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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7548, 2022 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35534491

RESUMO

Fluidized catalytic cracking unit (FCCU) main fractionator is a complex system with multivariable, nonlinear and uncertainty. Its modeling is a hard nut to crack. Ordinary modeling methods are difficult to estimate its dynamic characteristics accurately. In this work, the gray wolf optimizer with bubble-net predation (GWO_BP) is proposed for solving this complex optimization problem. GWO_BP can effectively balance the detectability and exploitability to find the optimal value faster, and improve the accuracy. The head wolf has the best fitness value in GWO. GWO_BP uses the spiral bubble predation method of whale to replace the surrounding hunting scheme of the head wolf, which enhances the global search ability and speeds up the convergence speed. And Lévy flight is applied to improve the wolf search strategy to update the positions of wolfpack for overcoming the disadvantage of easily falling into local optimum. The experiments of the basic GWO, the particle swarm optimization (PSO) and the GWO_BP are carried out with 12 typical test functions. The experimental results show that GWO_BP has the best optimization accuracy. Then, the GWO_BP is used to solve the parameter estimation problem of FCCU main fractionator model. The simulation results show that the FCCU main fractionator model established by the proposed modeling method can accurately reflect the dynamic characteristics of the real world.


Assuntos
Comportamento Predatório , Lobos , Algoritmos , Animais , Simulação por Computador
2.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 119, 2022 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35527260

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dirofilaria immitis is a parasitic nematode endemic in the Mediterranean countries, which causes cardiopulmonary dirofilariosis in wild and domestic animals. Despite being recognized hosts of D. immitis, wild carnivores such as wolves and foxes are frequently disregarded when considering a potential role in the transmission of these zoonotic nematodes. In Portugal, studies available regarding D. immitis circulation are scarce, likely underestimating its relevance. To add knowledge on this, we sought to assess Iberian wolves (Canis lupus signatus) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from northern Portugal for D. immitis antigenemia and microfilaremia. METHODS: Blood samples from 42 Iberian wolves and 19 red foxes were collected, during 2010-2012, in Peneda-Gerês National Park. Antigenemia was searched for by rapid antigen detection test kits (Uranotest Dirofilaria ®). Microfilaremia was assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Nucleic acids were extracted from blood using QIAamp® DNA Mini Kit (Qiagen), and DNA was screened for the presence of microfilaria using a conventional PCR targeting the 5.8S-internal transcribed spacer 2-28S regions, followed by bidirectional sequencing, Basic Local Alignment Search Tool analysis and phylogenetic analysis. RESULTS: Three red foxes had antigenemia, with an occurrence of 15.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.4-39.6), while showing no evidence for the presence of microfilaremia. No wolf samples presented evidence for D. immitis antigenemia. Nevertheless, two wolves were positive for D. immitis microfilaremia (4.8%; 95% CI 0.6-16.2%) as revealed by PCR and confirmed by bidirectional sequencing. CONCLUSIONS: Although Dirofilaria microfilaremia in wolves does not necessarily correlate to an endangerment of the infected animal's health, positive individuals can act as a reservoir for further infection if the intermediate mosquito hosts are present. To the best of our knowledge, one single study had reported that wolves were suitable Dirofilaria hosts, but microfilaremia have never been reported.


Assuntos
Dirofilaria immitis , Dirofilaria repens , Dirofilariose , Lobos , Animais , Dirofilaria immitis/genética , Dirofilaria repens/genética , Dirofilariose/parasitologia , Raposas/parasitologia , Filogenia , Portugal/epidemiologia , Lobos/parasitologia
4.
Med Sci (Paris) ; 38(4): 398-400, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35485903

RESUMO

The most significant polymorphism associated with dog size occurs in the region of the IGF1 gene and concerns a single base change in a neighbouring lncRNA. The "small" (C) allele of this SNP is mostly found in small modern breeds and canids (foxes, coyotes, jackals) while the "large" (T) dominates in wolves and large dogs. However, the small allele is also present at low level in ancient wolves and is shown to represent the ancestral allele in canids, which has been recently selected in small dog breeds obtained by human selection.


