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1.
Molecules ; 27(17)2022 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36080501

RESUMO

This study established a QuEChERS high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry method for determining azoxystrobin, pyraclostrobin, picoxystrobin, difenoconazole, chlorantraniliprole, imidacloprid, and cyantraniliprole and its metabolite (IN-J9Z38) in litchi and longan, and applied this method to the real samples. The residues in samples were extracted with acetonitrile and purified with nano-ZrO2, C18, and PSA. The samples were then detected with multireactive ion monitoring and electrospray ionization in the positive ion mode and quantified using the external matrix-matched standard method. The results showed good linearities for the eight analytes in the range of 1-100 µg/L, with correlation coefficients (r2) of >0.99. The limit of quantification was 1-10 µg/kg, and the limit of detection was 0.3-3 µg/kg. Average recovery from litchi and longan was 81-99%, with the relative standard deviation of 3.5-8.4% at fortified concentrations of 1, 10, and 100 µg/kg. The developed method is simple, rapid, efficient, and sensitive. It allowed the rapid screening, monitoring, and confirming of the aforementioned seven pesticides and a metabolite in litchi and longan.


Assuntos
Litchi , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Praguicidas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Sapindaceae , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
2.
BMC Plant Biol ; 22(1): 394, 2022 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35945492

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Carotenoid cleavage oxygenases (CCOs) include the carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (CCD) and 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid (NCED), which can catalize carotenoid to form various apocarotenoids and their derivatives, has been found that play important role in the plant world. But little information of CCO gene family has been reported in litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) till date. RESULTS: In this study, a total of 15 LcCCO genes in litchi were identified based on genome wide lever. Phylogeny analysis showed that LcCCO genes could be classified into six subfamilies (CCD1, CCD4, CCD7, CCD8, CCD-like, and NCED), which gene structure, domain and motifs exhibited similar distribution patterns in the same subfamilies. MiRNA target site prediction found that there were 32 miRNA target sites in 13 (86.7%) LcCCO genes. Cis-elements analysis showed that the largest groups of elements were light response related, following was plant hormones, stress and plant development related. Expression pattern analysis revealed that LcCCD4, LcNCED1, and LcNCED2 might be involving with peel coloration, LcCCDlike-b might be an important factor deciding fruit flavor, LcNCED2 and LcNCED3 might be related to flower control, LcNCED1 and LcNCED2 might function in fruitlet abscission, LcCCD4a1, LcCCD4a2, LcCCD1, LcCCD4, LcNCED1, and LcNCED2 might participate in postharvest storage of litchi. CONCLUSION: Herein, Genome-wide analysis of the LcCCO genes was conducted in litchi to investigate their structure features and potential functions. These valuable and expectable information of LcCCO genes supplying in this study will offer further more possibility to promote quality improvement and breeding of litchi and further function investigation of this gene family in plant.


Assuntos
Dioxigenases , Litchi , MicroRNAs , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Dioxigenases/genética , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Litchi/genética , Litchi/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , Oxigenases/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas/genética
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(15)2022 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35955559

RESUMO

Litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) is an important subtropical and tropical evergreen fruit tree that is seriously affected by chilling stress. In order to identify genes that may be involved in the response to chilling in litchi, we investigate the physiological and biochemical changes under chilling stress and construct 12 RNA-Seq libraries of leaf samples at 0, 4, 8, and 12 days of chilling. The results show that antioxidant enzymes are activated by chilling treatments. Comparing the transcriptome data of the four time points, we screen 2496 chilling-responsive genes (CRGs), from which we identify 63 genes related to the antioxidant system (AO-CRGs) and 54 ABA, 40 IAA, 37 CTK, 27 ETH, 21 BR, 13 GA, 35 JA, 29 SA, and 4 SL signal transduction-related genes. Expression pattern analysis shows that the expression trends of the 28 candidate genes detected by qRT-PCR are similar to those detected by RNA-Seq, indicating the reliability of our RNA-Seq data. Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) analysis of the RNA-Seq data suggests a model for the litchi plants in response to chilling stress that alters the expression of the plant hormone signaling-related genes, the transcription factor-encoding genes LcICE1, LcCBFs, and LcbZIPs, and the antioxidant system-related genes. This study provides candidate genes for the future breeding of litchi cultivars with high chilling resistance, and elucidates possible pathways for litchi in response to chilling using transcriptomic data.


