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1.
Psychol Methods ; 26(4): 398-427, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34726465

RESUMO

Technology now makes it possible to understand efficiently and at large scale how people use language to reveal their everyday thoughts, behaviors, and emotions. Written text has been analyzed through both theory-based, closed-vocabulary methods from the social sciences as well as data-driven, open-vocabulary methods from computer science, but these approaches have not been comprehensively compared. To provide guidance on best practices for automatically analyzing written text, this narrative review and quantitative synthesis compares five predominant closed- and open-vocabulary methods: Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC), the General Inquirer, DICTION, Latent Dirichlet Allocation, and Differential Language Analysis. We compare the linguistic features associated with gender, age, and personality across the five methods using an existing dataset of Facebook status updates and self-reported survey data from 65,896 users. Results are fairly consistent across methods. The closed-vocabulary approaches efficiently summarize concepts and are helpful for understanding how people think, with LIWC2015 yielding the strongest, most parsimonious results. Open-vocabulary approaches reveal more specific and concrete patterns across a broad range of content domains, better address ambiguous word senses, and are less prone to misinterpretation, suggesting that they are well-suited for capturing the nuances of everyday psychological processes. We detail several errors that can occur in closed-vocabulary analyses, the impact of sample size, number of words per user and number of topics included in open-vocabulary analyses, and implications of different analytical decisions. We conclude with recommendations for researchers, advocating for a complementary approach that combines closed- and open-vocabulary methods. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Linguística , Vocabulário , Emoções , Humanos , Idioma , Personalidade
3.
Codas ; 34(1): e20200158, 2021.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669763

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To characterize phonological processing of adolescents and to identify language skills and cognitive functions that influence their age group. METHODS: 83 typical adolescents aged from 11 to 16 years of age participated in the research. Phonological awareness tests, rapid automatic naming, neuropsychological assessment and reading were used. Descriptive analysis and linear regression were carried out with a 5% significance level. RESULTS: Regarding phonological processing, a lower performance was found in the phonemic segmentation task, longer times for object naming and performance as were expected for working memory of the age range. There was a reciprocal association between rapid naming of objects, letters and working memory, between rapid naming of letters and phonological awareness. Executive functions and attention influence working memory and phonological awareness. Semantic episodic verbal memory influenced working memory and reading, phonological awareness. CONCLUSION: The performance in phonological processing was influenced by linguistic and cognitive skills which suggests they are still improving in adolescents.


Assuntos
Linguística , Leitura , Adolescente , Aptidão , Cognição , Humanos , Memória de Curto Prazo , Fonética
4.
Cogn Sci ; 45(10): e13040, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606120

RESUMO

Kind representations, concepts like table, triangle, dog, and planet, underlie generic language. Here, we investigate the formal structure of kind representations-the structure that distinguishes kind representations from other types of representations. The present studies confirm that participants distinguish generic-supporting properties of individuals (e.g., this watch is made of steel) and accidental properties (e.g., this watch is on the nightstand). Furthermore, work dating back to Aristotle establishes that only some generic-supporting properties bear a principled connection to the kind, that is, are true of an individual by virtue of its being a member of a specific kind (e.g., telling time for a watch). The present studies tested the hypothesis that principled connections are part of the formal structure of kind representations. Specifically, they tested whether they structure a newly learned kind representation. Experiment 1 found that introducing a property of a newly encountered novel kind in any one of four linguistic frames that provide evidence that a property has a principled connection to a kind (e.g., "It has fur because it is a blick") led participants to infer a different conceptual consequence of principled connections (i.e., "There is something wrong with this blick, which does not have fur") for which they had no direct evidence. Two introduction frames that provided no evidence for principled connections (e.g., "Almost all blicks have fur") did not generate the same consequence. Experiment 2 found that all of the targeted properties were generic licensing, irrespective of the introduction frame. That the distinction between properties that bear principled connections to their kinds, and merely generic-supporting properties structures novel kind representations, provides strong evidence that this distinction is part of the formal structure of kind representations.


