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1.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 59(8): 974-988, 2023 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36607612

RESUMO

Graphene-based vertical Schottky-barrier transistors (SBTs), renowned as graphene barristors, have emerged as a feasible candidate to fundamentally expand the horizon of conventional transistor technology. The remote tunability of graphene's electronic properties could endorse multi-stimuli responsive functionalities for a broad range of electronic and optoelectronic applications of transistors, with the capability of incorporating nanochannel architecture with dramatically reduced footprints from the vertical integrations. In this Feature Article, we provide a comprehensive overview of the progress made in the field of SBTs over the last 10 years, starting from the operating principles, materials evolution, and processing developments. Depending on the types of stimuli such as electrical, optical, and mechanical stresses, various fields of applications from conventional digital logic circuits to sensory technologies are highlighted. Finally, more advanced applications toward beyond-Moore electronics are discussed, featuring recent advancements in neuromorphic devices based on SBTs.


Assuntos
Grafite , Transistores Eletrônicos , Eletrônica , Lógica
2.
Cogn Sci ; 47(1): e13234, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36640435

RESUMO

According to logical theories of meaning, a meaning of an expression can be formalized and encoded in truth conditions. Vagueness of the language and individual differences between people are a challenge to incorporate into the meaning representations. In this paper, we propose a new approach to study truth-conditional representations of vague concepts. For a case study, we selected two natural language quantifiers most and more than half. We conducted two online experiments, each with 90 native English speakers. In the first experiment, we tested between-subjects variability in meaning representations. In the second experiment, we tested the stability of meaning representations over time by testing the same group of participants in two experimental sessions. In both experiments, participants performed the verification task. They verified a sentence with a quantifier (e.g., "Most of the gleerbs are feezda.") based on the numerical information provided in the second sentence, (e.g., "60% of the gleerbs are feezda"). To investigate between-subject and within-subject differences in meaning representations, we proposed an extended version of the Diffusion Decision Model with two parameters capturing truth conditions and vagueness. We fit the model to responses and reaction times data. In the first experiment, we found substantial between-subject differences in representations of most as reflected by the variability in the truth conditions. Moreover, we found that the verification of most is proportion-dependent as reflected in the reaction time effect and model parameter. In the second experiment, we showed that quantifier representations are stable over time as reflected in stable model parameters across two experimental sessions. These findings challenge semantic theories that assume the truth-conditional equivalence of most and more than half and contribute to the representational theory of vague concepts. The current study presents a promising approach to study semantic representations, which can have a wide application in experimental linguistics.


Assuntos
Compreensão , Semântica , Humanos , Compreensão/fisiologia , Idioma , Linguística , Lógica
3.
Lab Chip ; 23(2): 349-361, 2023 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36606538

RESUMO

Taking information as material to realize non-electronic physical computing is a promising idea, which facilitates the integration of technologies in different fields such as chemistry, biology, and mechanical control into a new computing platform. Here, we propose a novel, efficient and robust manipulation platform that drives droplet computing by way of inertial force. Combining this with droplet flow path design, we demonstrated multiple basic functions of droplet manipulation, including storage, dosing, interrupts, controllable release and addressing. These basic functions without external control lay the foundation for the realization of droplet calculation. We developed AND, OR, and XOR logic gates of the "liquid circuit" and combined them into a binary adder, which successfully completed the addition of four-digit binary numbers through droplet movement. Moreover, we attempted to perform algorithmic design for biological information under the control of droplets based on synchronous logical operations, developing the possibility of biological applications. This programmable physical computing system exists independently of electronic computing, aiming to supplement and expand the computing methods outside the field of electronic technology and to open a new method for the algorithmic operation of materials after combining new physical computing technologies such as biological or chemical computing.


Assuntos
Lógica , Tecnologia , Fenômenos Mecânicos
5.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 15(1): 1944-1957, 2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36573551

