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1.
Molecules ; 27(16)2022 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36014423

RESUMO

Leishmaniasis is a neglected vector-borne disease; there are different manifestations of the diseases and species involved, and cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (L.) mexicana is the most prevalent in Mexico. Currently, the drugs available for the treatment of leishmaniasis are toxic, expensive, and often ineffective; therefore, it is imperative to carry out research and development of new therapeutic alternatives, with natural products being an attractive option. In particular, oregano is a plant with worldwide distribution; in Mexico, two species: Lippia berlandieri Schauer and Poliomintha longiflora Gray are endemic. Both essential oils (EO's) have been reported to have antimicrobial activity attributed to their main components, thymol and carvacrol. In this research, the leishmanicidal effect and mechanism of cell death induced by L. berlandieri EO, P. longiflora EO, thymol, and carvacrol in L. mexicana promastigotes were determined in vitro. Additionally, the cytotoxic activity in mammalian cells was evaluated. L. berlandieri EO presented higher leishmanicidal activity (IC50 = 41.78 µg/mL) than P. longiflora EO (IC50 = 77.90 µg/mL). Thymol and carvacrol were the major components of both Mexican oregano EO's. Thymol presented higher leishmanial inhibitory activity (IC50 = 22.39 µg/mL), above that of carvacrol (IC50 = 61.52 µg/mL). All the EO's and compounds evaluated presented lower cytotoxic activity than the reference drug; thymol was the compound with the best selectivity index (SI). In all cases, apoptosis was identified as the main mechanism of death induced in the parasites. The leishmanicidal capacity of the Mexican oregano EO is an accessible and affordable alternative that can be further explored.


Assuntos
Lamiaceae , Leishmania mexicana , Leishmania , Lippia , Óleos Voláteis , Origanum , Animais , Apoptose , Morte Celular , Mamíferos , México , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Timol/análise , Timol/farmacologia
2.
Molecules ; 27(16)2022 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36014479

RESUMO

Oregano infusions have traditionally been used to treat some diseases related to inflammation and cancer; also, some species have shown antiproliferative activity on cancer cell lines, for example, colon and liver, and this has been attributed to its phytochemical profile, mainly its phenolic compounds. This study aimed to evaluate the cytotoxicity and antiproliferative potential of the polyphenols-rich extracts (PRE) of the oregano species H. patens, L. graveolens, and L. palmeri on breast cancer cell lines. The PRE of the three oregano species were obtained from dried leaves. The extract was characterized by determining antioxidant activity, total phenols content, and identifying the profile of phenolic acids and flavonoids by chromatography UPLC-MS/MS. Furthermore, the cytotoxicity of the extracts was evaluated in vitro on a non-cancer cell line of fibroblast NIH3T3 and the antiproliferative potential on the breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7. L. graveolens showed the highest antioxidant capacity and significantly inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells at non-cytotoxic concentrations in normal cells, with a similar effect to that cisplatin in MDA-MB-231 cells. Therefore, the polyphenol-rich extract from L. graveolens showed the greatest potential to guide future research on the antiproliferative mechanism of action.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias da Mama , Hedeoma , Lippia , Origanum , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Proliferação de Células , Cromatografia Líquida , Feminino , Humanos , Lippia/química , Células MCF-7 , Camundongos , Células NIH 3T3 , Origanum/química , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis/análise , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
3.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 297: 115527, 2022 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35817248

