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1.
Am J Primatol ; 83(6): e23255, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33792947

RESUMO

The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, which in humans leads to the disease COVID-19, has caused global disruption and more than 2 million fatalities since it first emerged in late 2019. As we write, infection rates are at their highest point globally and are rising extremely rapidly in some areas due to more infectious variants. The primary target of SARS-CoV-2 is the cellular receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2). Recent sequence analyses of the ACE2 gene predict that many nonhuman primates are also likely to be highly susceptible to infection. However, the anticipated risk is not equal across the Order. Furthermore, some taxonomic groups show high ACE2 amino acid conservation, while others exhibit high variability at this locus. As an example of the latter, analyses of strepsirrhine primate ACE2 sequences to date indicate large variation among lemurs and lorises compared to other primate clades despite low sampling effort. Here, we report ACE2 gene and protein sequences for 71 individual strepsirrhines, spanning 51 species and 19 genera. Our study reinforces previous results while finding additional variability in other strepsirrhine species, and suggests several clades of lemurs have high potential susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Troublingly, some species, including the rare and endangered aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis), as well as those in the genera Avahi and Propithecus, may be at high risk. Given that lemurs are endemic to Madagascar and among the primates at highest risk of extinction globally, further understanding of the potential threat of COVID-19 to their health should be a conservation priority. All feasible actions should be taken to limit their exposure to SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
COVID-19/veterinária , Lemur , Lorisidae , Doenças dos Primatas/epidemiologia , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/química , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , Animais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Lemur/genética , Lorisidae/genética , Doenças dos Primatas/virologia , Fatores de Risco
2.
Toxins (Basel) ; 13(5)2021 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33925251

RESUMO

Immature mammals require opportunities to develop skills that will affect their competitive abilities and reproductive success as adults. One way these benefits may be achieved is through play behavior. While skills in developing use of tusks, antlers, and other weapons mammals have been linked to play, play in venomous animals has rarely been studied. Javan slow lorises (Nycticebus javanicus) use venom to aid in intraspecific competition, yet whether individuals use any behavioral mechanisms to develop the ability to use venom remains unclear. From April 2012 to December 2020, we recorded 663 play events and studied the factors influencing the frequency of play and the postures used during play in wild Javan slow lorises. Regardless of the presence of siblings, two thirds of play partners of young slow lorises were older and more experienced adults. Young lorises engaged in riskier behaviors during play, including using more strenuous postures and playing more in riskier conditions with increased rain and moonlight. We found that play patterns in immature lorises bear resemblance to venom postures used by adults. We suggest that play functions to train immature lorises to deal with future unexpected events, such as random attacks, as seen in other mammalian taxa with weapons. Given the importance of venom use for highly territorial slow lorises throughout their adult lives and the similarities between venom and play postures, we cannot rule out the possibility that play also prepares animals for future venomous fights. We provide here a baseline for the further exploration of the development of this unique behavior in one of the few venomous mammals.


Assuntos
Lorisidae/psicologia , Jogos e Brinquedos , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Feminino , Lorisidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lorisidae/fisiologia , Masculino , Jogos e Brinquedos/psicologia , Postura , Assunção de Riscos , Aprendizado Social , Peçonhas
3.
Intern Med ; 60(18): 3037-3039, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33776006

RESUMO

The slow loris monkey is one of the few venomous mammals. Its venom repels predators and can cause anaphylactic shock and even death in humans. The venom protein has been evaluated and has high sequence similarity to cat allergen; however, no studies involving subjects with cat allergy and who have been exposed to slow loris venom have been reported. We herein report the first case of severe anaphylactic shock following a slow loris bite in a patient with cat allergy.