Assuntos
Lobos , Alelos , Animais , Cães , Humanos , Filogenia , Lobos/genética
5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5697, 2022 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35383239

RESUMO

The grey wolf (Canis lupus) persists in a variety of human-dominated landscapes and is subjected to various legal management regimes throughout Europe. Our aim was to assess the effects of intrinsic and methodological determinants on the hair cortisol concentration (HCC) of wolves from four European populations under different legal management. We determined HCC by an enzyme-linked immune assay in 259 hair samples of 133 wolves from the Iberian, Alpine, Dinaric-Balkan, and Scandinavian populations. The HCC showed significant differences between body regions. Mean HCC in lumbar guard hair was 11.6 ± 9.7 pg/mg (range 1.6-108.8 pg/mg). Wolves from the Dinaric-Balkan and Scandinavian populations showed significantly higher HCC than Iberian wolves, suggesting that harvest policies could reflected in the level of chronic stress. A significant negative relationship with body size was found. The seasonal, sex and age patterns are consistent with other studies, supporting HCC as a biomarker of chronic stress in wolves for a retrospective time frame of several weeks. Our results highlight the need for standardization of sampling and analytical techniques to ensure the value of HCC in informing management at a continental scale.


Assuntos
Lobos , Animais , Cabelo , Hidrocortisona , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
Sci Adv ; 8(16): eabm5944, 2022 04 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35452284

RESUMO

Dogs are uniquely associated with human dispersal and bring transformational insight into the domestication process. Dingoes represent an intriguing case within canine evolution being geographically isolated for thousands of years. Here, we present a high-quality de novo assembly of a pure dingo (CanFam_DDS). We identified large chromosomal differences relative to the current dog reference (CanFam3.1) and confirmed no expanded pancreatic amylase gene as found in breed dogs. Phylogenetic analyses using variant pairwise matrices show that the dingo is distinct from five breed dogs with 100% bootstrap support when using Greenland wolf as the outgroup. Functionally, we observe differences in methylation patterns between the dingo and German shepherd dog genomes and differences in serum biochemistry and microbiome makeup. Our results suggest that distinct demographic and environmental conditions have shaped the dingo genome. In contrast, artificial human selection has likely shaped the genomes of domestic breed dogs after divergence from the dingo.


Assuntos
Canidae , Lobos , Animais , Austrália , Cruzamento , Canidae/genética , Cães , Filogenia , Lobos/genética
7.
Trends Cogn Sci ; 26(4): 337-349, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35294857

RESUMO

Based on claims that dogs are less aggressive and show more sophisticated socio-cognitive skills compared with wolves, dog domestication has been invoked to support the idea that humans underwent a similar 'self-domestication' process. Here, we review studies on wolf-dog differences and conclude that results do not support such claims: dogs do not show increased socio-cognitive skills and they are not less aggressive than wolves. Rather, compared with wolves, dogs seek to avoid conflicts, specifically with higher ranking conspecifics and humans, and might have an increased inclination to follow rules, making them amenable social partners. These conclusions challenge the suitability of dog domestication as a model for human social evolution and suggest that dogs need to be acknowledged as animals adapted to a specific socio-ecological niche as well as being shaped by human selection for specific traits.


Assuntos
Lobos , Agressão , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Cães , Domesticação , Humanos , Lobos/psicologia
8.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0259604, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35294446