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Although Mexican oregano inhibits digestive enzymes in vitro its effect on the absorption of carbohydrates and lipids in vivo has not been addressed. AIM OF THE STUDY: Assess the effect of Mexican oregano (Lippia graveolens Kunth) on carbohydrates and lipids absorption in vivo. The antioxidant activity also was investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Enzymatic inhibitory action of lipase, α-amylase, and α-glucosidase was evaluated in vitro. Oral lipid (OLTT) and starch tolerance tests (OSTT) were conducted with L. graveolens acetone (O-A) and ethanol (O-E) extracts (at 102 mg/kg body weight equivalent to a 1 g human doses) in male Wistar rats. The antioxidant activity was evaluated through inhibition of lipid peroxidation and scavenging radical. RESULTS: Both extracts exhibited higher inhibitory median concentration (IC50) of lipase activity (1.9 µg/µL for O-E and 1.8 µg/µL for O-A) than the positive control (Orlistat) (0.07 µg/µL). The IC50 of α-amylase was higher (41.8 µg/µL for O-E and 25.2 µg/µL for O-A) than the Acarbose (2.5 µg/µL); while α-glucosidase results showed not statistically differences between groups (∼1.7 µg/µL). The OLTT results showed that both extracts significantly reduced serum triglycerides (∼147 mg/dL for O-E and ∼155 mg/dL for O-A) as compared with negative control group (only lipid load). In the OSTT, glucose levels showed a significant decrease (∼31 mg/dL for O-E and ∼17 mg/dL for O-A) than the negative control group (only starch load). About in vitro antioxidant evaluation, not statistically differences between extracts and positive control (Trolox) were observed for scavenged free radicals (∼2.0 µg/µL); whereas O-A inhibited lipid peroxidation similar to the Trolox (∼0.8 µg/µL IC50). The main chemical composition of both extracts was coumaric acid, luteolin, rutinoside, naringenin, and carvacrol. CONCLUSIONS: Both extracts reduce lipid absorption; whereas O-E decreases carbohydrate absorption in vivo. Both extracts inhibit lipid peroxidation and scavenging free radicals in vitro.


Assuntos
Lippia , Origanum , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Carboidratos , Humanos , Lipase , Lipídeos , Lippia/química , Masculino , Origanum/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Amido , alfa-Amilases , alfa-Glucosidases
4.
Molecules ; 27(15)2022 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35897944

RESUMO

In this paper, we evaluated the drug-receptor interactions responsible for the antimicrobial activity of thymol, the major compound present in the essential oil (EO) of Lippia thymoides (L. thymoides) Mart. & Schauer (Verbenaceae). It was previously reported that this EO exhibits antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans (C. albicans), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), and Escherichia coli (E. coli). Therefore, we used molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulations, and free energy calculations to investigate the interaction of thymol with pharmacological receptors of interest to combat these pathogens. We found that thymol interacted favorably with the active sites of the microorganisms' molecular targets. MolDock Score results for systems formed with CYP51 (C. albicans), Dihydrofolate reductase (S. aureus), and Dihydropteroate synthase (E. coli) were -77.85, -67.53, and -60.88, respectively. Throughout the duration of the MD simulations, thymol continued interacting with the binding pocket of the molecular target of each microorganism. The van der Waals (ΔEvdW = -24.88, -26.44, -21.71 kcal/mol, respectively) and electrostatic interaction energies (ΔEele = -3.94, -11.07, -12.43 kcal/mol, respectively) and the nonpolar solvation energies (ΔGNP = -3.37, -3.25, -2.93 kcal/mol, respectively) were mainly responsible for the formation of complexes with CYP51 (C. albicans), Dihydrofolate reductase (S. aureus), and Dihydropteroate synthase (E. coli).


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Proteínas de Escherichia coli , Lippia , Óleos Voláteis , Verbenaceae , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Candida albicans , Carbono-Oxigênio Ligases , Di-Hidropteroato Sintase , Escherichia coli , Lippia/química , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Monoterpenos/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus , Tetra-Hidrofolato Desidrogenase , Timol/química , Timol/farmacologia
5.
Mol Biol Rep ; 49(8): 7743-7752, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35715608

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aneuploidy is associated with add or lack of individual chromosomes. The knowledge regarding aneuploidy is still rare in wild and tropical populations. Lippia alba is a tropical polyploid complex naturally formed, with 2x, 3x, 4x, 6x, and aneuploid individuals. The species presents pharmacological and medicinal importance, due to its essential oil compounds, which are related to the ploidal level. Considering the singularity of aneuploids emergence and stability, we proposed to investigate putative cytotypes involved in the aneuploids formation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Molecular, cytogenetic, reproductive, and chemical approaches were adopted. The results showed that the aneuploids possibly have independent origin considering the genetic, chemical and karyotypical profiles. The chemical composition of aneuploids is related to genetic similarity. The aneuploid origin may involve 2x and 3x cytotypes being possible to rise four scenarios of crosses to explain that. CONCLUSIONS: The results, in general, contribute to the comprehension of the origin of aneuploids and highlight the genetic profile of these accessions as a key element on the understanding of the chemical profile of L. alba accessions.


