by the significantly increased lipase activity in BA2 group (P < 0.05) and significantly increased amylase activity in BA1 and BA2 groups (P < 0.05). Coincidentally, BAs inclusion significantly upregulated the relative expression of intestinal mucosal barrier-related genes (P < 0.05). Further, dietary BAs distinctly remodeled intestinal microbiota by decreased the abundance of some potential pathogenic bacteria. In conclusion, dietary BAs supplementation is an effective way to improve the intestinal healthy status of tongue sole.


Assuntos
Ácidos e Sais Biliares/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Linguados , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfatase Alcalina/imunologia , Amilases/metabolismo , Animais , Complemento C3/imunologia , Dieta/veterinária , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Linguados/genética , Linguados/imunologia , Linguados/metabolismo , Linguados/microbiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Lipase/metabolismo , Muramidase/imunologia , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Junções Íntimas/genética
14.
J Fish Biol ; 99(4): 1299-1306, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34184260

RESUMO

Common topknots (Zeugopterus punctatus) attach to vertical rock surfaces and overhangs. It has been speculated that attachment is by a suction cup, with the median (anal, dorsal) fins providing a peripheral seal. Here the authors propose that the attachment is actually based on a Venturi effect. The rear portions of the median fins continually move in a fan-like fashion (at c. 4 cycles per second). This movement produces a tailward fluid flow that ventilates the shallow underbody space between the fish and its rocky substratum. The anterior portions of the median fins seal the space laterally, but the space is open anterior (beneath the raised head) and posterior to the sea. The mid-underbody space likely has a lower cross-sectional area than does the front intake or rear exit, so flow should be faster (and pressure lower) within it than outside, thus providing pressure gradient suction. Topknots attach to rough and heavily biofouled surfaces, presumably because the high numbers of fin rays and their associated membranes plus fine muscle control allow effective sealing. The attachment ability is shared by all members of the flatfish tribe Phrynorhombini; it can be related to anatomical peculiarities and constitutes a probable synapomorphy for this clade.


Assuntos
Linguados , Linguado , Nadadeiras de Animais , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Natação
15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13460, 2021 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34188074

RESUMO

The integration of physical and high-density genetic maps is a very useful approach to achieve chromosome-level genome assemblies. Here, the genome of a male Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) was de novo assembled and the contigs were anchored to a high-quality genetic map for chromosome-level scaffolding. Hybrid assembled genome was 609.3 Mb long and contained 3403 contigs with a N50 of 513 kb. The linkage map was constructed using 16,287 informative SNPs derived from ddRAD sequencing in 327 sole individuals from five families. Markers were assigned to 21 linkage groups with an average number of 21.9 markers per megabase. The anchoring of the physical to the genetic map positioned 1563 contigs into 21 pseudo-chromosomes covering 548.6 Mb. Comparison of genetic and physical distances indicated that the average genome-wide recombination rate was 0.23 cM/Mb and the female-to-male ratio 1.49 (female map length: 2,698.4 cM, male: 2,036.6 cM). Genomic recombination landscapes were different between sexes with crossovers mainly concentrated toward the telomeres in males while they were more uniformly distributed in females. A GWAS analysis using seven families identified 30 significant sex-associated SNP markers located in linkage group 18. The follicle-stimulating hormone receptor appeared as the most promising locus associated with sex within a region with very low recombination rates. An incomplete penetrance of sex markers with males as the heterogametic sex was determined. An interspecific comparison with other Pleuronectiformes genomes identified a high sequence similarity between homologous chromosomes, and several chromosomal rearrangements including a lineage-specific Robertsonian fusion in S. senegalensis.