Assuntos
Formação de Conceito , Idioma , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Linguística
5.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2021: 9022193, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34707653

RESUMO

Paraphrase generation is an essential yet challenging task in natural language processing. Neural-network-based approaches towards paraphrase generation have achieved remarkable success in recent years. Previous neural paraphrase generation approaches ignore linguistic knowledge, such as part-of-speech information regardless of its availability. The underlying assumption is that neural nets could learn such information implicitly when given sufficient data. However, it would be difficult for neural nets to learn such information properly when data are scarce. In this work, we endeavor to probe into the efficacy of explicit part-of-speech information for the task of paraphrase generation in low-resource scenarios. To this end, we devise three mechanisms to fuse part-of-speech information under the framework of sequence-to-sequence learning. We demonstrate the utility of part-of-speech information in low-resource paraphrase generation through extensive experiments on multiple datasets of varying sizes and genres.


Assuntos
Linguística , Fala , Aprendizagem , Processamento de Linguagem Natural , Redes Neurais de Computação
6.
J Learn Disabil ; 54(6): 438-451, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34715753

RESUMO

The Simple View of Reading (SVR), which posits that reading comprehension is the product of decoding and linguistic comprehension, has been studied extensively with school-age readers. However, little is known about the intricacies of the SVR for adults who struggle with reading. This study addresses notable gaps in this literature, including the dimensionality of linguistic comprehension, the interaction between the two SVR components, and the relative contributions of components across different reading proficiency levels. With a sample of 392 struggling adult readers, confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the linguistic comprehension component encompasses the highly related yet separable constructs of oral vocabulary and listening comprehension. Structural equation modeling showed significant main effects of decoding and listening comprehension, but not oral vocabulary, on reading comprehension. In addition, the interaction among the SVR components did not uniquely contribute to variance in reading comprehension. Quantile regression models demonstrated that the unique effects of the SVR components were relatively stable in magnitude across different levels of reading comprehension performance. Implications for instruction and future research are discussed.


Assuntos
Compreensão , Leitura , Adulto , Percepção Auditiva , Humanos , Linguística , Vocabulário
7.
Cogn Sci ; 45(10): e13052, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614240

RESUMO

Predicates like "coloring-the-star" denote events that have a temporal duration and a culmination point (telos). When combined with perfective aspect (e.g., "Valeria has colored the star"), a culmination inference arises implying that the action has stopped, and the star is fully colored. While the perfective aspect is known to constrain the conceptualization of the event as telic, many reading studies have demonstrated that readers do not make early commitments as to whether the event is bounded or unbounded. A few visual-world studies tested the processing of telic predicates during online sentence processing, demonstrating an early integration of aspectual and temporal cues. By employing the visual-world paradigm, we tested the incremental processing of the perfective aspect in Italian in two eye-tracking studies in which listeners heard durative predicates in the perfective form in a scenario showing a completed and a non-completed event. Differently from previous studies, we compared telic durative predicates such as "coloring-the-star" to punctual predicates such as "lighting-the-candle." While for punctual predicates, the inferences of telicity (the event has a telos) and of culmination (the telos is reached) are lexically encoded in the perfective verb, for durative predicates, the degree of event completion (visually encoded) needs to be integrated with perfective aspect (linguistically encoded) for the culmination inference derivation. By modulating the interaction of visual and linguistic stimuli across the two experiments, we show that the verb's perfective aspect triggers the culmination inference incrementally during sentence processing, offering novel evidence for the continuous integration of linguistic processing with real-world visual information.


Assuntos
Idioma , Linguística , Formação de Conceito , Sinais (Psicologia) , Humanos , Leitura
8.
Neuropsychologia ; 162: 108055, 2021 11 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626618

RESUMO

Characterising the time course of non-native language production is critical in understanding the mechanisms behind successful communication. Yet, little is known about the modulating role of cross-linguistic influence (CLI) on the temporal unfolding of non-native production and the locus of target language selection. In this study, we explored CLI effects on non-native noun phrase production with behavioural and neural methods. We were particularly interested in the modulation of the P300 as an index for inhibitory control, and the N400 as an index for co-activation and CLI. German late learners of Spanish overtly named pictures while their EEG was monitored. Our results indicate traceable CLI effects at the behavioural and neural level in both early and late production stages. This suggests that speakers faced competition between the target and non-target language until advanced production stages. Our findings add important behavioural and neural evidence to the underpinnings of non-native production processes, in particular for late learners.