Assuntos
Litchi , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Litchi/genética , Litchi/metabolismo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Transcriptoma
4.
Nutrients ; 14(14)2022 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35889878

RESUMO

Preclinical data suggest the role of litchi extract in alleviating non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) by modulating gut microbiota. We aimed at investigating whether oligonol, a litchi-derived polyphenol, could improve liver steatosis and gut dysbiosis in patients with NAFLD. Adults with grade ≥2 steatosis, defined by an MRI proton density fat fraction (MRI-PDFF) of ≥11%, were randomly assigned to receive either oligonol or placebo for 24 weeks. The alteration in the MRI-PDFF and gut microbiota composition assessed by 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing were examined. There were 38 patients enrolled (n = 19 in each group). A significant reduction in the MRI-PDFF between week 0 and week 24 was observed in the oligonol group, while there was a non-significant decrease in the placebo group. A significant improvement in alpha-diversity was demonstrated in both of the groups. The oligonol-induced microbiota changes were characterized by reduced abundance of pathogenic bacteria, including Dorea, Romboutsia, Erysipelotrichaceae UCG-003 and Agathobacter, as well as increased abundance of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs)-producing bacteria, such as Akkermansia, Lachnospira, Dialister and Faecalibacterium. In summary, this study is the first to provide evidence that supports that oligonol improves steatosis through the modulation of gut bacterial composition. Our results also support the beneficial and complementary role of oligonol in treating NAFLD.


Assuntos
Litchi , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Adulto , Bactérias , Disbiose/tratamento farmacológico , Disbiose/patologia , Humanos , Fígado/patologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Polifenóis/uso terapêutico , Prótons
5.
J Plant Physiol ; 276: 153768, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35872424

RESUMO

A previous study showed that foliar application of ethephon to litchi trees with mature shoots and dormant terminal buds during autumn successfully inhibited new vegetative shoot growth prior to floral induction thereby promoting carbohydrate accumulation and flowering. However, the functional mechanisms of ethylene, the breakdown product of ethephon, in the leaves and terminal buds of litchi and its involvement in the flowering process is largely unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the phenological, physiological and molecular changes underlying ethephon application and its associations with bud dormancy and flowering in litchi. Ethephon was applied as a single full canopy spray at a concentration of 1000 mg⋅L-1 to 'Mauritius' litchi trees with mature vegetative shoots and dormant terminal buds during late autumn of 2018 (mid-April; Southern Hemisphere). Untreated trees served as a control. Phenological characteristics, such as bud dormancy and panicle development, leaf chlorophyll (as an indicator of shoot maturity), ethylene evolution, gene expression levels of flowering- (LcFT2, LcFLC and LcAP1), dormancy- (LcSVP1 and LcSVP2) and ethylene pathway-related (LcEIN3) genes and non-structural carbohydrates were determined in terminal buds, leaves and/or shoots. Ethephon application induced bud dormancy, significantly delayed panicle emergence and promoted pure floral panicle development under more favorable inductive conditions. Ethylene evolution increased sharply 2 h after application in both leaves and terminal buds, but decreased rapidly thereafter in the leaves, while remaining high in terminal buds for seven days before gradually declining. Ethephon application significantly increased relative expression of LcEIN3 and LcFLC in terminal buds one day after application, while LcFT2 expression in leaves and LcAP1 expression in terminal buds were significantly increased at the bud break stage. Significant treatments differences were also observed for various carbohydrate metabolites in leaves and shoots at the bud break or floral initiation stage. Our study provided evidence that ethephon application plays an important role in the physiological and molecular regulation of bud dormancy of litchi. By influencing the time of bud break, ethephon application can be a useful tool to manage panicle emergence under less inductive conditions.