RESUMO

When humanity confronts the risk of extinction of species, many people invoke precautions, especially in the face of uncertainty. Although precautionary approaches are value judgments, the optimal design and effect of precautions or lack thereof are scientific questions. We investigated Wisconsin gray wolves Canis lupus facing a second wolf-hunt in November 2021 and use three legal thresholds as the societal value judgments about precautions: (1) the 1999 population goal, 350 wolves, (2) the threshold for statutory listing under the state threatened and endangered species act, 250 wolves; and (3) state extirpation <2 wolves. This allows us to explore the quantitative relationship between precaution and uncertainty. Working from estimates of the size wolf population in April 2021 and reproduction to November, we constructed a simple linear model with uninformative priors for the period April 2021-April 2022 including an uncertain wolf-hunt in November 2021. Our first result is that the state government under-counted wolf deaths in the year preceding both wolf-hunts. We recommend better scientific analysis be used when setting wolf-hunt quotas. We find official recommendations for a quota for the November 2021 wolf-hunt risk undesirable outcomes. Even a quota of zero has a 13% chance of crossing threshold 1. Therefore, a zero death toll would be precautionary. Proponents for high quotas bear the burden of proof that their estimates are accurate, precise, and reproducible. We discuss why our approach is transferable to non-wolves. We show how scientists have the tools and concepts for quantifying and explaining the probabilities of crossing thresholds set by laws or other social norms. We recommend that scientists grapple with data gaps by explaining what the uncertainty means for policy and the public including the consequences of being wrong.


Assuntos
Lobos , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Humanos , Incerteza
9.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 4195, 2022 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35264717

RESUMO

Intra- and inter-specific gene flow are natural evolutionary processes. However, human-induced hybridization is a global conservation concern across taxa, and the development of discriminant genetic markers to differentiate among gene flow processes is essential. Wolves (Canis lupus) are affected by hybridization, particularly in southern Europe, where ongoing recolonization of historic ranges is augmenting gene flow among divergent populations. Our aim was to provide diagnostic canid markers focused on the long-divergent Iberian, Italian and Dinaric wolf populations, based on existing genomic resources. We used 158 canid samples to select a panel of highly informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to (i) distinguish wolves in the three regions from domestic dogs (C. l. familiaris) and golden jackals (C. aureus), and (ii) identify their first two hybrid generations. The resulting 192 SNPs correctly identified the five canid groups, all simulated first-generation (F1) hybrids (0.482 ≤ Qi ≤ 0.512 between their respective parental groups) and all first backcross (BC1) individuals (0.723 ≤ Qi ≤ 0.827 to parental groups). An assay design and test with invasive and non-invasive canid samples performed successfully for 178 SNPs. By separating natural population admixture from inter-specific hybridization, our reduced panel can help advance evolutionary research, monitoring, and timely conservation management.


Assuntos
Canidae , Lobos , Animais , Canidae/genética , Cães , Fluxo Gênico , Hibridização Genética , Repetições de Microssatélites , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Lobos/genética
10.
BMC Mol Cell Biol ; 23(1): 9, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35168562

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Image segmentation is considered an important step in image processing. Fuzzy c-means clustering is one of the common methods of image segmentation. However, this method suffers from drawbacks, such as sensitivity to initial values, entrapment in local optima, and the inability to distinguish objects with similar color intensity. This paper proposes the hybrid Fuzzy c-means clustering and Gray wolf optimization for image segmentation to overcome the shortcomings of Fuzzy c-means clustering. The Gray wolf optimization has a high exploration capability in finding the best solution to the problem, which prevents the entrapment of the algorithm in local optima. In this study, breast cytology images were used to validate the methods, and the results of the proposed method were compared to those of c-means clustering. RESULTS: FCMGWO has performed better than FCM in separating the nucleus from the other dark objects in the cell. The clustering was validated using Vpc, Vpe, Davies-Bouldin, and Calinski Harabasz criteria. The FCM and FCMGWO methods have a significant difference with respect to the Vpc and Vpe indexes. However, there is no significant difference between the performances of the two clustering methods with respect to the Calinski-Harabasz and Davies-Bouldin indices. The results indicate the better efficacy of the proposed method. CONCLUSIONS: The hybrid FCMGWO algorithm distinguishes the cells better in images with less detail than in images with high detail. However, FCM exhibits unacceptable performance in both low- and high-detail images.