Assuntos
Idioma , Multilinguismo , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados , Feminino , Humanos , Linguística , Masculino
9.
Nat Neurosci ; 24(11): 1628-1636, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34711960

RESUMO

Semantic information in the human brain is organized into multiple networks, but the fine-grain relationships between them are poorly understood. In this study, we compared semantic maps obtained from two functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments in the same participants: one that used silent movies as stimuli and another that used narrative stories. Movies evoked activity from a network of modality-specific, semantically selective areas in visual cortex. Stories evoked activity from another network of semantically selective areas immediately anterior to visual cortex. Remarkably, the pattern of semantic selectivity in these two distinct networks corresponded along the boundary of visual cortex: for visual categories represented posterior to the boundary, the same categories were represented linguistically on the anterior side. These results suggest that these two networks are smoothly joined to form one contiguous map.


Assuntos
Linguística/métodos , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Semântica , Córtex Visual/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Adulto Jovem
10.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258288, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634082

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Substance use is highly prevalent among Chilean adolescents, and the damage it causes at the neurobiological, psychological, and social levels is known. However, there are no validated screening instruments that also assess risk and protective factors for this population in Chile, which is essential for evaluating future prevention interventions. OBJECTIVE: To determine the psychometric properties of the European Drug Addiction Prevention Trial Questionnaire (EU-Dap) questionnaire. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 13 schools in the city of Santiago de Chile. The sample included 2261 adolescents ranging from 10 to 14 years old. Linguistic and cultural adaptation was assessed using focus groups with adolescents, the construct validity was evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis, and measures of its reliability were also determined. Furthermore, the associations regarding risk and protective factors with substance use were explored. RESULTS: Substance use questions were well understood and seemed to adequately capture the consumption of different drugs. Regarding the subscales of risk and protective factors, the analyses showed that most subscales had good psychometric properties, and few needed some degree of improvement (e.g., some items were removed). After the changes, most final subscales had good or adequate goodness of fit adjustments and good or acceptable internal consistency. Finally, the main associated factors with the substance use outcomes were: future substance use and school bonding for tobacco use; negative beliefs about alcohol, future substance use, school bonding and refusal skills for alcohol use; and negative beliefs about marihuana, positive attitudes towards drugs, risk perception, and substance abuse index for marihuana use. Normative beliefs increased the risk for all substances use. CONCLUSIONS: The current findings suggest that the EU-Dap is a valid and reliable instrument, and it may help to evaluate the effectiveness of drug use prevention interventions.


Assuntos
Programas de Rastreamento , Fatores de Proteção , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Criança , Chile/epidemiologia , Cultura , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Linguística , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Prevalência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia
11.
J R Soc Interface ; 18(183): 20210499, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610263

RESUMO

The expansion of forest farmers across tropical lowland South America during the Late Holocene has long been connected to climate change. The more humid conditions established during the Late Holocene are assumed to have driven the expansion of forests, which would have facilitated the dispersal of cultures that practised agroforestry. The Tupi, a language family of widespread distribution in South America, occupies a central place in the debate. Not only are they one of the largest families in the continent, but their expansion from an Amazonian homeland has long been hypothesized to have followed forested environments wherever they settled. Here, we assess that hypothesis using a simulation approach. We employ equation-based and cellular automaton models, simulating demic-diffusion processes under two different scenarios: a null model in which all land cells can be equally settled, and an alternative model in which non-forested cells cannot be settled or delay the expansion. We show that including land cover as a constraint to movement results in a better approximation of the Tupi expansion as reconstructed by archaeology and linguistics.