Assuntos
Linguados/genética , Rearranjo Gênico , Ligação Genética , Genoma , Repetições de Microssatélites , Processos de Determinação Sexual , Animais , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Masculino
16.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 115: 70-74, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34089887

RESUMO

The polymerization of monomeric antigens can be a strategy to overcome the low immunogenicity of subunit vaccines. IMX313 is a hybrid oligomerization domain of chicken C4bp, and has been demonstrated to have potent activity as adjuvants for the fused antigens in mammals. In the present study, we investigated whether the oligomerization of α-enolase of Streptococcus iniae by fusion with IMX313 affected on antibody induction and on protection against S. iniae infection in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). The oligomerization of S. iniae enolase by fusion with IMX313 (enolase-IMX313) was verified by non-reducing PAGE, and the antibody titer against enolase in olive flounder immunized with enolase-IMX313 was significantly higher than that in fish immunized with enolase alone. Furthermore, although the survival of olive flounder immunized with enolase alone was low, fish immunized with enolase-IMX313 showed much higher survival (RPS 50%) in accordance with higher serum antibody titer, suggesting that fusion of antigens with IMX313 can be an effective way to enhance protective efficacy of subunit vaccines in olive flounder.


Assuntos
Formação de Anticorpos , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Linguados , Fosfopiruvato Hidratase/genética , Infecções Estreptocócicas/veterinária , Streptococcus iniae/genética , Animais , Anisóis , Proteínas Aviárias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Longevidade , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Sinalização NOD/genética , Fosfopiruvato Hidratase/metabolismo , Infecções Estreptocócicas/imunologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/microbiologia , Streptococcus iniae/enzimologia , Triazinas , Triazóis
17.
BMC Ecol Evol ; 21(1): 114, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As flatfish, turbot undergo metamorphosis as part of their life cycle. In the larval stage, turbot live at the ocean surface, but after metamorphosis they move to deeper water and turn to benthic life. Thus, the light environment differs greatly between life stages. The visual system plays a great role in organic evolution, but reports of the relationship between the visual system and benthic life are rare. In this study, we reported the molecular and evolutionary analysis of opsin genes in turbot, and the heterochronic shifts in opsin expression during development. RESULTS: Our gene synteny analysis showed that subtype RH2C was not on the same gene cluster as the other four green-sensitive opsin genes (RH2) in turbot. It was translocated to chromosome 8 from chromosome 6. Based on branch-site test and spectral tuning sites analyses, E122Q and M207L substitutions in RH2C, which were found to be under positive selection, are closely related to the blue shift of optimum light sensitivities. And real-time PCR results indicated the dominant opsin gene shifted from red-sensitive (LWS) to RH2B1 during turbot development, which may lead to spectral sensitivity shifts to shorter wavelengths. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report that RH2C may be an important subtype of green opsin gene that was retained by turbot and possibly other flatfish species during evolution. Moreover, E122Q and M207L substitutions in RH2C may contribute to the survival of turbot in the bluish colored ocean. And heterochronic shifts in opsin expression may be an important strategy for turbot to adapt to benthic life.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Linguados , Opsinas , Animais , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Linguados/genética , Opsinas/genética , Filogenia , Seleção Genética , Sintenia
18.
Environ Toxicol ; 36(9): 1894-1910, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34156741

RESUMO

The toxicity of malathion to Solea senegalensis was studied in a static renewal bioassay during its first month of larval life (between 4 and 30 dph). Through the use of different biomarkers and biochemical, cellular and molecular approaches (inhibition of cholinesterases [ChEs], changes in cytochrome P450-1A [CYP1A] and the study of histopathological alterations), the effects of three concentrations of malathion (1.56, 3.12, and 6.25 µg/L) have been analyzed. In subacute exposure, malathion inhibited cholinesterase activities (AChE, BChE, CbE) in a dose- and time-dependent manner, ranging the inhibition percentage from 20% to 90%. However, the expression levels of CYP1A and AChE transcripts or proteins were not modified. Additionally, exposure to malathion provoked histopathological alterations in several organ systems of Senegalese sole in a time- and dose dependent way, namely disruption of parenchymal architecture in the liver, epithelial desquamation, pyknotic nuclei and steatosis in the intestine, disorganization of supporting cartilage, and sings of hyperplasia and hypertrophy in the gills and degeneration of the epithelial cells from the renal tubules. Malathion exposure also provoked strong disorganization of cardiac fibers from the heart. The findings provide evidence that exposure to sublethal concentrations of malathion that provoked serious injury to the fish S. senegalensis, were below the expected environmental concentrations reported in many other ecosystems and different fish species,revealing a higher sensitivity for Solea senegalensis to malathion exposure, thus reinforcing its use as sentinel species for environmental pollution in coastal and estuarine environments.