RESUMO

In this study, we synthesized two phosphoramidites based on 2,7-bis-{4-nitro-8-[3-(2-propyl)-styryl]}-9,9-bis-[1-(3,6-dioxaheptyl)]-fluorene (BNSF) and 4,4'-bis-{8-[4-nitro-3-(2-propyl)-styryl]}-3,3'-di-methoxybiphenyl (BNSMB) structures as visible light-cleavable linkers for oligonucleotide conjugation. In addition to the commercial ultraviolet (UV) photocleavable (PC) linker, the BNSMB linker was further applied as a building component to construct photoregulated DNA devices as duplex structures, which are functionalized with fluorophores and quenchers. Selective cleavage of PC and BNSMB is achieved in response to ultraviolet (UV) and visible light irradiations as two inputs, respectively. This leads to controllable dissociation of pieces of DNA fragments, which is followed by changes of fluorescence emission as signal outputs of the system. By tuning the number and position of the photocleavable molecules, fluorophores, and quenchers, various DNA devices were developed, which mimic the functions of Boolean logic gates and achieve logic operations in AND, OR, NOR, and NAND gates in response to two different wavelengths of light inputs. By sequence design, the photolysis products can be precisely programmed in DNA devices and triggered to release in a selective and/or sequential manner. Thus, this photoregulated DNA device shows potential as a wavelength-dependent drug delivery system for selective control over the release of multiple individual therapeutic oligonucleotide-based drugs. We believe that our work not only enriches the library of photocleavable phosphoramidites available for bioconjugation but also paves the way for developing spatiotemporal-controlled, orthogonal-regulated DNA-based logic devices for a range of applications in materials science, polymers, chemistry, and biology.


Assuntos
DNA , Lógica , DNA/química , Oligonucleotídeos , Corantes Fluorescentes
6.
Integr Psychol Behav Sci ; 56(3): 560-572, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34570350

RESUMO

This paper aims to investigate mind-body correlation and to propose an understanding of the unique movement of the invisible body in psychotherapy. The author examined the intermediate field of mind and body with reference to concepts of mind-body boundary in different schools. And they were examined once put into clinical practice based on bodily micro events sensed in the relational field. It intends to explain how the in-between area of mind and body was generated based on a clinical picture gathered through listening to clients' dream narrative. It was shown that a logic different from linear causal theory is significant to explain mind-body correlation. Based on the theory of Buddhism, the author introduced a nonlinear logic of Utsushi (projecting, transferring, and reflecting) as an attempt to present an explanatory model of mind-body correlation. In conclusion, the phenomena of disease can be described not only through physiological and biological viewpoints but also through the narrative meaning of the illness in the client's life history. The logic of Utsushi was effective in bridging a dual description of the biological and the narrative/biographical.


Assuntos
Lógica , Psicoterapia , Humanos , Narração
7.
Sci Signal ; 15(764): eadf0778, 2022 12 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36512642

RESUMO

Interferons (IFNs) activate cell-autonomous immunity to combat infection and control inflammation. In this issue of Science Signaling, Boccuni et al. reveal how macrophages incorporate stress signals through the p38 MAPK pathway to enhance IFN-induced responses against intracellular pathogens.


Assuntos
Interferons , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno , Macrófagos , Lógica
8.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 1515, 2022 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36514111

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Community-based treatment of possible serious bacterial infection (PSBI) in young infants, when referral to a hospital is not possible, can result in high treatment coverage and low case fatality. However, in Ethiopia, the coverage of PSBI treatment remains low, worsened by COVID-19. To understand the challenges of delivery of PSBI treatment and design and test adaptative strategies to mitigate the impact of COVID-19 on neonatal mortality, we did implementation research (IR) employing Implementation Research Logic Model (IRLM). In this paper, we describe IRLM application experiences in designing, implementing, and evaluating strategies to improve community-based treatment of PSBI during the COVID-19 pandemic in Ethiopia. METHODS: This IR was conducted between November 2020-April 2022 at Dembecha and Lume woredas of Amhara and Oromia regions, respectively. We employed narrative reviews, formative assessment and facilitated stakeholder engagement to develop the PSBI treatment IRLM to identify barriers, understand the conceptual linkages among determinants, choose implementation strategies, elicit mechanisms, and link to implementation outcomes. In addition, we used the IRLM to structure the capture of emerging implementation challenges and resulting strategy adaptations throughout implementation. RESULTS: This IR identified COVID-19 and multiple pre-existing contextual factors. We designed and implemented implementation strategies to address these challenges. These adaptive strategies were implemented with sufficient strength to maintain the delivery of PSBI services and improve mothers' care-seeking behavior for their sick young infants. The IRLM offers us a clear process and path to prioritize implementation challenges, choose strategies informed by mechanisms of action, and where the adaptive implementation of community-based management of PSBI would lead to high-implementation fidelity and change in mother behavior to seek care for their sick young infants. The IRLM was also an effective tool for stakeholder engagement, easily explained and used to structure discussion and decision-making during co-design meetings. CONCLUSIONS: The use of the IRLM helps us to specify the conceptual links between the implementation challenges, strategies, mechanisms of action, and outcomes to explore the complex community-based management of PSBI during complex contexts to improve high-fidelity implementation and integration of PSBI treatment in the primary healthcare delivery systems through active engagement of stakeholders.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas , COVID-19 , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Lógica
9.
Health Hum Rights ; 24(2): 265-279, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36579317