Assuntos
Lippia , Aneuploidia , Humanos , Lippia/genética , Poliploidia
6.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e260522, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35475995

RESUMO

Fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) is the main species that causes damage to the maize crop in Brazil. In the perspective of studying alternatives of control of this pest that preserve the natural enemies, the aim of this research was to evaluate the insecticidal efficiency of the essential oils of Vanillosmopsis arborea and Lippia microphylla on S. frugiperda and verify the selectivity to the predator Euborellia annulipes. The bioassays were carried out in the Agricultural Entomology Laboratory of the Federal University of Paraiba, using insects, from 3rd instar of S. frugiperda and E. annulipes, originating from mass rearing in the laboratory itself. Dilutions of the oils were performed in Tween® 80 at concentrations of 0, 100, 150 and 200 mg mL-1. 1.0 µL from each dilution was applied to the prothoracic region of the insects. The S. frugiperda mortality was verified by topical contact of V. arborea oil with LC10 = 74.3 mg mL-1 and LC50 = 172.86 mg mL-1, for L. microphyla, LC10 = 51.26 mg mL-1 and LC50 = 104.52 mg mL-1. The observed lethal concentrations for E. annulipes were V. arborea LC10 = 71.3 mg mL-1 and LC50 = 160.2 mg mL-1. While L. microphyla, were LC10 = 50.3 mg mL-1 and LC50 = 134.67 mg mL-1. The essential oils of V. arborea and L. microphylla are efficient in the control of S. frugiperda, but are not selective to the predator E. Annulipes.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Lippia , Óleos Voláteis , Animais , Brasil , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Spodoptera
7.
Food Chem ; 384: 132614, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35413775

RESUMO

Due to the importance of diseases associated with oxidative stress, the search for natural antioxidants proves to be essential. This work aimed to compare the chemical composition and antioxidant potential of essential oils from the genus Lippia L. through chemometric analysis. The essential oils were characterized by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Antioxidant potentials were determined by DPPH, ABTS, Deoxyribose and ß-carotene protection, Iron chelation and reduction methods. All data were related by multivariate analyzes. Essential oils showed low similar chemical compositions and no statistically significant relationship. These showed relevant antioxidant activity, especially for L. sidoides that obtained IC50 of 5.22 ± 0.08 µg/mL in ABTS capture. Multivariate analyzes showed the effectiveness of L. alba compounds to DPPH scavenging, Fe3+ reduction and ß-carotene protection, and L. gracilis components to deoxyribose protect. Thus, studies proving the antioxidant potential of Lippia compounds against oxidative stress and their use in food conservation are fundamental.


Assuntos
Lippia , Óleos Voláteis , Antioxidantes/química , Desoxirribose , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Lippia/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , beta Caroteno/química
8.
Fish Physiol Biochem ; 48(3): 501-519, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35435543

RESUMO

This study verified the effects of essential oils from Lippia sidoides (EOLS) and Cymbopogon citratus (EOCC) on the anesthesia of freshwater angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare) of two different sizes (juveniles I (0.82 g) and II (2.40 g)) and the transport (8 h) of juveniles II. Fish were exposed to different concentrations of EOLS and EOCC: 0, 10, 25, 50, 75, 100, 150, 200, and 250 mg L-1. Ventilatory rate (VR) and transport for 8 h with 0, 10, and 15 mg L-1 of each essential oil were evaluated in juveniles II. The major components found in EOLS and EOCC were carvacrol (44.50%) and α-citral (73.56%), respectively. The best sedation and anesthesia times for both essential oils were obtained with 10 and 25 mg L-1 and 200 and 250 mg L-1 for juveniles I and II, respectively. Fish sedated with EOLS had lower VR values than the other treatments. Blood glucose levels were higher in ornamental fish transported with 10 and 15 mg EOLS L-1 and 15 mg EOCC L-1. Hepatic glycogen values were higher in the control group. In general, fish transported with 10 mg EOLS L-1 showed fewer gill histological alterations than other transported fish. When the type of lesion was evaluated, the highest gill alterations occurred in fish transported with EOCC. In conclusion, 10 mg EOLS L-1 could be used to transport of juveniles II because although this concentration increased blood glucose levels, it decreased the VR and muscle glycogen levels and caused only mild alterations to the gills.


