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1.
Mol Ecol Resour ; 21(8): 2766-2781, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34448358

RESUMO

We introduce a new R package "MrIML" ("Mister iml"; Multi-response Interpretable Machine Learning). MrIML provides a powerful and interpretable framework that enables users to harness recent advances in machine learning to quantify multilocus genomic relationships, to identify loci of interest for future landscape genetics studies, and to gain new insights into adaptation across environmental gradients. Relationships between genetic variation and environment are often nonlinear and interactive; these characteristics have been challenging to address using traditional landscape genetic approaches. Our package helps capture this complexity and offers functions that fit and interpret a wide range of highly flexible models that are routinely used for single-locus landscape genetics studies but are rarely extended to estimate response functions for multiple loci. To demonstrate the package's broad functionality, we test its ability to recover landscape relationships from simulated genomic data. We also apply the package to two empirical case studies. In the first, we model genetic variation of North American balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera, Salicaceae) populations across environmental gradients. In the second case study, we recover the landscape and host drivers of feline immunodeficiency virus genetic variation in bobcats (Lynx rufus). The ability to model thousands of loci collectively and compare models from linear regression to extreme gradient boosting, within the same analytical framework, has the potential to be transformative. The MrIML framework is also extendable and not limited to modelling genetic variation; for example, it can quantify the environmental drivers of microbiomes and coinfection dynamics.


Assuntos
Lynx , Populus , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Genômica , Aprendizado de Máquina
2.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 35(9): e23923, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390043

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The dynamic alteration and comparative study of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA shedding pattern during treatment are limited. This study explores the potential risk factors influencing prolonged viral shedding in COVID-19. METHODS: A total of 126 COVID-19 patients were enrolled in this retrospective longitudinal study. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was carried out to estimate the potential risk factors. RESULTS: 38.1% (48/126) cases presented prolonged respiratory tract viral shedding, and 30 (23.8%) cases presented prolonged rectal swab viral shedding. Obesity (OR, 3.31; 95% CI, 1.08-10.09), positive rectal swab (OR, 3.43; 95% CI, 1.53-7.7), treatment by lopinavir/ritonavir with chloroquine phosphate (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.04-6.03), the interval from onset to antiviral treatment more than 7 days (OR, 2.26; 95% CI, 1.04-4.93), lower CD4+ T cell (OR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.86-0.99) and higher NK cells (OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.02-1.20) were significantly associated with prolonged respiratory tract viral shedding. CD3-CD56+ NK cells (OR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.76-0.99) were related with prolonged fecal shedding. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity, delayed antiviral treatment, and positive SARS-CoV-2 for stool were independent risk factors for prolonged SARS-CoV-2 RNA shedding of the respiratory tract. A combination of LPV/r and abidol as the initial antiviral regimen was effective in shortening the duration of viral shedding compared with LPV/r combined with chloroquine phosphate. CD4+ T cell and NK cells were significantly associated with prolonged viral shedding, and further studies are to be warranted to determine the mechanism of immunomodulatory response in virus clearance.


Assuntos
COVID-19/virologia , Fezes/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Eliminação de Partículas Virais/fisiologia , Adulto , Animais , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Cloroquina/administração & dosagem , Cloroquina/efeitos adversos , Cloroquina/análogos & derivados , Feminino , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais , Estudos Longitudinais , Lopinavir/administração & dosagem , Lynx , Masculino , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sistema Respiratório/virologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Ritonavir/administração & dosagem , Fatores de Tempo , Eliminação de Partículas Virais/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Ecol Appl ; 31(7): e02405, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34245619

RESUMO

Spatial capture-recapture (SCR) models have become the preferred tool for estimating densities of carnivores. Within this family of models are variants requiring identification of all individuals in each encounter (SCR), a subset of individuals only (generalized spatial mark-resight, gSMR), or no individual identification (spatial count or spatial presence-absence). Although each technique has been shown through simulation to yield unbiased results, the consistency and relative precision of estimates across methods in real-world settings are seldom considered. We tested a suite of models ranging from those only requiring detections of unmarked individuals to others that integrate remote camera, physical capture, genetic, and global positioning system (GPS) data into a hybrid model, to estimate population densities of black bears, bobcats, cougars, and coyotes. For each species, we genotyped fecal DNA collected with detection dogs during a 20-d period. A subset of individuals from each species was affixed with GPS collars bearing unique markings and resighted by remote cameras over 140 d contemporaneous with scat collection. Camera-based gSMR models produced density estimates that differed by <10% from genetic SCR for bears, cougars, and coyotes once important sources of variation (sex or behavioral status) were controlled for. For bobcats, SCR estimates were 33% higher than gSMR. The cause of the discrepancies in estimates was likely attributable to challenges designing a study compatible for species with disparate home range sizes and the difficulty of collecting sufficient data in a timeframe in which demographic closure could be assumed. Unmarked models estimated densities that varied greatly from SCR, but estimates became more consistent in models wherein more individuals were identifiable. Hybrid models containing all data sources exhibited the most precise estimates for all species. For studies in which only sparse data can be obtained and the strictest model assumptions are unlikely to be met, we suggest researchers use caution making inference from models lacking individual identity. For best results, we further recommend the use of methods requiring at least a subset of the population is marked and that multiple data sets are incorporated when possible.