RESUMO

Despite Israel's responsibility under international law to combat the spread of contagious diseases and epidemics in its occupied territories, Israeli officials have refused to distribute COVID-19 vaccines to Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. Through a critical discourse analysis of Israeli officials' statements regarding Israel's COVID-19 vaccination campaign, this paper explores how Israel evades this responsibility while presenting itself as committed to public health and human rights. We find that Israeli officials strategically present Palestinians as an autonomous nation when discussing COVID-19 vaccinations, despite Israel's ongoing attempts to prevent the creation of a Palestinian state. Relatedly, Israel justifies its refusal to vaccinate Palestinians on the grounds of the Palestinian Authority's economic independence, thereby obscuring Israel's control over the Palestinian economy. In this way, Israel relies on citizenship and economic inequality, as internationally sanctioned forms of exclusion, to deny Palestinians their right to health. Drawing on theorists such as Michel Foucault, Achille Mbembe, and Jasbir Puar, we argue that withholding vaccines from Palestinians reveals the ways that Israel furthers its settler-colonial aims under the guise of liberal humanitarianism and economic growth. Instead of directing these conclusions toward Israel as an exceptional case, we contend that these processes reveal how settler-colonial societies use liberal frameworks of citizenship and capitalism to carry out their racialized projects of elimination.


Assuntos
Árabes , COVID-19 , Humanos , Israel , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Cidadania , Capitalismo , Direitos Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinação , Lógica
10.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(23)2022 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36502015

RESUMO

An appropriate control and measurement system is one of the elements that allows for the safe and effective operation of a technological installation. Such a system may have a diverse structure that corresponds to the expectations and needs of its user. The devices of various manufacturers, including PLC (programmable logic controllers), can be used as a source of measurement data. This enables flexible measurement-control installations, which are adapted to the technological installations, to be built. This paper presents a system, which was created by the authors, for monitoring the temperature, pressure and flow rate of fluids. It uses the operational and IT properties of the PLC and is adapted to an existing installation on the test stand for multiphase spraying processes. In addition, as a part of the research, an application written in Python language, which allows collected data to be displayed, stored and exported, was implemented.


Assuntos
Lógica , Temperatura
11.
Span J Psychol ; 25: e32, 2022 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36519405

RESUMO

Empirical and theoretical advances and application to society are moved at different speed. Application work is frequently developed later because it requires the integration of knowledge from different research areas. In the present paper, we integrate literature coming from diverse areas of research in order to design a deductive reasoning intervention, based on the involved executive functions. Executive functions include working memory (WM)'s online executive processes and other off-line functions such as task revising and planning. Deductive reasoning is a sequential thinking process driven by reasoners' meta-deductive knowledge and goals that requires the construction and manipulation of representations. We present a new theoretical view about the relationship between executive function and higher-level thinking, a critical analysis of the possibilities and limitations of cognitive training, and a metacognitive training procedure on executive functions to improve deductive reasoning. This procedure integrates direct instruction on deduction and meta-deductive concepts (consistency, necessity) and strategies (search for counterexamples and exhaustivity), together with the simultaneous training of WM and executive functions involved: Focus and switch attention, update WM representations, inhibit and revise intuitive responses, and control the emotional stress yielded by tasks. Likewise, it includes direct training of some complex WM tasks that demands people to carry out similar cognitive assignment than deduction. Our training program would be included in the school curriculum and attempts not only to improve deductive reasoning in experimental tasks, but also to increase students' ability to uncover fallacies in discourse, to automatize some basic logical skills, and to be able to use logical intuitions.