Assuntos
Linguados , Malation , Animais , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450 , Ecossistema , Esterases , Linguados/genética , Malation/toxicidade
19.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 115: 104-111, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34062237

RESUMO

C-type lectins (CTLs) are important pathogen pattern recognition receptors that recognize carbohydrate structures. In present study, a C-type lectin domain family 4 member E-like gene from turbot, which tentatively named SmCLEC4E-like (SmCLEC4EL), was identified, and the expressional and functional analyses were performed. In our results, SmCLEC4EL showed conserved synteny with CLEC4E-like genes from several fish species in genome, and possessed a typical type II transmembrane CTL architecture: an N-terminal intracellular region, a transmembrane domain and a C-terminal extracellular region which contained a predicted carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD). In addition, SmCLEC4EL exhibited the highest expression level in spleen in healthy fish, and showed significantly induced expression in mucosal tissues, intestine and skin, under bacteria challenge. Finally, the recombinant SmCLEC4EL protein combined with LPS, PGN, LTA and five different kinds of bacteria in a dose-dependent manner, and agglutinated these bacteria strains in the presence of calcium. These findings collectively demonstrated that SmCLEC4EL, a calcium-dependent CTL, could function as a pattern recognition receptor in pathogen recognition and participate in host anti-bacteria immunity.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Linguados/genética , Linguados/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Lectinas Tipo C/genética , Lectinas Tipo C/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Infecções Bacterianas/imunologia , Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Lectinas Tipo C/química , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Peptidoglicano/farmacologia , Filogenia , Alinhamento de Sequência/veterinária , Ácidos Teicoicos/farmacologia
20.
Mar Drugs ; 19(5)2021 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33946805

RESUMO

Fish vary in their ability to biosynthesise long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) depending upon the complement and function of key enzymes commonly known as fatty acyl desaturases and elongases. It has been reported in Solea senegalensis the existence of a Δ4 desaturase, enabling the biosynthesis of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), which can be modulated by the diet. The present study aims to evaluate the combined effects of the partial replacement of fish oil (FO) with vegetable oils and reduced environmental salinity in the fatty acid composition of relevant body compartments (muscle, hepatocytes and enterocytes), the enzymatic activity over α-linolenic acid (ALA) to form n-3 LC-PUFA through the incubation of isolated hepatocytes and enterocytes with [1-14C] 18:3 n-3, and the regulation of the S. senegalensis fads2 and elovl5 in the liver and intestine. The presence of radiolabelled products, including 18:4n-3, 20:4n-3 and EPA, provided compelling evidence that a complete pathway enabling the biosynthesis of EPA from ALA, establishing S. senegalensis, has at least one Fads2 with ∆6 activity. Dietary composition prevailed over salinity in regulating the expression of fads2, while salinity did so over dietary composition for elovl5. FO replacement enhanced the proportion of DHA in S. senegalensis muscle and the combination with 20 ppt salinity increased the amount of n-3 LC-PUFA in hepatocytes.


Assuntos
Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/biossíntese , Óleos de Peixe/metabolismo , Linguados/metabolismo , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Ração Animal , Animais , Aquicultura , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Enterócitos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Dessaturases/genética , Ácidos Graxos Dessaturases/metabolismo , Elongases de Ácidos Graxos/genética , Elongases de Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Óleos de Peixe/administração & dosagem , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Músculos/metabolismo , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Salinidade , Fatores de Tempo , Água/química
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