Assuntos
Litchi , Carboidratos , Etilenos/metabolismo , Flores , Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Litchi/genética , Litchi/metabolismo , Compostos Organofosforados , Árvores
6.
Pharm Biol ; 60(1): 1264-1277, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35787093

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The litchi semen are traditional medications for treating liver fibrosis (LF) in China. The mechanism remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the anti-liver fibrotic mechanism of the total flavonoids of litchi semen (TFL). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats with carbon tetrachloride-induced LF were treated with TFL (50 and 100 mg/kg) for 4 weeks. The anti-liver fibrotic effects of TFL were evaluated and the underlying mechanisms were investigated via histopathological analysis, proteomic analysis and molecular biology technology. RESULTS: Significant anti-LF effects were observed in the high-TFL-dose group (TFL-H, p < 0.05). Five hundred and eighty-five and 95 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were identified in the LF rat model (M group) and TFL-H group, respectively. The DEPs were significantly enriched in the retinol metabolism pathway (p < 0.0001). The content of 9-cis-retinoic acid (0.93 ± 0.13 vs. 0.66 ± 0.10, p < 0.05, vs. the M group) increased significantly in the TFL-H group. The upregulation of RXRα (0.50 ± 0.05 vs. 0.27 ± 0.13 protein, p < 0.05), ALDH2 (1.24 ± 0.09 vs. 1.04 ± 0.08 protein, p < 0.05), MMP3 (0.89 ± 0.02 vs. 0.61 ± 0.12 protein, p < 0.05), Aldh1a7 (0.20 ± 0.03 vs. 0.03 ± 0.00 mRNA, p < 0.05) and Aox3 (0.72 ± 0.14 vs. 0.05 ± 0.01 mRNA, p < 0.05) after TFL treatment was verified. CONCLUSIONS: TFL exhibited good anti-liver fibrotic effects, which may be related to the upregulation of the retinol metabolism pathway. TFL may be promising anti-LF agents with potential clinical application prospects.


Assuntos
Flavonoides , Litchi , Cirrose Hepática , Animais , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Flavonoides/uso terapêutico , Litchi/química , Cirrose Hepática/induzido quimicamente , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Proteômica , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Sementes/química , Regulação para Cima , Vitamina A/efeitos adversos
7.
BMC Microbiol ; 22(1): 155, 2022 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35689202

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Organic mulch is an important management practice in agricultural production to improve soil quality, control crop pests and diseases and increase the biodiversity of soil microecosystem. However, the information about soil microbial diversity and composition in litchi plantation response to organic mulch and its attribution to litchi downy blight severity was limited. This study aimed to investigate the effect of organic mulch on litchi downy blight, and evaluate the biodiversity and antimicrobial potential of soil microbial community of litchi plantation soils under organic mulch. RESULTS: Organic mulch could significantly suppress the disease incidence in the litchi plantation, and with a reduction of 37.74% to 85.66%. As a result of high-throughput 16S rRNA and ITS rDNA gene illumine sequencing, significantly higher bacterial and fungal community diversity indexes were found in organic mulch soils, the relative abundance of norank f norank o Vicinamibacterales, norank f Vicinamibacteraceae, norank f Xanthobacteraceae, Unclassified c sordariomycetes, Aspergillus and Thermomyces were significant more than that in control soils. Isolation and analysis of antagonistic microorganism showed that 29 antagonistic bacteria strains and 37 antagonistic fungi strains were unique for mulching soils. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, we believe that organic mulch has a positive regulatory effect on the litchi downy blight and the soil microbial communities, and so, is more suitable for litchi plantation.


Assuntos
Litchi , Micobioma , Bactérias , Litchi/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo
8.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 33(4): 1099-1108, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35543065

RESUMO

Organic fertilizer application can replace a part of chemical fertilizer (CF) to improve the quality and efficiency of litchi production. To further explore the soil microbiological mechanism, with 19-year-old 'Feizixiao' litchi trees as the research objects, we examined the effects of two consecutive years of reduced CF applications (average 21.5% of total nutrients) combined with sheep manure (OF) and bio-organic fertilizers (BIO) on soil microbial diversity, community composition and differential microorganisms. The results showed that reducing the application of chemical fertilizers and combining it with the application of sheep manure and bio-organic fertilizer for two consecutive years could significantly improve yield and quality. The average increase of yield in the two years was 23.1% and 39.0%, respectively. Soil organic matter content and pH increased significantly in response to the combination treatments. Compared to that in the chemical fertilizer treatment, the contents of soil available phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, copper, and zinc displayed an increasing trend in the combination treatments. The application of organic fertilizer increased the diversity of bacteria and fungi in rhizosphere soil, but not in non-rhizosphere soil. Both treatments significantly changed soil microbial community structure, increased eutrophic bacterial groups such as Bacteroides, Proteobacteria, and Bacillus phylum, and reduced anatrophic bacterial groups such as Acidobacteria and Chloroflexus. Compared with CF, the relative abundances of MND1 under OF and TK10, Gemmatimonas, Pseudolabrys, Trichoderma and Botryotrichum under BIO were significantly increased, which was positively correlated with yield. In conclusion, reducing CF and applying organic ferti-lizer for two consecutive years could effectively improve soil pH and nutrient availability, increase rhizosphere microbial richness and diversity, change soil microbial community structure, and shape microbial communities being more conducive to yield and quality improvement.