Assuntos
Coiotes , Lynx , Ursidae , Animais , Simulação por Computador , Cães , Densidade Demográfica
4.
J Comp Psychol ; 135(3): 360-369, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34323516

RESUMO

Research on felid personality has been conducted in a few species. Further research on new species could be highly informative in regard to the influence that adaptation to different ecological challenges has on felid personality. We evaluated the personality of 58 Iberian lynxes (Lynx pardinus) hosted at 3 different breeding centers for reintroduction. A total of 43 adjectives obtained from previous studies with felids were assessed by 30 raters according to the knowledge on the lynx behavior they acquired by observing a live video feed of the animals, finding acceptable standards of interrater reliability. Principal components analysis and regularized exploratory factor analysis revealed 4 factors. Based on the pattern of factor loadings and on previous labeling in felid personality research, we labeled the factors as Boldness, Dominance, Neuroticism, and Attentiveness. The results were similar to that of the previous studies on felids, although some differences were found, which could be due to the evolutionary distance among species and to methodological differences among studies. Future research on endangered felids could provide insights into the influence of personality on conservation outcomes related to successful breeding and reintroduction. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Lynx , Animais , Personalidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14148, 2021 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34239020

RESUMO

In reintroduction projects, an analysis of dispersal, exploratory movements and territorial behavior of the species concerned offers valuable information on the adaptive management of threatened species and provides a basis for the management of future reintroductions. This is the case of the Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) an endemic and endangered species reintroduced in Extremadura (Spain) in 2014. We analysed spatial data from 32 individuals just after their reintroduction. Our findings show exploratory movements sufficient to colonise and connect population nuclei within a radius of about 50 km of the reintroduction area. No significant differences were found in the exploratory movements capacity or in any directionality of males and females. Our results showed an effect of sex on the sizes of the territories established, as well as an inverse relationship between them and the time elapsed since release. No effects of rabbit abundance and lynx density on the size of territories are occurring during the early stages of reintroduction. On average, the territories of reintroduced individuals were less stable than those previously described in natural populations. Findings indicate that the reintroduced population has successfully been established but it takes more than 5 years to stabilize the territories in the area. Exploratory movements of reintroduced lynx can be large and in any direction, even when there is still a lot of high quality habitat available, which should be taken into account when reintroducing species, especially terrestrial carnivores.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Lynx/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Espanha , Territorialidade
6.
Oecologia ; 196(1): 223-234, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33934223

RESUMO

Apex predators can shape communities via cascading top-down effects, but the degree to which such effects depend on predator life history traits is largely unknown. Within carnivore guilds, complex hierarchies of dominance facilitate coexistence, whereby subordinate species avoid dominant counterparts by partitioning space, time, or both. We investigated whether a major life history trait (hibernation) in an apex carnivore (black bears Ursus americanus) mediated its top-down effects on the spatio-temporal dynamics of three sympatric mesocarnivore species (coyotes Canis latrans, bobcats Lynx rufus, and gray foxes Urocyon cinereoargenteus) across a 15,000 km2 landscape in the western USA. We compared top-down, bottom-up, and environmental effects on these mesocarnivores using an integrated modeling approach. Black bears exerted top-down effects that varied as a function of hibernation and were stronger than bottom-up or environmental impacts. High black bear activity in summer and fall appeared to buffer the most subordinate mesocarnivore (gray foxes) from competition with dominant mesocarnivores (coyotes and bobcats), which were in turn released by black bear hibernation in winter and early spring. The mesocarnivore responses occurred in space (i.e., altered occupancy and site visitation intensity) rather than time (i.e., diel activity patterns unaffected). These results suggest that the spatio-temporal dynamics of mesocarnivores in this system were principally shaped by a spatial predator cascade of interference competition mediated by black bear hibernation. Thus, certain life history traits of apex predators might facilitate coexistence among competing species over broad time scales, with complex implications for lower trophic levels.


Assuntos
Carnívoros , Lynx , Ursidae , Animais , Clima , Raposas
7.
J Anim Ecol ; 90(10): 2377-2390, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34048031

RESUMO

Perceived predation risk and the resulting antipredator behaviour varies across space, time and predator identity. Communities with multiple predators that interact and differ in their use of space, time of activity and hunting mode create a complex landscape for prey to avoid predation. Anthropogenic presence and disturbance have the potential to shift interactions among predators and prey and the where and when encounters occur. We examined how white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus fawn spatiotemporal antipredator behaviour differed along an anthropogenic disturbance gradient that had black bears Ursus americanus, coyotes Canis latrans, bobcats Lynx rufus and humans present. We quantified (a) spatial co-occurrence in species distributions, (b) temporal overlap across the diel cycle and (c) spatiotemporal associations between humans, bears, coyotes, bobcats, adult male deer and fawns. We also examined how deer vigilance behaviour changed across the anthropogenic disturbance gradient and survey duration. Anthropogenic disturbance influenced spatiotemporal co-occurrence across multiple scales, often increasing spatiotemporal overlap among species. In general, species' spatial co-occurrence was neutral or positive in anthropogenically disturbed environments. Bears and fawns, coyotes and adult male deer, and bobcats and fawns all had higher temporal overlap in the agriculture-development matrix sites. In addition, factors that influenced deer vigilance (e.g. distance to forest edge and predator relative abundance) in the agriculture-development matrix sites did not in the forest matrix site. By taking into account the different antipredator behaviours that can be detected and the different scales these behaviours might occur, we were able to gain a more comprehensive picture of how humans reduce available niche space for wildlife, creating the neutral and positive spatiotemporal associations between species that studies have been seeing in more disturbed areas.