Assuntos
Lobos , Algoritmos , Animais , Análise por Conglomerados , Lógica Fuzzy , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética
11.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 1738, 2022 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35110599

RESUMO

Poaching is the main cause of mortality for many large carnivores, and mitigating it is imperative for the persistence of their populations. For Wisconsin gray wolves (Canis lupus), periods of increased risk in overall mortality and poaching seem to overlap temporally with legal hunting seasons for other large mammals (hunting wolves was prohibited). We analyzed monitoring data from adult, collared wolves in Wisconsin, USA (1979-2012, n = 495) using a competing-risk approach to test explicitly if seasons during which it was legal to train hunting hounds (hounding) or hunt other large mammals (hunting) affected wolves' hazard of cause-specific mortality and disappearance. We found increases in hazard for disappearances and documented ('reported') poaching during seasons with hunting, hounding or snow cover relative to a season without these factors. The 'reported poached' hazard increased > 650% during seasons with hunting and snow cover, which may be due to a seasonal surge in numbers of potential poachers or to some poachers augmenting their activities. Snow cover was a major environmental factor contributing to poaching, presumably through increased detection of wolves. Our study suggests poaching is by far the highest mortality hazard for wolves and reinforces the need for protections and policies targeting poaching of protected populations.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Crime , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Lobos , Animais , Humanos , Mortalidade , Dinâmica Populacional , Estações do Ano , Neve , Wisconsin
12.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 4489436, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35178077

RESUMO

In order to effectively reduce the energy consumption, improve the efficiency of data collection in HWSNs, and prolong the lifetime of the overall network, the clustering method is one of the most effective methods in the data collection methods for HWSNs. The data collection strategy of HWSNs based on the clustering method mainly includes three stages: (1) selecting the appropriate cluster head, (2) forming between clusters, and (3) transferring data between clusters. Among them, the selection of the cluster heads in the first stage. The optimal number of cluster heads in the formation of clusters in the second stage is the core and key to the clustering data collection of HWSNs. In the stage of cluster head selection, a data collection strategy for HWSNs based on the clustering method is proposed. Sink establishes an extreme learning machine neural network model. The cluster member nodes select cluster heads based on the remaining energy of the sensor node, the number of the neighbor node, and the distance to the sink. The best cluster head node is selected through the adaptive learning of the online sequence extreme learning machine. Through comprehensive consideration of various factors to complete the clustering process, the gray wolf algorithm is used to optimize the number of clusters, balance the effect of clustering, and improve the efficiency of data collection while reducing energy consumption. An energy efficient and reliable clustering data collection strategy for HWSNs based on the online sequence extreme learning machine and the gray wolf optimization algorithm is proposed in this paper. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm not only significantly improves the efficiency of the data collection and reduces energy consumption but also comprehensively improves the reliability of the network and prolongs the network's lifetime.


Assuntos
Redes de Comunicação de Computadores , Lobos , Algoritmos , Animais , Coleta de Dados , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Tecnologia sem Fio
13.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 2882, 2022 02 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35217686

RESUMO

Here, we describe a partial cranium of a large canid dated at 406.5 ± 2.4 ka from the Middle Pleistocene of Ponte Galeria (Rome, Italy). The sample represents one of the few Middle Pleistocene remains of a wolf-like canid falling within the timeframe when the Canis mosbachensis-Canis lupus transition occurred, a key moment to understand the spread of the extant wolf (Canis lupus) in Europe. CT-based methods allow studying the outer and inner cranial anatomy (brain and frontal sinuses) of a selected sample of fossil and extant canids. Morphological and biometric results allowed to: (I) ascribe the cranium from Ponte Galeria to an adult Canis lupus, representing the first reliable occurrence of this taxon in Europe; (II) provide the content for a biochronological revision of the Middle Pleistocene record of European wolves.