Assuntos
Litchi , Microbiota , Animais , Bactérias , Fertilizantes/análise , Esterco , Ovinos , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo
9.
Plant J ; 111(3): 698-712, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35634876

RESUMO

Cellular energy status is a key factor deciding the switch-on of the senescence of horticultural crops. Despite the established significance of the conserved energy master regulator sucrose non-fermenting 1 (SNF1)-related protein kinase 1 (SnRK1) in plant development, its working mechanism and related signaling pathway in the regulation of fruit senescence remain enigmatic. Here, we demonstrate that energy deficit accelerates fruit senescence, whereas exogenous ATP treatment delays it. The transient suppression of LcSnRK1α in litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) fruit inhibited the expression of energy metabolism-related genes, while its ectopic expression in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) promoted ripening and a high energy level. Biochemical analyses revealed that LcSnRK1α interacted with and phosphorylated the transcription factors LcbZIP1 and LcbZIP3, which directly bound to the promoters to activate the expression of DARK-INDUCIBLE 10 (LcDIN10), ASPARAGINE SYNTHASE 1 (LcASN1), and ANTHOCYANIN SYNTHASE (LcANS), thereby fine-tuning the metabolic reprogramming to ensure energy and redox homeostasis. Altogether, these observations reveal a post-translational modification mechanism by which LcSnRK1α-mediated phosphorylation of LcbZIP1 and LcbZIP3 regulates the expression of metabolic reprogramming-related genes, consequently modulating litchi fruit senescence.


Assuntos
Litchi , Lycopersicon esculentum , Frutas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Homeostase , Litchi/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
10.
J Food Sci ; 87(7): 3026-3035, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35638338

RESUMO

The reducing flavor of whole grain bread has been constantly affecting the consumption desire of a significant proportion of consumers. The study presents the use of lychee pulp pomace (LPP) powder to replace certain proportion of wheat flour and produce wheat bread with better quality, while having minimal effects on the volume and improving the nutritional quality. Distinct particle sizes (60-400 µm) of LPP powder were obtained by superfine or ordinary grinding. Effect of different additive proportions (7-19%) of LPP powder on bread dough quality were studied by constrained mixture designs. The volume of fermented doughs subsequently decreased after adding LPP powder. However, LPP powders with smaller particle sizes were able to minimize this effect due to its higher water-holding capacity. The analyses of gluten network showed that smaller particle sizes of LPP powder resulted in a decrease in surface hydrophobicity and increase in the elasticity and stability of gluten network. Finally, optimum mixture formula was composed of 16% LPP powder with 60 µm particle size and 15% water. The study illustrated the potential to make high-quality bread with small particle size of LPP powder. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The addition of dietary fiber to wheat flour can adversely affect the dough volume and reduce the dough quality. By reducing the particle size of lychee pulp pomace powder, this adverse effect could be minimized while increasing the content of dietary fiber and bound phenolics in the dough. This provides data for the production of high-quality lychee dough bread.


Assuntos
Pão , Litchi , Fibras na Dieta , Farinha , Glutens , Tamanho da Partícula , Pós , Triticum , Água
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(5)2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35269874

RESUMO

C2H2 zinc finger is one of the most common motifs found in the transcription factors (TFs) in eukaryotes organisms, which have a broad range of functions, such as regulation of growth and development, stress tolerance and pathogenicity. Here, PlCZF1 was identified to encode a C2H2 zinc finger in the litchi downy blight pathogen Peronophythora litchii. PlCZF1 is conserved in P. litchii and Phytophthora species. In P. litchii, PlCZF1 is highly expressed in sexual developmental and early infection stages. We generated Δplczf1 mutants using the CRISPR/Cas9 method. Compared with the wild type, the Δplczf1 mutants showed no significant difference in vegetative growth and asexual reproduction, but were defective in oospore development and virulence. Further experiments revealed that the transcription of PlM90, PlLLP and three laccase encoding genes were down-regulated in the Δplczf1 mutant. Our results demonstrated that PlCZF1 is a vital regulator for sexual development and pathogenesis in P. litchii.