Assuntos
Alveolite Alérgica Extrínseca , Anafilaxia , Mordeduras e Picadas , Lorisidae , Alérgenos , Anafilaxia/induzido quimicamente , Anafilaxia/diagnóstico , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas/complicações , Gatos , Humanos
4.
Am J Primatol ; 83(2): e23233, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33503325

RESUMO

Little is known about the social behavior of pygmy slow lorises, in particular, the social relationships of same-sex individuals have rarely been investigated. The Slow Loris Conservation Center was built at the Japan Monkey Center to enhance the welfare of confiscated slow lorises, promote their conservation, improve public education, and perform scientific research on the species. In the course of improving housing conditions, several same-sex pairs of pygmy slow lorises were formed. We monitored their behaviors and fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (FGM) levels to understand whether male same-sex pairings could be a feasible management strategy. The subjects were 10 male and 6 female lorises for comparison, all of whom were over 5 years old. We successfully formed five pairs of male lorises after eight formation attempts. Male pairs initially showed some aggressive behaviors; however, the rate decreased approximately 10 days after introduction. All of the male pairs eventually exhibited extensive affiliative social behaviors, including allogrooming and social play, during the dark (active) phase, and sleep site sharing during the light (inactive) phase. The rate of sleep site sharing during the light phase was higher than expected, suggesting that the pairs preferred to stay near each other. There was no evidence of increased stress after a long period of male-male social housing. Female same-sex pairs and male-female pairs demonstrated a high level of affiliative behaviors right after the introduction. These results highlight the flexibility and high sociability of this species and indicate that such same-sex pairings are a feasible option for their social management.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Lorisidae/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Agressão , Animais , Fezes/química , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/análise , Asseio Animal , Masculino , Jogos e Brinquedos
5.
J Parasitol ; 106(5): 654-662, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079999

RESUMO

We determined the complete sequence of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of a parasite discovered between the subcutaneous tissue and the peritoneum of an African nocturnal non-human primate (NHP). The parasite and host sequences were obtained by a combination of Sanger sequencing and nanopore MinION techniques. Analyses of mtDNA gene arrangements and sequences unambiguously showed that the parasite investigated was the pentastomid Armillifer armillatus, also commonly named the tongue worm. The full-length mitochondrial genome of A. armillatus, measuring 16,706 bp in length, contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and 22 transfer RNA genes, an arrangement identical to that of previously described pentastomid mitochondrial genomes. We describe here the second full mitochondrial genome of A. armillatus to date. To identify the NHP host, maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses of a 441-bp fragment on the 12S rDNA gene and of a 1,140-bp fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b strongly support clustering with the African lorisid Perodicticus potto, a species that has rarely been reported as an intermediate host of this parasite.


Assuntos
Lorisidae/parasitologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Pentastomídeos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Doenças dos Primatas/parasitologia , Animais , Congo , Citocromos b/química , Citocromos b/genética , DNA Ribossômico/química , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Genoma Mitocondrial/genética , Larva/classificação , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Funções Verossimilhança , Pentastomídeos/classificação , Pentastomídeos/genética , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico/genética
6.
Curr Biol ; 30(20): R1252-R1253, 2020 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33080192

RESUMO

Animals have evolved an array of spectacular weapons, including antlers, forceps, proboscises, stingers, tusks and horns [1]. Weapons can be present in males and females of species needing to defend critical limiting resources, including food (rhinoceros beetles, Trypoxylus) and territories (fang blennies, Meiacanthus) [1-3]. Chemicals, including sprays, ointments and injected venoms, are another defence system used by animals. As with morphological weapons, venom can serve multiple purposes, including to facilitate feeding, in predation, and in defence when attacked [4]. Although rare, several taxa use venom for agonistic intraspecific competition (e.g. ghost shrimp, Caprella spp.; sea anemones, Actinia equina; cone snails, Conidae; male platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus) [4-6]. Another group of venomous mammals are the nocturnal slow lorises (Nycticebus) [7]. Slow loris bites often result in dramatic diagnostic wounds characterised by necrotic gashes to the head and extremities. Although these bites are the major cause of death of lorises in captivity, the function of this aggressive behaviour has never been studied in the wild [7]. Here, through an 8-year study of wounding patterns, territorial behaviour, and agonistic encounters of a wild population of Javan slow lorises (Nycticebus javanicus), we provide strong evidence that venom is used differentially by both sexes to defend territories and mates. VIDEO ABSTRACT.