Assuntos
Canidae , Lobos , Animais , Europa (Continente) , Fósseis , Filogenia
14.
Mitochondrion ; 63: 72-84, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35134592

RESUMO

Currently, the issue of the aetiology of mitochondrial diseases resulting from mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) defects is underestimated. Genetic research is mostly focused on alterations in the nuclear genome (nDNA), and its impact on disease development as well as further health consequences without considering mtDNA abnormalities. However, in the case of energy-dependent diseases, it is important to understand the bioenergetic pathophysiology and its relation with mtDNA changes. In the current animal research, there is limited data about mtDNA defects and their association with the development of bioenergetic diseases in the domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris) in contrast to human medicine, where mitochondrial genetics research has recently increased. Molecular findings about mtDNA indicate that improper functioning of mitochondria resulting from genetic defects of mtDNA has a severe impact on cells and tissues, especially those that are heavily dependent on oxidative metabolism such as the brain, skeletal and cardiac muscles and, consequently, the whole organism. The aim of this paper is to highlight the role of defects of mitochondria and mtDNA on the development and course of different diseases in the domestic dog. The field of canine mitochondrial genetics and genomics is definitely inexhaustible and it is worth drawing attention to the importance and consequences of the mitochondrial genome alterations. This review collects scientific data on mitochondrial DNA with special regard to the structure, features of canine mtDNA, and abnormalities in the mitochondrial genome and their association with the course and development of diseases, including mitochondrial myopathies, encephalopathies, and tumours.


Assuntos
Genoma Mitocondrial , Doenças Mitocondriais , Lobos , Animais , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/metabolismo , Cães , Mitocôndrias/genética , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Doenças Mitocondriais/genética , Doenças Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Doenças Mitocondriais/veterinária , Mutação , Lobos/genética
15.
Genome Res ; 32(3): 449-458, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35135873

RESUMO

Genetic drift can dramatically change allele frequencies in small populations and lead to reduced levels of genetic diversity, including loss of segregating variants. However, there is a shortage of quantitative studies of how genetic diversity changes over time in natural populations, especially on genome-wide scales. Here, we analyzed whole-genome sequences from 76 wolves of a highly inbred Scandinavian population, founded by only one female and two males, sampled over a period of 30 yr. We obtained chromosome-level haplotypes of all three founders and found that 10%-24% of their diploid genomes had become lost after about 20 yr of inbreeding (which approximately corresponds to five generations). Lost haplotypes spanned large genomic regions, as expected from the amount of recombination during this limited time period. Altogether, 160,000 SNP alleles became lost from the population, which may include adaptive variants as well as wild-type alleles masking recessively deleterious alleles. Although not sampled, we could indirectly infer that the two male founders had megabase-sized runs of homozygosity and that all three founders showed significant haplotype sharing, meaning that there were on average only 4.2 unique haplotypes in the six copies of each autosome that the founders brought into the population. This violates the assumption of unrelated founder haplotypes often made in conservation and management of endangered species. Our study provides a novel view of how whole-genome resequencing of temporally stratified samples can be used to visualize and directly quantify the consequences of genetic drift in a small inbred population.


Assuntos
Lobos , Alelos , Animais , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Haplótipos , Endogamia , Masculino , Lobos/genética
16.
Nat Rev Genet ; 23(4): 197, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35190648
17.
Genome Biol Evol ; 14(2)2022 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35137061

RESUMO

The gray wolf (Canis lupus) is among the few large carnivores that survived the Late Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions. Thanks to their complex history of admixture and extensive geographic range, the number of gray wolf subspecies and their phylogenetic relationships remain poorly understood. Here, we perform whole-genome sequencing of a gray wolf collected from peninsular India that was phenotypically distinct from gray wolves outside India. Genomic analyses reveal that the Indian gray wolf is an evolutionarily distinct lineage that diverged from other extant gray wolf lineages ∼110 thousand years ago. Demographic analyses suggest that the Indian wolf population declined continuously decline since separating from other gray wolves and, today, has exceptionally low genetic diversity. We also find evidence for pervasive and mosaic gene flow between the Indian wolf and African canids including African wolf, Ethiopian wolf, and African wild dog despite their current geographical separation. Our results support the hypothesis that the Indian subcontinent was a Pleistocene refugium and center of diversification and further highlight the complex history of gene flow that characterized the evolution of gray wolves.