Assuntos
Litchi , Phytophthora , Litchi/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Virulência/genética , Dedos de Zinco
13.
Food Funct ; 13(5): 2832-2845, 2022 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35179169

RESUMO

Obesity continues to be a global public health challenge. Litchi chinensis seed is rich in bioactive ingredients with pharmacological effects, such as hypoglycemic activity and anti-oxidation. This study aimed to assess the potential anti-obesity effects of L. chinensis seed and the changes of gut microbiota and mycobiota compositions in obese zebrafish induced by a high-fat diet. The anti-obesity effects were supplemented and validated in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. In this study, various chemical components of L. chinensis seed water and ethanol extracts were detected using UHPLC-QE-MS, and both extracts showed strong in vitro antioxidant activities. Network pharmacology analysis showed the potential of the extracts to improve obesity. Litchi chinensis seed powder, water and ethanol extracts decreased the weight of obese zebrafish, improved lipid accumulation and lipid metabolism, regulated appetite, and inhibited cell apoptosis and inflammation of the liver and intestine. They showed similar effects in obese mice, and also reduced the weight of fat tissues, regulated insulin resistance and glucose metabolism, and improved the intestinal barrier. Additionally, L. chinensis seed modulated the compositions of gut microbiota and mycobiota in zebrafish, with the regulation of the proportion of bacteria that produce short-chain fatty acids or affect intestine health, including Cetobacterium, Trichococcus, Aeromonas, Staphylococcus, and Micrococcaceae, and the proportion of fungi that produce mycotoxins or have special metabolic capacities, including Penicillium, Candida, Rhodotorula, and Trichoderma. Spearman's correlation analysis revealed the potential link between zebrafish obesity parameters, gut bacteria and fungi. Overall, these findings indicated that L. chinensis seed effectively improved obesity.


Assuntos
Fármacos Antiobesidade/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Litchi , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Fármacos Antiobesidade/química , Antioxidantes/química , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Extratos Vegetais/química , Sementes , Peixe-Zebra
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(3)2022 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35163762

RESUMO

Autophagy is ubiquitously present in eukaryotes. During this process, intracellular proteins and some waste organelles are transported into lysosomes or vacuoles for degradation, which can be reused by the cell to guarantee normal cellular metabolism. However, the function of autophagy-related (ATG) proteins in oomycetes is rarely known. In this study, we identified an autophagy-related gene, PlATG6a, encoding a 514-amino-acid protein in Peronophythora litchii, which is the most destructive pathogen of litchi. The transcriptional level of PlATG6a was relatively higher in mycelium, sporangia, zoospores and cysts. We generated PlATG6a knockout mutants using CRISPR/Cas9 technology. The P. litchii Δplatg6a mutants were significantly impaired in autophagy and vegetative growth. We further found that the Δplatg6a mutants displayed decreased branches of sporangiophore, leading to impaired sporangium production. PlATG6a is also involved in resistance to oxidative and salt stresses, but not in sexual reproduction. The transcription of peroxidase-encoding genes was down-regulated in Δplatg6a mutants, which is likely responsible for hypersensitivity to oxidative stress. Compared with the wild-type strain, the Δplatg6a mutants showed reduced virulence when inoculated on the litchi leaves using mycelia plugs. Overall, these results suggest a critical role for PlATG6a in autophagy, vegetative growth, sporangium production, sporangiophore development, zoospore release, pathogenesis and tolerance to salt and oxidative stresses in P. litchii.