Assuntos
Agressão/fisiologia , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Lorisidae/fisiologia , Peçonhas/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Masculino
7.
Curr Microbiol ; 77(10): 2623-2632, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32440808

RESUMO

Gastrointestinal microbiome plays an important role in animal metabolism, immune system and pathology associated with health and disease. Many wild slow lorises were confiscated from illegal trade into captivities and experienced a range of changes in living environment and diet. Microbiome analysis contributes to improving captive management by identifying the alteration in their gastrointestinal microbial communities and aiding in determining the factors affecting the health of captive slow lorises. The fecal samples of eighteen Bengal slow lorises (Nycticebus bengalensis) were used to compare gut microbiota from four rescue centers located in Dehong, Gejiu, Nanning and Puer cities of China. The results showed a significant site-dependent difference in microbial community diversity. Similar to other Lorisinae species, the Phyla including Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria dominated their gut microbiome composition. The Gejiu group exhibited a higher overall diversity and the unique OTUs, which is resulted from long-term isolated husbandry and heavy human disturbances. The scarcity of gums in the captive diet was likely to cause a lower abundance of Prevotella associated with soluble fiber degradation. The variation of intestinal microbiota in different environments highlights the necessity to improve feed preparation and husbandry management for the captive Bengal slow lorises.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Lorisidae , Animais , China , Firmicutes/genética , Humanos , Proteobactérias/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
8.
Primates ; 61(5): 697-705, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32383126

RESUMO

Camera trapping has been demonstrated to be an effective tool in surveying a suite of species, especially elusive mammals in rough terrains. The method has become increasingly common in primate surveys for both ground-dwelling and arboreal taxa in many tropical regions of the world. However, camera trapping has rarely been used to inventory primates in Vietnam, although many species are under severe threats and in critical need of surveying for improved conservation measures. In this study, we employed camera trapping to primarily investigate the possible continued presence of galliform species, but also to opportunistically record primate species, in Hue Saola Nature Reserve in central Vietnam. We documented five primate species, including the northern pig-tailed macaque Macaca leonina, the stump-tailed macaque Macaca arctoides, the rhesus macaque Macaca mulatta, the pygmy slow loris Nycticebus pygmaeus, and the red-shanked douc Pygathrix nemaeus, which represents a majority of primate diversity in the reserve. The results show that camera trapping may be an option for documenting primate diversity, and seasonal and daily activities of ground-dwelling taxa. Our data also suggest that although human disturbance is still rampant in the area, Hue Saola Nature Reserve appears to be reasonably well protected compared to other conservation areas in Indochina. In particular, it is home to several highly threatened primates, and it therefore plays a crucial role in primate conservation in Vietnam. However, these populations are in need of greater protection, such as more targeted patrols to remove snares and prevent other violations.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Lorisidae , Macaca , Fotografação/instrumentação , Presbytini , Animais , Vietnã
9.
Toxins (Basel) ; 12(2)2020 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32012831

RESUMO

Slow lorises are enigmatic animal that represent the only venomous primate lineage. Their defensive secretions have received little attention. In this study we determined the full length sequence of the protein secreted by their unique brachial glands. The full length sequences displayed homology to the main allergenic protein present in cat dander. We thus compared the molecular features of the slow loris brachial gland protein and the cat dander allergen protein, showing remarkable similarities between them. Thus we postulate that allergenic proteins play a role in the slow loris defensive arsenal. These results shed light on these neglected, novel animals.


Assuntos
Alérgenos , Gatos , Alérgenos Animais/imunologia , Glicoproteínas , Lorisidae , Toxinas Biológicas , Alérgenos/química , Alérgenos/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Glicoproteínas/química , Glicoproteínas/genética , Modelos Moleculares , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Toxinas Biológicas/química , Toxinas Biológicas/genética
10.
Folia Primatol (Basel) ; 91(1): 1-14, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593962