Assuntos
Anestésicos , Ciclídeos , Cymbopogon , Lippia , Óleos Voláteis , Anestésicos/farmacologia , Animais , Glicemia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia
9.
Acta Cir Bras ; 37(1): e370104, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35416859

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of rosemary leaf essential oil-based ointments on the healing of rat skin lesions. METHODS: Sixty adult male rats, with dorsal excisional skin wounds made surgically under anesthesia, were divided into three groups (n = 20): Sham group (untreated wounds); control group (CG, wounds treated with vehicle); and essential oil (EO) treated group (wounds treated with essential oil-based ointments), administered topically once daily. Skin wounds were evaluated at 4, 7, 14, and 21 days after EO or vehicle treatments. Lesions were analyzed macroscopically for the contraction degree. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections of skin wounds were used for histopathological evaluation. RESULTS: Macroscopic evaluation showed wounds edges with thin crust without firmness and yellowish color, along with an improvement in wound contraction in EO group when compared to the other groups. A reduced inflammatory reaction, along with newly formed small diameter capillaries and more organized and elongated collagen fibers, were more frequently observed in EO group than in the other groups. Moreover, blood vessel number and collagen fibers density were significantly higher in EO group. CONCLUSIONS: Skin lesion treatment with rosemary leaf essential oil-based ointments accelerates the initial stages of healing, reduces inflammation, and increases angiogenesis, collagen fibers density, and wound contraction in rats.


Assuntos
Lippia , Óleos Voláteis , Pele , Animais , Colágeno/farmacologia , Inflamação/patologia , Lippia/química , Masculino , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Pomadas/farmacologia , Ratos , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/patologia
10.
Acta Trop ; 231: 106434, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35364048

RESUMO

Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease that affects millions of people around the world. Currently, the only drug available for the treatment of this disease is praziquantel, which has low efficacy against immature helminth stages and there are reports of drug resistance. In this study, the chemical composition and the in vitro effect of essential oils (EOs) and major compounds from Lippia gracilis and Lippia alba against schistosomula and adult Schistosoma mansoni worms were evaluated. Adult S. mansoni worms cultured for 8h in the presence of L. gracilis EO (50 and 100 µg/mL) or for 2h with its major compound, carvacrol (100 µg/mL), had a 100% reduction in viability. After interaction with L. alba EO (100µg/mL), there was a reduction of approximately 60% in the viability of adult worms after 24 hours of exposure; citral (50 and 100 µg/mL), its major compound, reduced the viability after 24 hours by more than 75%. Treatment of schistosomula with 100 µg/mL of L. gracilis or L. alba EOs for 6h led to a reduction in parasite viability of 80% and 16% respectively. Both EOs and their major compounds significantly reduced the oviposition of adult worms exposed to a non-lethal concentration (5 µg/mL). In addition, morphological changes such as the destruction of the tegument and disorganization of the reproductive system of male and female worms were visualized. Both EOs showed low cytotoxicity at a concentration of 50 µg/mL. The results encourage further investigation of these plants as a potential source of bioactive compounds against S. mansoni.


Assuntos
Lippia , Óleos Voláteis , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Lippia/química , Masculino , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Oviposição , Praziquantel/farmacologia , Schistosoma mansoni
11.
Molecules ; 27(6)2022 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35335288

RESUMO

In this study, the in vitro antimicrobial, antiparasitic, antiproliferative and cytotoxic activities of essential oil from Baccharis parvidentata Malag. (EO-Bp) and Lippia origanoides Kunth (EO-Lo) were explored. The relevant effects were observed against the parasitic protozoans Plasmodium falciparum, Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma brucei and Leishmania amazonensis (ranging 0.6 to 39.7 µg/mL) and malignant MCF-7, MCF-7/HT, 22Rv1, and A431 cell lines (ranging 6.1 to 31.5 µg/mL). In parallel, EO-Bp showed better selective indexes in comparison with EO-Lo against peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c mice and MRC-5 cell line. In conclusion, EO-Lo is known to show a wide range of health benefits that could be added as another potential use of this oil with the current study. In the case of EO-Bp, the wide spectrum of its activities against protozoal parasites and malignant cells, as well as its selectivity in comparison with non-malignant cells, could suggest an interesting candidate for further tests as a new therapeutic alternative.