Assuntos
Proteína Beclina-1/genética , Litchi/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Phytophthora/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação para Cima , Autofagia , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Litchi/parasitologia , Micélio/genética , Micélio/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Micélio/patogenicidade , Estresse Oxidativo , Phytophthora/genética , Phytophthora/patogenicidade , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/parasitologia , Reprodução Assexuada , Tolerância ao Sal , Fatores de Virulência/genética
15.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 35(1): 85-94, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35221277

RESUMO

In our study, waste parts of Litchi chinensis cultivar Surakhi were selected for the production of silver nanoparticles. Qualitative and quantitative analysis revealed peel extracts rich in alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, steroids, phenolics, tannins as compared to seed extracts. Two different types of nanoparticles (PAN and PMN) were prepared from Litchi chinensis peel using crude aqueous and methanolic extracts. During synthesis, colour variations were observed (brown to blackish brown) and were characterized by UV VIS spectrophotometry. Protein and alkaloids as powerful stabilising agents forming silver nanoparticles were verified by FTIR. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of silver nanoparticles shown to be less homogeneous and spherical in form. For PAN and PMN the particle size of silver nanoparticles was 6.9 nm and 7.9 nm respectively with the primitive face-centered cubic phase measured from the XRD pattern. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometers profile confirmed the strong signal for elemental silver. The antibacterial activity of PAN and PMN against a diverse group of gram positive and gram negative bacterial strains were determined using an agar well diffusion assay. Both types of silver nanoparticles prepared were found effective against Alcaligenes faecium with highest antibacterial activities recorded (20mm±0.14 and 18mm±0.14). Minimal inhibitory concentration was found to be 15µg/ml for both PAN and PMN against Alcaligenes faecium.


Assuntos
Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Litchi/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Prata/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Indústria Alimentícia , Frutas/química , Resíduos Industriais , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Prata/química
16.
Nutrients ; 14(4)2022 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35215426

RESUMO

Certain foods are known as "heating" foods in Chinese medicine. Over-consumption of these foods can lead to symptoms known as "heating up". These symptoms have been shown to be symptoms of systemic low-grade inflammation. However, the mechanism by which these foods cause inflammation is not clear. In this preliminary study, we investigated dysbacteriosis of the gut microbiota as a possible cause of inflammation by litchi, a typical "heating" food. A human flora-associated (HFA) mouse model (donor: n = 1) was constructed. After gavaging the mice with litchi extract suspension at low, medium and high doses (400, 800, 1600 mg/kg·d-1, respectively) (n = 3) for 7 days, the serum levels of inflammatory cytokines, gut microbiota, the concentration of SCFAs and the integrity of the intestinal mucosal barrier were measured. The results revealed significant increases in the abundance of Prevotella and Bacteroides. A significant increase in the abundance of Bilophila and a decrease in Megasomonas was observed in the high-dose group. High-dose litchi intervention led to a decrease of most SCFA levels in the intestine. It also caused a more than two-fold increase in the serum TNF-α level and LPS level but a decrease in the IL-1ß and IL-6 levels. Medium- and high-dose litchi intervention caused widening of the intestinal epithelial cell junction complex and general weakening of the intestinal mucosal barrier as well as reduced energy conversion efficiency of the gut microbiota. These data suggest that litchi, when consumed excessively, can lead to a low degree of systematic inflammation and this is linked to its ability to cause dysbacteriosis of the gut microbiota, decrease SCFAs and weaken the intestinal mucosal tissues.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Litchi , Animais , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Inflamação , Mucosa Intestinal , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
17.
Nat Genet ; 54(1): 73-83, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34980919

RESUMO

Lychee is an exotic tropical fruit with a distinct flavor. The genome of cultivar 'Feizixiao' was assembled into 15 pseudochromosomes, totaling ~470 Mb. High heterozygosity (2.27%) resulted in two complete haplotypic assemblies. A total of 13,517 allelic genes (42.4%) were differentially expressed in diverse tissues. Analyses of 72 resequenced lychee accessions revealed two independent domestication events. The extremely early maturing cultivars preferentially aligned to one haplotype were domesticated from a wild population in Yunnan, whereas the late-maturing cultivars that mapped mostly to the second haplotype were domesticated independently from a wild population in Hainan. Early maturing cultivars were probably developed in Guangdong via hybridization between extremely early maturing cultivar and late-maturing cultivar individuals. Variable deletions of a 3.7 kb region encompassed by a pair of CONSTANS-like genes probably regulate fruit maturation differences among lychee cultivars. These genomic resources provide insights into the natural history of lychee domestication and will accelerate the improvement of lychee and related crops.