RESUMO

Confiscated slow lorises (Nycticebus spp.) at Bangpra Water-Bird Breeding Center (BWBC) in Thailand provided an opportunity to demonstrate the application of noninvasive genetic approaches for species identification when morphology of the animals was ambiguous. The slow lorises at BWBC had been assigned to either N. bengalensis or N. pygmaeus, based on body size. However, the morphology of N. bengalensis is highly variable and overlaps with that of N. coucang (sensu stricto). Phylogenetic analysis of cytochrome b and d-loop mitochondrial regions placed all confiscated N. pygmaeus with the published sequences of N. pygmaeus and distinguished them from other Nycticebus. All other confiscated individuals formed a monophyletic clade, most individuals grouping with published N. bengalensis sequences from wild populations in Vietnam and distinct from Peninsular Malaysian and Sumatran N. coucang, Javan N. javanicus and Bornean N. menagensis. Six individuals within the N. bengalensis clade formed a separate subgroup that did not group with any reference material as indicated by phylogenetic and haplotype network analyses. Whether these trafficked individuals are undiscovered wild populations will require further investigation. Additional genetic studies of wild slow loris populations in different regions are therefore urgently required for reference to aid the protection and conservation of these threatened species.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção/estatística & dados numéricos , Variação Genética , Lorisidae , Animais , DNA Mitocondrial/análise , Marcadores Genéticos , Lorisidae/genética , Tailândia
11.
Folia Primatol (Basel) ; 91(4): 365-384, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618747

RESUMO

Gummivory poses unique challenges to the dentition as gum acquisition may often require that the anterior teeth be adapted to retain a sharp edge and to resist loading because they sometimes must penetrate a highly obdurate substrate during gum extraction by means of gouging or scraping. It has been observed previously that the enamel on the labial surface of the teeth used for extraction is thicker relative to that on the lingual surface in taxa that extract gums, while enamel is more evenly distributed in the anterior teeth of taxa that do not regularly engage in extractive behaviors. This study presents a quantitative methodology for measuring the distribution of labial versus lingual enamel thickness among primate and marsupial taxa in the context of gummivory. Computed microtomography scans of 15 specimens representing 14 taxa were analyzed. Ten measurements were taken at 20% intervals starting from the base of the crown of the extractive tooth to the tip of the cutting edge across the lingual and labial enamel. A method for including worn or broken teeth is also presented. Mann-Whitney U tests, canonical variates analysis, and between-group principal components analysis were used to examine variation in enamel thickness across taxa. Our results suggest that the differential distribution of enamel thickness in the anterior dentition can serve as a signal for gouging behavior; this methodology distinguishes between gougers, scrapers, and nonextractive gummivores. Gouging taxa are characterized by significantly thicker labial enamel relative to the lingual enamel, particularly towards the crown tip. Examination of enamel thickness patterning in these taxa permits a better understanding of the adaptations for the extraction of gums in extant taxa and offers the potential to test hypotheses concerning the dietary adaptations of fossil taxa.


Assuntos
Callithrix/anatomia & histologia , Esmalte Dentário/anatomia & histologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Lorisidae/anatomia & histologia , Marsupiais/anatomia & histologia , Saguinus/anatomia & histologia , Microtomografia por Raio-X/veterinária , Animais , Callithrix/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Lorisidae/fisiologia , Marsupiais/fisiologia , Saguinus/fisiologia , Microtomografia por Raio-X/métodos
12.
Am J Primatol ; 82(4): e23076, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31808189