Assuntos
Baccharis , Lippia , Óleos Voláteis , Trypanosoma cruzi , Animais , Brasil , Camundongos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia
12.
Chem Biodivers ; 19(4): e202100993, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35108453

RESUMO

The abusive and repeated use of synthetic chemical insecticides has proven to be harmful to human health and the viability of the cotton production system in Ivory Coast, so it is imperative to find alternatives. . Thus, the objective of this study was to study the chemical composition and biological activity of essential oils of Lippia multiflora (Verbenaceae) and Eucalyptus globulus (Myrtaceae) and to evaluate their insecticidal potential in the laboratory on three main pests of cotton. After essential oils extraction, their chemical composition was determined. Also, antioxidant activity and cholinesterase inhibitor of essential oils were evaluated. After that, different concentrations of the two essential oils were prepared and applied by contact on groups of insects constituted by ten. The essential oil of L. multiflora was the most toxic for the three pests tested. Indeed, the lethal concentrations (LC50 ) were 1.74 %, 1.39 and 7.20 %, respectively, on Pectinophora gossypiella, Thaumatotibia leucotreta and Helicoverpa armigera. In contrast, the values obtained with E. globulus essential oil were nine to two times greater (16.05 %, 10.23 % and 16.32 %, respectively on these pests). With respect to the chemical composition of the essential oils, E. globulus essential oil was the richest in oxygenated monoterpenes (65 %) with 1,8-cineole or eucalyptol as the majority compound (61.6 %). The essential oil of L. multiflora was distinguished by a lower proportion of oxygenated monoterpenes (44.3 %), but it contained more terpene elements (24 vs. 15 for the essential oil of E. globulus). The essential oils of L. multiflora and E. globulus also showed significant inhibition of acetyl (2.13 and 2.16 mg galantamine equivalent (GALAE)/g, respectively) and butyryl cholinesterase (4.03 and 3.61 mg GALAE, respectively). L. multiflora was differentiated by its good inactivation of tyrosinases (163.46 versus 58.95 mg kojic acid equivalent (KAE)/g in E. globulus). Better antioxidant activity was observed with L. multiflora essential oil relative to DPPH (7.05±0.34 mg trolox equivalent (TE)/g). Biopesticides based on L. multiflora essential oil could be developed for the phytosanitary protection of cotton plant.


Assuntos
Eucalyptus , Inseticidas , Lippia , Óleos Voláteis , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Costa do Marfim , Eucaliptol , Eucalyptus/química , Gossypium , Humanos , Inseticidas/química , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Lippia/química , Monoterpenos/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/química
13.
Arch Microbiol ; 204(3): 184, 2022 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35179654

RESUMO

Antimicrobial peptides (AMP) are promising novel antibiotics but exhibit low stability and can be toxic. The AMP encapsulation can be used to protect the drug and control its release rates. The Lr-AMP1f encapsulated into chitosan nanoparticle (NP) by ionic gelation method reached 90% efficiency. The results indicated that the hydrodynamic particle size of NPs increased from 196.1 ± 3.14 nm (free NP) to 228.1 ± 12.22 nm (nanoencapsulated Lr-AMP1f), while the atomic force microscope showed the spherical shape. The Zeta potential of the nanoencapsulated Lr-AMP1f was high (+ 35 mV). These AMP-loaded NPs exhibited stability for up to 21 days of storage. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of free Lr-AMP1f was 8 µg/mL for E. coli and S. epidermidis. However, the nanoencapsulated Lr-AMP1f produced a bacteriostatic effect against both bacteria at 8 µg/mL. The MIC of nanoencapsulated Lr-AMP1f was 16 µg/mL for E. coli and 32 for S. epidermidis. Nanoencapsulated Lr-AMP1f was nontoxic to HEK293 cells. Promisingly, chitosan NP can be used as a vehicle for the antibacterial application of new AMP (Lr-AMP1f).


Assuntos
Quitosana , Lippia , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Quitosana/farmacologia , Escherichia coli , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Tamanho da Partícula
14.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 290: 115099, 2022 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35167934