Assuntos
Arqueologia , Mudança Climática , Florestas , Linguística , América do Sul
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682315

RESUMO

Extracting clinical concepts, such as problems, diagnosis, and treatment, from unstructured clinical narrative documents enables data-driven approaches such as machine and deep learning to support advanced applications such as clinical decision-support systems, the assessment of disease progression, and the intelligent analysis of treatment efficacy. Various tools such as cTAKES, Sophia, MetaMap, and other rules-based approaches and algorithms have been used for automatic concept extraction. Recently, machine- and deep-learning approaches have been used to extract, classify, and accurately annotate terms and phrases. However, the requirement of an annotated dataset, which is labor-intensive, impedes the success of data-driven approaches. A rule-based mechanism could support the process of annotation, but existing rule-based approaches fail to adequately capture contextual, syntactic, and semantic patterns. This study intends to introduce a comprehensive rule-based system that automatically extracts clinical concepts from unstructured narratives with higher accuracy and transparency. The proposed system is a pipelined approach, capable of recognizing clinical concepts of three types, problem, treatment, and test, in the dataset collected from a published repository as a part of the I2b2 challenge 2010. The system's performance is compared with that of three existing systems: Quick UMLS, BIO-CRF, and the Rules (i2b2) model. Compared to the baseline systems, the average F1-score of 72.94% was found to be 13% better than Quick UMLS, 3% better than BIO CRF, and 30.1% better than the Rules (i2b2) model. Individually, the system performance was noticeably higher for problem-related concepts, with an F1-score of 80.45%, followed by treatment-related concepts and test-related concepts, with F1-scores of 76.06% and 55.3%, respectively. The proposed methodology significantly improves the performance of concept extraction from unstructured clinical narratives by exploiting the linguistic and lexical semantic features. The approach can ease the automatic annotation process of clinical data, which ultimately improves the performance of supervised data-driven applications trained with these data.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Apoio a Decisões Clínicas , Semântica , Algoritmos , Linguística
13.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 150(3): 1620, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34598602

RESUMO

Perceptual differences in voice cues, such as fundamental frequency (F0) and vocal tract length (VTL), can facilitate speech understanding in challenging conditions. Yet, we hypothesized that in the presence of spectrotemporal signal degradations, as imposed by cochlear implants (CIs) and vocoders, acoustic cues that overlap for voice perception and phonemic categorization could be mistaken for one another, leading to a strong interaction between linguistic and indexical (talker-specific) content. Fifteen normal-hearing participants performed an odd-one-out adaptive task measuring just-noticeable differences (JNDs) in F0 and VTL. Items used were words (lexical content) or time-reversed words (no lexical content). The use of lexical content was either promoted (by using variable items across comparison intervals) or not (fixed item). Finally, stimuli were presented without or with vocoding. Results showed that JNDs for both F0 and VTL were significantly smaller (better) for non-vocoded compared with vocoded speech and for fixed compared with variable items. Lexical content (forward vs reversed) affected VTL JNDs in the variable item condition, but F0 JNDs only in the non-vocoded, fixed condition. In conclusion, lexical content had a positive top-down effect on VTL perception when acoustic and linguistic variability was present but not on F0 perception. Lexical advantage persisted in the most degraded conditions and vocoding even enhanced the effect of item variability, suggesting that linguistic content could support compensation for poor voice perception in CI users.


Assuntos
Implantes Cocleares , Percepção da Fala , Estimulação Acústica , Acústica , Sinais (Psicologia) , Humanos , Linguística
14.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 161, 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34663472