RESUMO

Canopy bridges are increasingly used to reduce fragmentation in tropical habitats yet monitoring of their impact on the behavior of primates remains limited. The Javan slow loris (Nycticebus javanicus) is endemic to Java, Indonesia, where the species most often occurs in human-dominated, highly patchy landscapes. Slow lorises cannot leap, are highly arboreally adapted, and are vulnerable on the ground. To increase arboreal connectivity, as part of a long-term conservation project in Cipaganti, West Java, we built and monitored seven slow lorises bridges of two types-waterline or rubber-and monitored their use by seven adult individuals from 2016 to 2017. Motion triggered camera traps collected data for 195 ± standard deviation (SD) 85 days on each bridge. We collected 341.76 hr (179.67 hr before and 162.09 hr after the installation of bridges) of behavioral and home range data via instantaneous sampling every 5 min, and terrestrial behavior (distance and duration of time spent on the ground) via all occurrences sampling. We found that slow lorises used bridges on average 12.9 ± SD 9.7 days after their installment mainly for traveling. Slow lorises showed a trend toward an increase in their home range size (2.57 ha before, 4.11 ha after; p = 0.063) and reduced ground use (5.98 s/hr before, 0.43 s/hr; p = 0.063) after implementation of bridges. Although the number of feeding trees did not change, new feeding trees were included in the home range, and the proportion of data points spent traveling and exploring significantly decreased (p = 0.018). Waterline bridges serve a purpose to irrigate the crops of local farmers who thus help to maintain the bridges, and also ascribe value to the presence of slow lorises. Other endemic mammal species also used the bridges. We advocate the use and monitoring of artificial canopy bridges as an important supplement for habitat connectivity in conservation interventions.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Lorisidae/fisiologia , Animais , Ecossistema , Feminino , Comportamento de Retorno ao Território Vital , Indonésia , Locomoção , Masculino , Árvores
13.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 26: e20200051, 2020. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | ID: biblio-1143215

RESUMO

The relationship between slow loris (Nycticebus spp.) venom (BGE protein) and the major cat allergen (Fel d 1) from domestic cat (Felis catus) is known for about two decades. Along this time, evidence was accumulated regarding convergences between them, including their almost identical mode of action. Methods: Large-scale database mining for Fel d 1 and BGE proteins in Felidae and Nycticebus spp., alignment, phylogeny proposition and molecular modelling, associated with directed literature review were assessed. Results: Fel d 1 sequences for 28 non-domestic felids were identified, along with two additional loris BGE protein sequences. Dimer interfaces are less conserved among sequences, and the chain 1 shows more sequence similarity than chain 2. Post-translational modification similarities are highly probable. Conclusions: Fel d 1 functions beyond allergy are discussed, considering the great conservation of felid orthologs of this protein. Reasons for toxicity being found only in domestic cats are proposed in the context of domestication. The combination of the literature review, genome-derived sequence data, and comparisons with the venomous primate slow loris may point to domestic cats as potentially poisonous mammals.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Gatos , Envenenamento , Alérgenos , Gatos , Felidae , Lorisidae
14.
J Exp Biol ; 222(Pt 23)2019 11 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712355

RESUMO

'Macrosmatic' mammals have dedicated olfactory regions within their nasal cavity and segregated airstreams for olfaction and respiratory air-conditioning. Here, we examined the 3D distribution of olfactory surface area (SA) and nasal airflow patterns in the pygmy slow loris (Nycticebus pygmaeus), a primate with primitive nasal cavities, except for enlarged eyes that converge upon the posterodorsal nasal region. Using the head of an adult loris cadaver, we co-registered micro-computed tomography (CT) slices and histology sections to create a 3D reconstruction of the olfactory mucosa distribution. Histological sections were used to measure olfactory surface area and to annotate CT reconstructions. The loris has a complex olfactory recess (∼19% of total nasal SA) with multiple olfactory turbinals. However, the first ethmoturbinal has a rostral projection that extends far anterior to the olfactory recess, lined by ∼90% non-olfactory epithelium. Only one (of three) frontoturbinals bears olfactory mucosa. Computational fluid dynamics simulations of nasal airflow and odorant deposition revealed that there is some segregation of respiratory and olfactory flow in the loris nose, but that it is not as distinct as in well-studied 'macrosmats' (e.g. the dog). In the loris, airflow is segregated medially and laterally to vertically elongated, plate-like first ethmoturbinals. Thus, lorises may be said to have certain macrosmatic anatomical characteristics (e.g. olfactory recess), but not segregated nasal airflow patterns that are optimized for olfaction, as in canids. These results imply that a binary 'microsmatic/macrosmatic' dichotomy does not exist. Rather, mammals appear to exhibit complex trends with respect to specialization of the turbinals and recesses.