Assuntos
Função Executiva , Pensamento , Humanos , Pensamento/fisiologia , Resolução de Problemas , Lógica , Atenção
12.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1234: 340516, 2022 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36328728

RESUMO

Stimuli responsive sensors QI 1 and QI 2 were rationally developed which exhibited diverse features of mutable mechanofluorochromism, reversible photochromism, solvatochromism, aggregation induced emission enhancement (AIEE), and metal ion sensing. After observing the exceptional structural property relationship, sensors were applied for reversible colorimetric and fluorometric determination of Ni2+ with low detection limits of 12 and 17 nM, respectively. Fluorescence emission enhancement based Ni2+ sensing was induced by chelation enhanced fluorescence (CHEF) mechanism. CHEF is triggered by the inhibition of excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) and -C=N isomerization. The proposed Ni2+ sensing mechanism was investigated through 1H NMR, FT-IR titration, theoretical studies, and Jobs plots. Further, the developed sensors successfully demonstrated the selective acid-base induced absorption/emission switching through reversible ring-opening/closing and keto-enol tautomerization, evidenced by 1H NMR titration experiments. Additionally, the sensitivity of the sensor QI 1 towards Ni2+ was effectively mimicked in live MCF-7 cells and industrial effluents. Furthermore, monitoring of Ni2+ ions was also accessed through inexpensive and portable sensors' coated fluorescent films. Finally, an INHIBIT logic gate was fabricated imputing Ni2+ and EDTA as input signals to electronically scrutinize the targeted Ni2+.


Assuntos
Colorimetria , Lógica , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
13.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19431, 2022 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36371447

RESUMO

Inferring reliable brain-behavior associations requires synthesizing evidence from thousands of functional neuroimaging studies through meta-analysis. However, existing meta-analysis tools are limited to investigating simple neuroscience concepts and expressing a restricted range of questions. Here, we expand the scope of neuroimaging meta-analysis by designing NeuroLang: a domain-specific language to express and test hypotheses using probabilistic first-order logic programming. By leveraging formalisms found at the crossroads of artificial intelligence and knowledge representation, NeuroLang provides the expressivity to address a larger repertoire of hypotheses in a meta-analysis, while seamlessly modeling the uncertainty inherent to neuroimaging data. We demonstrate the language's capabilities in conducting comprehensive neuroimaging meta-analysis through use-case examples that address questions of structure-function associations. Specifically, we infer the specific functional roles of three canonical brain networks, support the role of the visual word-form area in visuospatial attention, and investigate the heterogeneous organization of the frontoparietal control network.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Neuroimagem Funcional , Neuroimagem/métodos , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Lógica
14.
Anal Chem ; 94(48): 16622-16631, 2022 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36416078

RESUMO

The interconnection of microRNAs (miRNAs) and metal ions governs multiple biological processes in disease development and progression. However, developing multiplexed tools for dynamic imaging of these regulators remains a significant challenge. Herein, we report a conceptual approach for the design of an optically controlled DNA nanomachine by introducing a ternary DNAzyme-based, UV light-cleavable DNA scaffold and upconversion nanoparticle to the activatable hybrid chain reaction. We demonstrate that this nanomachine is capable of being effectively operated either in the presence of an endogenous miRNA target or the coexistence of intracellular Zn2+ and external near-infrared light, resulting in enhanced fluorescence resonance energy transfer signals. With this design, the logic-gated imaging of endogenous miR-21 and Zn2+ is demonstrated in living cells. More importantly, taking advantages of photoacoustic imaging modality, a combinational logic circuit (AND/OR) is constructed for the bioorthogonal cascade imaging of miR-21 and Zn2+ in vivo, realizing dynamic monitoring of the correlation of miRNA and metal ions levels. Collectively, our results suggest that this conceptual design possesses the ability to expand the DNA nanomachine toolbox for visualizing a broad spectrum of interconnected molecules and thus provides new perspectives to improve the diagnostic and therapeutic outcomes.


Assuntos
DNA Catalítico , Nanopartículas Metálicas , MicroRNAs , MicroRNAs/genética , DNA/genética , Lógica , Metais , Íons
15.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 44(4): 65, 2022 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36417009

RESUMO

What sets someone on a life trajectory? This question is at the heart of studies of 21st-century neurosciences that build on scientific models developed over the last 150 years that attempt to link psychopathology risk and human development. Historically, this research has documented persistent effects of singular, negative life experiences on people's subsequent development. More recently, studies have documented neuromolecular effects of early life adversity on life trajectories, resulting in models that frame lives as disproportionately affected by early negative experiences. This view is dominant, despite little evidence of the stability of the presumably early-developed molecular traits and their potential effects on phenotypes. We argue that in the context of gaps in knowledge and the need for scientists to reason across molecular and phenotypic scales, as well as time spans that can extend beyond an individual's life, specific interpretative frameworks shape the ways in which individual scientific findings are assessed. In the process, scientific reasoning oscillates between understandings of cellular homeostasis and organisms' homeorhesis, or life trajectory. Biologist and historian François Jacob described this framework as the "attitude" that researchers bring to bear on their "objects" of study. Through an analysis of, first, historical and contemporary scientific literature and then ethnographic research with neuroscientists, we consider how early life trauma came to be associated with specific psychological and neurobiological effects grounded in understandings of life trajectories. We conclude with a consideration of the conceptual, ontological, and ethical implications of interpreting life trajectories as the result of the persistence of long-embodied biological traits, persistent life environments, or both.