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The species Lippia origanoides Kunth, popularly known as "salva-de-marajó", is used in Brazilian traditional "quilombola" communities to treat menstrual cramps and uterine inflammation. AIM OF THE STUDY: Evaluate the spasmolytic activity of Lippia origanoides essential oil (LOO) on experimental models of uterine conditions related to menstrual cramps and investigate its mechanism of action. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Virgin rat-isolated uterus was mounted in the organ bath apparatus to evaluate the spasmolytic effect of LOO on basal tonus and contractions induced by carbachol, KCl, or oxytocin. We used pharmacological agents to verify the relaxation mechanism of LOO. The evaluation of uterine contractility in virgin rats, after treatment with LOO for three consecutive days, was carried out by the construction of a concentration-response curve with oxytocin or carbachol. The primary dysmenorrhea animal model was replicated with an injection of estradiol cypionate in female mice for three consecutive days, followed by intraperitoneal application of oxytocin. RESULTS: LOO relaxed the rat uterus precontracted with 10-2 IU/mL oxytocin (logEC50 = 1.98 ± 0.07), 1 µM carbachol (logEC50 = 1.42 ± 0.07) or 60 mM KCl (logEC50 = 1.53 ± 0.05). It was also able relax uterus on spontaneous contractions (logEC50 = 0.41 ± 0.05). Preincubation with glibenclamide, propranolol, phentolamine or L-NAME in contractions induced by carbachol did not alter significantly the relaxing effect of LOO. However, in the presence of 4-aminopyridine, CsCl or tetraethylammonium there was a reduction of LOO potency, whereas the blockers methylene blue, ODQ, aminophylline and heparin potentiated the LOO relaxing effect. Preincubation with LOO in a Ca2+ free medium at concentrations of 27 µg/mL or 81 µg/mL reduced the contraction induced by carbachol. The administration of LOO for 3 days did not alter uterus contractility. The treatment with LOO at 30 or 100 mg/kg intraperitoneally, or 100 mg/kg orally, inhibited writhing in female mice. The association of LOO at 10 mg/kg with nifedipine or mefenamic acid potentiated writhing inhibition in mice. CONCLUSIONS: The essential oil of L. origanoides has tocolytic activity in rat isolated uterus pre-contracted with KCl, oxytocin, or carbachol. This effect is possibly related to the opening of potassium channels (Kir, KV, and KCa), cAMP increase, and diminution of intracellular Ca2+. This relaxant effect, probably, contributed to reduce the number of writhings in an animal model of dysmenorrhea being potentiated by nifedipine or mefenamic acid. Taken together, the results here presented indicate that this species has a pharmacological potential for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea, supporting its use in folk medicine.


Assuntos
Dismenorreia/patologia , Lippia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Tocolíticos/farmacologia , Útero/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Carbacol/farmacologia , AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Feminino , Ácido Mefenâmico/farmacologia , Contração Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Nifedipino/farmacologia , Ocitocina/farmacologia , Canais de Potássio/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloreto de Potássio/farmacologia , Ratos , Contração Uterina/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 22(1): 4, 2022 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34983490

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Though Lippia javanica (Burm.f.) Spreng antioxidant activity has been demonstrated, its effect in protecting the brain from lead (Pb)-induced oxidative damage is unknown. This study investigated the effect of L. javanica against Pb-induced oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis and acetylcholinesterase activity in rat's brain. METHODS: L. javanica herbal tea infusion was prepared, its phytochemical constituent was revealed by liquid chromatography-Mass spectrometer (LC-MS) and was administered simultaneously with Pb. Four groups of male Wistar rats (n = 5/group) were used: control received distilled water; Pb-acetate group received 50 mg Pb/ Kg bodyweight (bw), treatment group received 50 mg Pb/ Kg Pb-acetate + 5 ml/kg bw L. javanica and L. javanica group received 5 ml/Kg bw of L. javanica tea infusion only. After 6 weeks of treatment, oxidative status, acetylcholinesterase activity, inflammation and apoptosis was assessed in brain tissue which was also histologically examined. RESULTS: Mean brain and heart weight was reduced (p < 0.05) while liver and spleen weights were increased (p < 0.05) in Pb exposed animals but were prevented by L. juvanica treatment. Treatment with L. javanica increased (p < 0.05) overall brain antioxidant status (glutathione and superoxide dismutase activities) and reduced lipid peroxidation (p < 0.05) compared to the Pb exposed animals. Pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrotic factor-alpha, pro-apoptosis Bax protein and anticholinesterase activity were reduced (p < 0.05) in Pb-L. javanica treated animals compared to the Pb exposed group. Histological examination confirmed neuroprotective effects of L. javanica as evidenced by reduced apoptosis/necrosis and inflammation-induced vacuolization and oedema in the hippocampus. The L. javanica treatment alone had no detrimental effects to the rats. LC-MS analysis revealed L. javanica to be rich in phenolics. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that L. javanica, rich in phenolics was effective in reducing Pb-induced brain oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, acetylcholinesterase activity and neuronal damage.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Chumbo/efeitos adversos , Lippia/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Chás de Ervas , Animais , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
16.
J Fish Dis ; 45(4): 569-577, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35080019