Assuntos
Lorisidae/fisiologia , Cavidade Nasal/fisiologia , Mucosa Olfatória/fisiologia , Ventilação Pulmonar , Movimentos do Ar , Animais , Cadáver , Hidrodinâmica , Masculino , Cavidade Nasal/diagnóstico por imagem , Microtomografia por Raio-X/veterinária
15.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0219411, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31770383

RESUMO

Scientific study of lemurs, a group of primates found only on Madagascar, is crucial for understanding primate evolution. Unfortunately, lemurs are among the most endangered animals in the world, so there is a strong impetus to maximize as much scientific data as possible from available physical specimens. MicroCT scanning efforts at Duke University have resulted in scans of more than 100 strepsirrhine cadavers representing 18 species from the Duke Lemur Center. An error study of the microCT scanner recovered less than 0.3% error at multiple resolution levels. Scans include specimen overviews and focused, high-resolution selections of complex anatomical regions (e.g., cranium, hands, feet). Scans have been uploaded to MorphoSource, an online digital repository for 3D data. As captive (but free ranging) individuals, these specimens have a wealth of associated information that is largely unavailable for wild populations, including detailed life history data. This digital collection maximizes the information obtained from rare and endangered animals with minimal degradation of the original specimens.


Assuntos
Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Lemur/anatomia & histologia , Lemur/classificação , Strepsirhini/anatomia & histologia , Strepsirhini/classificação , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Galago/anatomia & histologia , Galago/classificação , Imageamento Tridimensional , Bibliotecas Digitais , Lorisidae/anatomia & histologia , Lorisidae/classificação , Madagáscar , North Carolina , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie , Universidades , Microtomografia por Raio-X
16.
Folia Primatol (Basel) ; 90(5): 392-403, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416069

RESUMO

Only a handful of primate taxa use ultrasonic vocalisations (those ≥20 kHz) to communicate. The extent and uses of ultrasonic communication remain poorly understood, potentially ranging from echolocation, advertisement of reproductive status and resource availability, social cohesion, to predator avoidance. Here, using active acoustics whereby the study subjects were observed throughout their activity period, we describe the first purely ultrasonic call from a strepsirrhine primate (family Lorisidae), recorded in a completely wild setting, and hypothesise about its function. We identified one type of ultrasonic call, the doublet click, from 14 Javan slow lorises (Nycticebus javanicus) produced by males and females of juvenile, subadult and adult ages within their social groups (n = 791, mean = 46.0 kHz). We ran quadratic discriminant function analysis, finding dominant frequency and doublet click duration as the key parameters for identifying individuals' sex and age. Significantly more vocalisations were produced during affiliative social behaviour, suggesting that the call serves a social cohesion function. Considering the range of other cryptic behaviours, including slow and silent locomotion, and the high degree of territoriality associated with venomous attacks on conspecifics, the call may also serve as a safety strategy, allowing family members to regulate distance from other slow lorises and to communicate cryptically whilst avoiding predators.


Assuntos
Lorisidae/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Vocalização Animal , Acústica , Animais , Feminino , Indonésia , Masculino
17.
Rural Remote Health ; 19(3): 5163, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421666

RESUMO

Nycticebus spp, commonly known as the slow lorus, is a small nocturnal primate found mainly in Asia. The adult slow loris weighs between 265 g and 1150 g depending on the type of species. It has a characteristic round head with large, forward-facing eyes. Slow lorises are known for their poisonous bite and are the only venomous primates. To date, there have been two published cases of slow loris bite in humans. This case report illustrates a case of anaphylactic shock following a bite of a wild Kayan slow loris (Nycticebus kayan) to a young man at Mulu District, in a remote area of Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. The patient developed dyspnoea, a feeling of suffocation, swollen lips and cramp-like sensations over both hands. He subsequently developed syncope and hypotension. The patient was clinically stable following intramuscular injection of adrenaline 0.5 mg stat dose.