Assuntos
Conhecimento , Neurobiologia , Humanos , Antropologia Cultural , Princípios Morais , Lógica
16.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(21)2022 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36366129

RESUMO

Software-defined networking (SDN) has gained tremendous growth and can be exploited in different network scenarios, from data centers to wide-area 5G networks. It shifts control logic from the devices to a centralized entity (programmable controller) for efficient traffic monitoring and flow management. A software-based controller enforces rules and policies on the requests sent by forwarding elements; however, it cannot detect anomalous patterns in the network traffic. Due to this, the controller may install the flow rules against the anomalies, reducing the overall network performance. These anomalies may indicate threats to the network and decrease its performance and security. Machine learning (ML) approaches can identify such traffic flow patterns and predict the systems' impending threats. We propose an ML-based service to predict traffic anomalies for software-defined networks in this work. We first create a large dataset for network traffic by modeling a programmable data center with a signature-based intrusion-detection system. The feature vectors are pre-processed and are constructed against each flow request by the forwarding element. Then, we input the feature vector of each request to a machine learning classifier for training to predict anomalies. Finally, we use the holdout cross-validation technique to evaluate the proposed approach. The evaluation results specify that the proposed approach is highly accurate. In contrast to baseline approaches (random prediction and zero rule), the performance improvement of the proposed approach in average accuracy, precision, recall, and f-measure is (54.14%, 65.30%, 81.63%, and 73.70%) and (4.61%, 11.13%, 9.45%, and 10.29%), respectively.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Software , Aprendizado de Máquina , Lógica
19.
Soc Sci Med ; 314: 115494, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36334494

RESUMO

Taking an institutional logics perspective, this study investigates how "internet-informed" patients manage tensions between the logic of personal choice and the logic of medical professionalism as they navigate treatment decisions and the patient-doctor relationship. Based on 44 semi-structured interviews with members of an online health community for people with diabetes, this study finds that patients exercise a great deal of agency in evaluating healthcare options not only by activating the logic of personal choice but also by appropriating the logic of medical professionalism. Furthermore, patients are strategic in deciding what community advice to share with their doctor or nurse depending on the healthcare professionals' reaction to the logic of personal choice. In contrast to many previous studies that emphasise patient consumerism fuelled by information on the Internet, this study provides a more nuanced picture of patient-doctor relationship engendered by patients' participation in online health communities.


Assuntos
Relações Médico-Paciente , Médicos , Humanos , Participação do Paciente , Internet , Lógica
20.
Front Public Health ; 10: 811876, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36330104

RESUMO

The elderly population in China is expected to exceed 300 million and enter the stage of moderate aging during the 14th Five-Year plan period from 2021 to 2025. From the sustainable development perspective of elderly care enterprises, the supply of elderly care services would be unsustainable if enterprises suffer long-term losses. In the latter pursuit of high profits, the burden on consumers will increase. Equity financing of these enterprises is the key to achieving high-quality transformation and development by considering economic and social benefits. This study considers 20 well-known China-based elderly care enterprises as the research object. It uses a fuzzy set to explore system logic, operation mode, management performance, and attitude of elderly care enterprises toward investment through the qualitative comparative analysis method. The causal relationship between them is clarified-because, before the endowment enterprise equity financing intention of China, it is important to explore the effective path of equity financing of endowment enterprises. In the past, this helped Chinese elderly care enterprises actively cope with the trend of population aging, meet the needs of diversified and multi-level elderly care services, establish a sustainable development mode, and achieve high-quality transformation and development. The results show that (1) the operating performance of elderly care enterprises under the mode of public construction and private operation is poor; (2) elderly care enterprises driven by public welfare logic are more likely to achieve higher business performance, and (3) elderly care enterprises driven by business logic are more willing to introduce investment when they have made profits.


Assuntos
Financiamento de Capital , Intenção , Humanos , Idoso , China , Envelhecimento , Lógica
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