Assuntos
Lobos , Animais , Fluxo Gênico , Hibridização Genética , Índia , Filogenia , Lobos/genética
18.
Oecologia ; 198(1): 91-98, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34981219

RESUMO

Fear of the human 'super predator' has been demonstrated to so alter the feeding behavior of large carnivores as to cause trophic cascades. It has yet to be experimentally tested if fear of humans has comparably large effects on the feeding behavior of large herbivores. We conducted a predator playback experiment exposing white-tailed deer to the vocalizations of humans, extant or locally extirpated non-human predators (coyotes, cougars, dogs, wolves), or non-predator controls (birds), at supplemental food patches to measure the relative impacts on deer feeding behavior. Deer were more than twice as likely to flee upon hearing humans than other predators, and hearing humans was matched only by hearing wolves in reducing overall feeding time gaged by visits to the food patch in the following hour. Combined with previous, site-specific research linking deer fecundity to predator abundance, this study reveals that fear of humans has the potential to induce a larger effect on ungulate reproduction than has ever been reported. By demonstrating that deer most fear the human 'super predator', our results point to the fear humans induce in large ungulates having population- and community-level impacts comparable to those caused by the fear humans induce in large carnivores.


Assuntos
Carnívoros , Cervos , Lobos , Animais , Cães , Cadeia Alimentar , Herbivoria , Humanos , Comportamento Predatório
19.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 535, 2022 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35017596

RESUMO

The genetic composition of an individual can markedly affect its survival, reproduction, and ultimately fitness. As some wildlife populations become smaller, conserving genetic diversity will be a conservation challenge. Many imperiled species are already supported through population augmentation efforts and we often do not know if or how genetic diversity is maintained in translocated species. As a case study for understanding the maintenance of genetic diversity in augmented populations, I wanted to know if genetic diversity (i.e., observed heterozygosity) remained high in a population of gray wolves in the Rocky Mountains of the U.S. > 20 years after reintroduction. Additionally, I wanted to know if a potential mechanism for such diversity was individuals with below average genetic diversity choosing mates with above average diversity. I also asked whether there was a preference for mating with unrelated individuals. Finally, I hypothesized that mated pairs with above average heterozygosity would have increased survival of young. Ultimately, I found that females with below average heterozygosity did not choose mates with above average heterozygosity and wolves chose mates randomly with respect to genetic relatedness. Pup survival was not higher for mated pairs with above average heterozygosity in my models. The dominant variables predicting pup survival were harvest rate during their first year of life and years pairs were mated. Ultimately, genetic diversity was relatively unchanged > 20 years after reintroduction. The mechanism for maintaining such diversity does not appear related to individuals preferentially choosing more genetically diverse mates. Inbreeding avoidance, however, appears to be at least one mechanism maintaining genetic diversity in this population.


Assuntos
Lobos , Animais
20.
Environ Manage ; 69(3): 449-465, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35032185

RESUMO

Scientific evidence suggests that emotions affect actual human decision-making, particularly in highly emotionally situations such as human-wildlife interactions. In this study we assess the role of fear on preferences for wildlife conservation, using a discrete choice experiment. The sample was split into two treatment groups and a control. In the treatment groups the emotion of fear towards wildlife was manipulated using two different pictures of a wolf, one fearful and one reassuring, which were presented to respondents during the experiment. Results were different for the two treatments. The assurance treatment lead to higher preferences and willingness to pay for the wolf, compared to the fear treatment and the control, for several population sizes. On the other hand, the impact of the fear treatment was lower than expected and only significant for large populations of wolves, in excess of 50 specimen. Overall, the study suggests that emotional choices may represent a source of concern for the assessment of stable preferences. The impact of emotional choices is likely to be greater in situations where a wildlife-related topic is highly emphasized, positively or negatively, by social networks, mass media, and opinion leaders. When stated preferences towards wildlife are affected by the emotional state of fear due to contextual external stimuli, welfare analysis does not reflect stable individual preferences and may lead to sub-optimal conservation policies. Therefore, while more research is recommended for a more accurate assessment, it is advised to control the decision context during surveys for potential emotional choices.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Emoções , Medo , Animais , Atitude , Humanos , Lobos
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