RESUMO

Acanthocephalosis in tambaqui Colossoma macropomum culture is a limiting factor for the production of the species, being the most recurrent, which makes it necessary to develop strategies to control parasitosis even in the early stages of parasite development. This study aimed to elucidate the morphological characteristics of eggs of the acanthocephalan Neoechinorhynchus buttnerae and the ovicidal effect of the essential oils of Lippia alba, Lippia sidoides, and Lippia gracilis. The parasites were collected from hosts naturally infected with N. buttnerae, and the eggs obtained from the female 'parasites' abdominal cavity were added to 12-well plates containing the essential oils at different dilutions. After the eggs (N = 300) were separated and measured (length and width) with the aid of an optical microscope coupled to a digital program, the viability of the treated eggs was monitored 24 h after treatments, L. gracilis essential oil was 100% effective at the highest concentration, whereas L. sidoides essential oil showed over 50% efficacy at 2 mg/ml, reaching 100% efficacy at all higher concentrations. Lippia. alba essential oil did not show satisfactory efficacy in preventing N. buttnerae egg hatching.


Assuntos
Acantocéfalos , Caraciformes , Doenças dos Peixes , Lippia , Óleos Voláteis , Animais , Caraciformes/parasitologia , Feminino , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia
17.
Nutrients ; 14(1)2022 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35011093

RESUMO

The current fast-moving, hectic lifestyle has increased the number of individuals worldwide with difficulties in managing stress, which in turn is also affecting their sleep quality. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to assess a natural plant-based dietary supplement comprised of lemon verbena (Lippia citriodora) extract, purified in phenylpropanoids, in alleviating stress and improving quality of sleep. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted for 8 weeks, followed by a 4-week washout period. Both validated questionnaires and functional tests were performed during the study, whereas questionnaires were used after the washout. As a result, the group taking the lemon verbena extract significantly reduced their perception of stress after 8 weeks, which was corroborated by a significant decrease in cortisol levels. After the washout period, the subjects reported to present even lower stress levels, due to the lasting effect of the ingredient. As for sleep quality, the subjects taking the supplement reported feeling better rested, with a stronger effect observed in women. Sleep tracking using a wearable device revealed that the supplement users improved their times in the deeper stages of sleep, specifically their percentage of time in deep sleep and REM. In conclusion, lemon verbena extract purified in phenylpropanoids is revealed as a natural solution to help individuals to improve their stress and sleep quality.


Assuntos
Ansiolíticos , Lippia/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Estresse Psicológico/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Suplementos Nutricionais , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Glucosídeos/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenóis/administração & dosagem , Placebos , Folhas de Planta/química , Espanha , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Eur J Nutr ; 61(2): 825-841, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34591168

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Polyphenols have shown capacity to improve appetite sensation, leading to enhanced control of body weight. However, despite being related with hunger-related hormones, metabolic and mechanism are not well known. METHODS: The effectiveness of a nutraceutical composed of extract to Lippia citriodora and Hibiscus sabdarrifa (Lc-Hs) for controlling satiety and hunger was analyzed in a cross-over, placebo-controlled (Pla) clinical intervention. The study was divided in two 60-day periods separated by 30-day length wash-out period. At the end of each period, overweight and obese subjects (n = 33; age = 33.76 ± 12.23; BMI = 28.20 kg/m2 ± 2.47; fat mass 30.65 ± 8.39%; both sexes were proposed to eat an ad-libitum meal. Meanwhile, appetite sensation was determined by visual analog scales at different times. Moreover, blood extraction was performed to determine biochemical parameters (lipid and glucidic profile and safety parameters) and to evaluate hunger-related hormones (insulin, leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin, GLP-1 and peptide YY). RESULTS: A decrease in appetite sensation was observed in Lc-Hs treatment, showing higher satiety quotient (Pla = 3.36 ± 2.33%mm/kcal; Lc-Hs = 5.53 ± 2.91%mm/kcal; p < 0.0001). Area under the curve was higher in Pla compared to Lc-Hs during the test, from baseline to minute 240 (240 (Pla 9136.65 ± 2261.46% x min-1; Lc-Hs 8279.73 ± 2745.71% x min-1; p < 0.014). Energy consumption was lower for subjects treated with Lc-Hs (774.44 ± 247.77 kcal) compared to those treated with Pla (849.52 ± 246.54 kcal) (p < 0.004). Leptin values varied from baseline (Pla 12.36 ± 1.98 ng/mL; Lc-Hs 13.13 ± 1.99 ng/mL) to the end of the study (Pla 12.60 ± 2.02 ng/mL; Lc-Hs 12.06 ± 2.05 ng/mL; p < 0.047). GLP-1 values varied (p < 0.001) in Lc-Hs treatment from baseline (4.34 ± 0.49 ng/mL) to the end of the study (3.23 ± 0.52 ng/mL). CONCLUSION: The supplementation with the Lc-Hs extract decreases appetite sensation in overweight and obese population, reducing calorie intake after an ad-libitum meal. Due to variation on hunger-related hormones and the relationship between satiety feeling, it would be interesting to develop future research focused on the variation of the hormones themselves.