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A link between mental health and freedom of choice has long been established, in fact, the loss of freedom of choice is one of the possible defining features of mental disorders. Freedom of choice has internal and external aspects explicitly identified within the capability approach, but received little explicit attention in capability instruments. This study aimed to develop a feasible and linguistically and culturally appropriate Hungarian version of the Oxford CAPabilities questionnaire-Mental Health (OxCAP-MH) for mental health outcome measurement. METHODS: Following forward and back translations, a reconciled Hungarian version of the OxCAP-MH was developed following professional consensus guidelines of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research and the WHO. The wording of the questionnaire underwent cultural and linguistic validation through content analysis of cognitive debriefing interviews with 11 Hungarian speaking mental health patients in 2019. Results were compared with those from the development of the German version and the original English version with special focus on linguistic aspects. RESULTS: Twenty-nine phrases were translated. There were linguistic differences in each question and answer options due to the high number of inflected, affixed words and word fragments that characterize the Hungarian language in general. Major linguistic differences were also revealed between the internal and external aspects of capability freedom of choices which appear much more explicit in the Hungarian than in the English or German languages. A re-analysis of the capability freedom of choice concepts in the existing language versions exposed the need for minor amendments also in the English version in order to allow the development of future culturally, linguistically and conceptually valid translations. CONCLUSION: The internal and external freedom of choice impacts of mental health conditions require different care/policy measures. Their explicit consideration is necessary for the conceptually harmonised operationalisation of the capability approach for (mental) health outcome measurement in diverse cultural and linguistic contexts.


Assuntos
Idioma , Saúde Mental , Liberdade , Humanos , Hungria , Linguística , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639266

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients face difficulties identifying appropriate physicians owing to the sizeable quantity and uneven quality of information in physician rating websites. Therefore, an increasing dependence of consumers on online platforms as a source of information for decision-making has given rise to the need for further research into the quality of information in the form of online physician reviews (OPRs). METHODS: Drawing on the signaling theory, this study develops a theoretical model to examine how linguistic signals (affective signals and informative signals) in physician rating websites affect consumers' decision making. The hypotheses are tested using 5521 physicians' six-month data drawn from two leading health rating platforms in the U.S (i.e., Healthgrades.com and Vitals.com) during the COVID-19 pandemic. A sentic computing-based sentiment analysis framework is used to implicitly analyze patients' opinions regarding their treatment choice. RESULTS: The results indicate that negative sentiment, review readability, review depth, review spelling, and information helpfulness play a significant role in inducing patients' decision-making. The influence of negative sentiment, review depth on patients' treatment choice was indirectly mediated by information helpfulness. CONCLUSIONS: This paper is a first step toward the understanding of the linguistic characteristics of information relating to the patient experience, particularly the emerging field of online health behavior and signaling theory. It is also the first effort to our knowledge that employs sentic computing-based sentiment analysis in this context and provides implications for practice.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Humanos , Internet , Linguística , Satisfação do Paciente , Encaminhamento e Consulta , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Cogn Sci ; 45(10): e13055, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34647346

RESUMO

The human conceptual system comprises simulated information of sensorimotor experience and linguistic distributional information of how words are used in language. Moreover, the linguistic shortcut hypothesis predicts that people will use computationally cheaper linguistic distributional information where it is sufficient to inform a task response. In a pre-registered category production study, we asked participants to verbally name members of concrete and abstract categories and tested whether performance could be predicted by a novel measure of sensorimotor similarity (based on an 11-dimensional representation of sensorimotor strength) and linguistic proximity (based on word co-occurrence derived from a large corpus). As predicted, both measures predicted the order and frequency of category production but, critically, linguistic proximity had an effect above and beyond sensorimotor similarity. A follow-up study using typicality ratings as an additional predictor found that typicality was often the strongest predictor of category production variables, but it did not subsume sensorimotor and linguistic effects. Finally, we created a novel, fully grounded computational model of conceptual activation during category production, which best approximated typical human performance when conceptual activation was allowed to spread indirectly between concepts, and when candidate category members came from both sensorimotor and linguistic distributional representations. Critically, model performance was indistinguishable from typical human performance. Results support the linguistic shortcut hypothesis in semantic processing and provide strong evidence that both linguistic and grounded representations are inherent to the functioning of the conceptual system. All materials, data, and code are available at https://osf.io/vaq56/.


Assuntos
Linguística , Semântica , Seguimentos , Humanos , Conhecimento , Idioma
17.
Nurs Open ; 8(3): 1201-1208, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482651

RESUMO

AIM: We aimed to explore how interpreters experienced being part of a special designed health introduction course and to obtain their perspectives on the learning process. The overall aim was to improve health care to patients with language barriers. DESIGN: With a hermeneutic phenomenological approach, we used participant observations as a method for collecting data. METHOD: The teaching methods used were case-based learning, role-play and active involvement including dialogs, discussions and critical reflections. The interpreters were divided into teams of 10-15 interpreters. Over the duration of 6 weeks, teaching sessions were conducted, with 3 hr/week planned. RESULTS: The findings emphasize the importance of providing the interpreters with education, supervision and a work environment where they can confidentially share and get competent feedback on their experiences and linguistic skills, in order to ensure patients get the correct information in their native language.