Assuntos
Domesticação , Genoma de Planta , Litchi/genética , China , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Evolução Molecular , Flores/genética , Haplótipos , Heterozigoto , Litchi/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Especificidade da Espécie
18.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 201: 1-13, 2022 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34998867

RESUMO

The incorporation of bioactive extract from the food waste into biopolymers is a promising green approach to fabricate active films with antioxidant activity for food packaging. The present study developed bioactive antioxidant films based on guar gum/carboxymethyl cellulose incorporated with halloysite-nanotubes (HNT) and litchi shell extract (LSE). The effects of combining HNT and LSE on the physical, mechanical, and antioxidant properties of the films were analyzed. The results showed LSE caused a reduction in tensile strength; however, the elongation at break substantially improved from 29.93 to 62.12%. FTIR revealed covalent interaction and hydrogen bonding between guar gum/carboxymethyl cellulose and LSE. The XRD and SEM study confirmed interactions among the polymer matrix and LSE compounds. The addition of LSE to guar gum/carboxymethyl cellulose films notably increased the UV-light barrier properties. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of all GCH/LSE substantially improved from 9.46 to 91.52%, more than a ten-fold increase compared to composite neat GCH film. Finally, the oxidative stability of roasted peanuts packed in fabricated GCH/LSE sachets improved after 8 days. Guar gum/carboxymethyl cellulose containing LSE as an antioxidant agent could be applied as food packaging for low water activity oxygen-sensitive food.


Assuntos
Litchi , Nanotubos , Eliminação de Resíduos , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Carboximetilcelulose Sódica , Argila , Alimentos , Embalagem de Alimentos , Galactanos , Mananas , Extratos Vegetais , Gomas Vegetais
19.
J Med Food ; 25(1): 61-69, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34874786

RESUMO

Lychee is a fruit of Asian origin with an exquisite flavor and an attractive reddish color. However, according to recent reports, the consumption of this fruit reduces the levels of blood glucose with adverse effects on human health such as encephalopathy and hypoglycemic. The objective of this work was to determine if the peel, pulp, and seed of "Brewster" lychee fruits harvested at two stages of maturity had antihyperglycemic effect. This effect was determined by an oral glucose tolerance test using Wistar rats. In addition, ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry and high-resolution liquid chromatography were used to quantify phenolic compounds, flavonoids, organic acids (OAs), sugars, and antioxidant activity. Results indicated that stage I pulp (immature fruits) and stage II peel and seed (export mature fruits) reduced blood glucose levels, and the effects of the former two were synergistic with metformin. The pulp of mature fruits (stage II), however, lacked a hypoglycemic effect. Additionally, the peel and the seeds of these fruits presented a high antioxidant activity (as determined by DPPH [2,2-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydracyl] and ABTS+ [2,2-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid] methods), which correlated well with the total content of phenolic compounds. The highest content of polyphenolics, flavonoids, and OAs was found in the extracts of the peel and seeds of both stages of maturity. It was therefore concluded that "Brewster" mature lychees are safe for human consumption, and both the seed and the peel can be useful sources for obtaining new compounds with antihyperglycemic activity.


Assuntos
Litchi , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Frutas , Hipoglicemiantes , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
20.
Chem Biodivers ; 19(1): e202100713, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34797035

RESUMO

Litchi grown in the upper Yangtze River region have the advantage of being late-maturing owing to the geographical location. This study aimed to evaluate the physical characteristics, nutritional values, phenolic composition and antioxidant activities of 16 litchi cultivars grown in the upper Yangtze River region. Litchi grown in this region had total soluble solid and ascorbic acid contents comparable with those of cultivars grown in other locations. The total polyphenol contents were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay, and the phenolic profiles were determined using UPLC-QqQ-MS/MS. Nine phenolic compounds were identified and quantified in this study. Naringin, rutin and p-coumaric acid were the major phenolic compounds in all the litchi cultivars. Statistical analysis of all the physiochemical results was performed using principal component analysis. Our results indicated that litchi grown in the upper Yangtze River region not only showed the late-maturity characteristic but were also good dietary sources of phenolic compounds and antioxidants. In particular, 'Fei Zi Xiao' and 'Jing Gang Hong Nuo', characterized by high polyphenol contents and high antioxidant capacities, were of superior comprehensive quality. This study provides important information for the development of late-maturing litchi industry.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Litchi/química , Nutrientes/análise , Fenóis/química , China , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Litchi/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Litchi/metabolismo , Fenóis/análise , Polifenóis/análise , Análise de Componente Principal , Rios , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
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