Assuntos
Hibiscus , Lippia , Adulto , Apetite , Regulação do Apetite , Estudos Cross-Over , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Grelina , Humanos , Insulina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Sobrepeso/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Med Food ; 25(3): 329-337, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34860124

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to assay the ovicidal and larvicidal effects of two hydroalcoholic extracts (HA-E) and their aqueous fractions (Aq-F) and organic fractions (EtOAc-F) from Lippia graveolens (leaves) and Delonix regia (flowers) against the parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus. The egg hatching inhibition test (% EHI) and mortality of infective larvae (% mortality) were used as biological models. The treatments of each plant (mg/mL, % EHI, and % mortality) were assigned as follows: HA-E (12.5-50, EHI; 25-200, mortality), Aq-F (6.25-25.00, EHI; 12.5-50, mortality), EtOAc-F (0.37-25, EHI; 3.12-50, mortality), negative controls (distilled water and methanol at 2% and 4%), and positive control (ivermectin at 5 mg/mL). Data were analyzed using a completely randomized design through an analysis of variance, considering the EHI and mortality percentages as the response variables. To identify the secondary metabolites, both plants were subjected to qualitative chemical analysis and HPLC. The results showed that both plants exhibited highly ovicidal and larvicidal effects. The bipartition in each HA extract allowed the increase of the anthelmintic effect in EtOAc-F, achieving a total ovicidal activity at 1.56 mg/mL and a larvicidal effect higher than 90% at 25 mg/mL. The qualitative chemical profile of both vegetal species identified alkaloids, flavonoids, condensed tannins, terpenes, and saponins. These results suggest that either L. graveolens leaves or D. regia flowers could be potential candidates for the control of parasitic gastrointestinal nematodes in small ruminants. However, in vivo studies with experimental animals to evaluate their possible toxicity and anthelmintic effect are necessary.


Assuntos
Fabaceae , Haemonchus , Lippia , Animais , Antinematódeos/farmacologia , Flores , Larva , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta
20.
J Nat Med ; 76(1): 254-258, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34338951

RESUMO

In this study, we extracted essential oils from four species of plants with lemony scents (Melissa officinalis L., Aloysia citriodora Palau (= Lippia citriodora (Palau) Kunth), Thymus × citriodorus, Perilla citriodora (Makino) Nakai). We then examined the components of extracts using gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A comparison of components indicated that the largest proportions of essential oils were caryophyllene (25%) in M. officinalis, geraniol (50%) in T. citriodorus, and citral (61 and 82%) in A. citriodora and P. citriodora. Moreover, we used a sensory evaluation method using dilute aqueous solutions of extract components, citral, linalool, d-limonene, and geraniol, to select the mixture with a flavor that mostly resembled lemon. The participants in the study felt that an aqueous citral solution flavored more like lemon than aqueous d-limonene. Furthermore, an open field study of sedative effects of citral and d-limonene, when inhaled, on mice demonstrated that citral exhibited a sedative effect at a lower concentration than that of d-limonene.


Assuntos
Lippia , Óleos Voláteis , Monoterpenos Acíclicos , Animais , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Camundongos , Odorantes
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