Assuntos
Anafilaxia/tratamento farmacológico , Anafilaxia/etiologia , Mordeduras e Picadas/complicações , Epinefrina/administração & dosagem , Epinefrina/uso terapêutico , Lorisidae , Adulto , Animais , Bornéu , Humanos , Injeções Intramusculares , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Anat ; 235(5): 931-939, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31309575

RESUMO

Previous behavioral reports of the African lorisid, Perodicticus potto, have speculated that these animals have an extraordinary grip strength. This ability is hypothesized to be facilitated by a range of anatomical features within the forelimb, ranging from the presence of a retia mirabilia in its wrist to the hyper-abduction of its pollex. Despite numerous behavioral reports, however, this claim of extraordinary grip strength has not been empirically substantiated. This study quantifies the physiological cross-sectional area of the digital flexor muscles within P. potto. These data are compared with a broad primate sample, including several similarly sized strepsirrhines. Contrary to expectation, we found that P. potto actually has relatively below-average digital flexor PCSA. However, we identified other myological characteristics in the upper limb of P. potto that were unexpected, including the largest brachioradialis muscle (an elbow flexor) among our primate sample, and - despite P. potto having only a vestigial second digit - an independent digital extensor indicis that is absent in almost a quarter of our primate sample.


Assuntos
Antebraço/anatomia & histologia , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Lorisidae/anatomia & histologia , Músculo Esquelético/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Antebraço/fisiologia , Lorisidae/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia
19.
Folia Primatol (Basel) ; 90(4): 258-266, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129672

RESUMO

Several slow loris (Nycticebus) sightings have occurred on the island of Pulau Tioman, Peninsular Malaysia, from 2011 to 2018. Records discussed here represent the first confirmed sightings and photographic evidence of Nycticebus on Tioman since its discovery in 1915, refuting presumptions that the Tioman slow loris is extinct. Although originally considered a subspecies of the Sunda slow loris (Nycticebus coucang), several morphological characteristics apparent in all observed individuals, including the white interocular stripe, rufous colouration and pale dorsal stripe, are similar to the Philippine slow loris (Nycticebus menagensis). Further, the broad snout and ears may be unique to this population and suggest that the population may be distinct. I, therefore, recommend that future studies consider the taxonomic status of remote and isolated Nycticebus populations given the possibility that they may represent distinct and unrecognised taxa.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Florestas , Lorisidae/fisiologia , Animais , Extinção Biológica , Lorisidae/classificação , Malásia , Densidade Demográfica
20.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 4078, 2019 03 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30858577

RESUMO

Environment and diet are key factors which shape the microbiome of organisms. There is also a disparity between captive and wild animals of the same species, presumably because of the change in diet. Being able to reverse the microbiome to the wild type is thus particularly important for the reintroduction efforts of Critically Endangered animals. The Javan slow loris (Nycticebus javanicus) is a suitable model, being kept in the thousands within rescue centres throughout Southeast Asia. With next-generation sequencing, we show how a naturalistic diet impacts the gut microbiome of captive slow lorises (Primates: Nycticebus). A comparison of the microbiome of wild animals with captive animals that had been fed a standard captive or improved diet reveals strong microbiome differences between wild and captive animals; however, diet changes failed to alter the microbiome of captive populations significantly. Bifidobacterium was the most abundant genus in wild animals (46.7%) while Bacteroides (11.6%) and Prevotella (18.9%) were the most abundant in captive animals fed the captive and improved diets, respectively. Correlation analyses of nutrients with microbial taxa suggest important implications in using nutrition to suppress potential pathogens, with soluble fibre and water-soluble carbohydrates both being associated with opposing microbiome profiles. The improved diet significantly increased microbe diversity, which exemplifies the importance of high fibre diets; however, wild individuals had lower diversity, which contradicts recent studies. Detection of methanogens appeared to be dependent on diet and whether the animals were living in captivity or in the wild. This study highlights the potential of nutrition in modulating the microbiome of animals prior to release. Unexpectedly, the results were not as significant as has been suggested in recent studies.


Assuntos
Dieta , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Lorisidae/fisiologia , Nutrientes/farmacologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Animais de Zoológico , Bacteroides/classificação , Bacteroides/efeitos dos fármacos , Bacteroides/isolamento & purificação , Bifidobacterium/classificação , Bifidobacterium/efeitos dos fármacos , Bifidobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Lorisidae/microbiologia , Prevotella/classificação , Prevotella/efeitos dos fármacos , Prevotella/isolamento & purificação , Primatas/genética
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