Assuntos
Barreiras de Comunicação , Setor de Assistência à Saúde , Pessoal Técnico de Saúde , Humanos , Idioma , Linguística
18.
Dev Psychol ; 57(8): 1210-1227, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34591566

RESUMO

To examine whether children's acquisition of perspective-marking language supports development in their ability to reason about mental states, we conducted a longitudinal study testing whether proficiency with complement clauses around age 3 explained variance in false-belief reasoning 6 months later. Forty-five English-speaking 2- and 3-year-olds (23 female, Time 1 age range = 33-41 months) from middle-class families in the North-West of England took part in the study, which addresses a series of uncertainties in previous studies. We avoided the confound of using complement clauses in the false-belief tests, assessed complement-clause proficiency with a new comprehensive test designed to capture gradual development, and controlled for individual differences in executive functioning that could affect both linguistic and sociocognitive performance. Further, we aimed to disentangle the influence of two aspects of complement-clause acquisition: proficiency with the perspective-marking syntactic structure itself and understanding of the specific mental verbs used in this syntactic structure. To investigate direction of causality, we also tested whether early false-belief reasoning predicted later complement-clause proficiency. The results provide strong support for the hypothesis that complement-clause acquisition promotes development in false-belief reasoning. Proficiency with the general structure of complement-clause constructions and understanding of the specific mental verbs "think" and "know" in third-person complements at Time 1 both contributed uniquely to predicting false-belief performance at Time 2. However, false-belief performance at Time 1 also contributed uniquely to predicting complement-clause proficiency at Time 2. Together, these results indicate a bidirectional relationship between linguistic and sociocognitive development. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Idioma , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Testes de Linguagem , Linguística , Estudos Longitudinais
19.
Cogn Sci ; 45(9): e13022, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490923

RESUMO

There is consensus that the adult lexicon exhibits lexical competition. In particular, substantial evidence demonstrates that words with more phonologically similar neighbors are recognized less efficiently than words with fewer neighbors. How and when these effects emerge in the child's lexicon is less clear. In the current paper, we build on previous research by testing whether phonological onset density slows lexical access in a large sample of 100 English-acquiring 30-month-olds. The children participated in a visual world looking-while-listening task, in which their attention was directed to one of two objects on a computer screen while their eye movements were recorded. We found moderate evidence of inhibitory effects of onset neighborhood density on lexical access and clear evidence for an interaction between onset neighborhood density and vocabulary, with larger effects of onset neighborhood density for children with larger vocabularies. Results suggest the lexicons of 30-month-olds exhibit lexical-level competition, with competition increasing with vocabulary size.


Assuntos
Linguística , Vocabulário , Adulto , Percepção Auditiva , Criança , Movimentos Oculares , Humanos
20.
Cogn Sci ; 45(9): e13035, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491584

RESUMO

Colexification refers to the phenomenon of multiple meanings sharing one word in a language. Cross-linguistic lexification patterns have been shown to be largely predictable, as similar concepts are often colexified. We test a recent claim that, beyond this general tendency, communicative needs play an important role in shaping colexification patterns. We approach this question by means of a series of human experiments, using an artificial language communication game paradigm. Our results across four experiments match the previous cross-linguistic findings: all other things being equal, speakers do prefer to colexify similar concepts. However, we also find evidence supporting the communicative need hypothesis: when faced with a frequent need to distinguish similar pairs of meanings, speakadjust their colexification preferences to maintain communicative efficiency and avoid colexifying those similar meanings which need to be distinguished in communication. This research provides further evidence to support the argument that languages are shaped by the needs and preferences of their speakers.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Idioma , Humanos , Linguística
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