Assuntos
Coiotes , Cervos , Lynx , Ursidae , Animais , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Predatório
8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 9236, 2021 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33927232

RESUMO

Camera-trapping and capture-recapture models are the most widely used tools for estimating densities of wild felids that have unique coat patterns, such as Eurasian lynx. However, studies dealing with this species are predominantly on a short-term basis and our knowledge of temporal trends and population persistence is still scarce. By using systematic camera-trapping and spatial capture-recapture models, we estimated lynx densities and evaluated density fluctuations, apparent survival, transition rate and individual's turnover during five consecutive seasons at three different sites situated in the Czech-Slovak-Polish borderland at the periphery of the Western Carpathians. Our density estimates vary between 0.26 and 1.85 lynx/100 km2 suitable habitat and represent the lowest and the highest lynx densities reported from the Carpathians. We recorded 1.5-4.1-fold changes in asynchronous fluctuated densities among all study sites and seasons. Furthermore, we detected high individual's turnover (on average 46.3 ± 8.06% in all independent lynx and 37.6 ± 4.22% in adults) as well as low persistence of adults (only 3 out of 29 individuals detected in all seasons). The overall apparent survival rate was 0.63 ± 0.055 and overall transition rate between sites was 0.03 ± 0.019. Transition rate of males was significantly higher than in females, suggesting male-biased dispersal and female philopatry. Fluctuating densities and high turnover rates, in combination with documented lynx mortality, indicate that the population in our region faces several human-induced mortalities, such as poaching or lynx-vehicle collisions. These factors might restrict population growth and limit the dispersion of lynx to other subsequent areas, thus undermining the favourable conservation status of the Carpathian population. Moreover, our study demonstrates that long-term camera-trapping surveys are needed for evaluation of population trends and for reliable estimates of demographic parameters of wild territorial felids, and can be further used for establishing successful management and conservation measures.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Identificação Animal/métodos , Lynx/fisiologia , Fotografação/métodos , Distribuição Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Ecossistema , Europa Oriental , Feminino , Masculino , Densidade Demográfica , Estações do Ano , Inquéritos e Questionários , Territorialidade
9.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 165, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33858406

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Benign juvenile idiopathic epilepsy has been described in humans but rarely in animals. The objectives of the study were to describe the clinical signs, clinical data, imaging findings, genetic examinations, treatment, long-term outcome and prognosis in Iberian lynx with juvenile epilepsy. Medical records, video recordings and diagnostic data from 2005 to 2019 were reviewed. RESULTS: Twenty lynx cubs with early onset of epileptic seizures (ES) from the conservation program were included. The average age at seizure onset was 75 days. Isolated and cluster ES were recorded. Focal ES, focal ES evolving into generalized ES with a stereotypical pattern and generalized ES were observed. All the cubs were normal between episodes, had a normal neurological examination and unremarkable investigations. Phenobarbital was used as a first line antiepileptic drug (AED). ES halted 10 days (0-34) after starting treatment in eight out of twenty cubs (40%). Treatment was discontinued in this group after a mean of 578 days and no further ES were reported (mean follow-up longer than 5 years). Eleven animals (55%) continued on AED treatment for a mean of 1306 days (70-3466). An adult-onset was observed for one lynx (5%). Polytherapy was necessary in seven lynxes (35%). The inheritance pattern observed was compatible with an autosomal recessive condition. Based on this assumption, mating between two identified carriers has been avoided since 2012, which may have contributed to the subsequent decrease in prevalence, with no further cases detected in 2018 and 2019. CONCLUSIONS: Lynx pardinus may have an early onset self-limiting ES syndrome characteristic of benign juvenile idiopathic epilepsy. Information obtained from this study strongly suggests a genetic basis for the here presented epilepsy.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Epilepsia/veterinária , Lynx , Fenobarbital/uso terapêutico , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia/genética , Feminino , Padrões de Herança , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Forensic Sci Int Genet ; 53: 102493, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33770699

RESUMO

Species identification of non-human biological evidence through DNA nucleotide sequencing is routinely used for forensic genetic analysis to support law enforcement. The gold standard for forensic genetics is conventional Sanger sequencing; however, this is gradually being replaced by high-throughput sequencing (HTS) approaches which can generate millions of individual reads in a single experiment. HTS sequencing, which now dominates molecular biology research, has already been demonstrated for use in a number of forensic genetic analysis applications, including species identification. However, the generation of HTS data to date requires expensive equipment and is cost-effective only when large numbers of samples are analysed simultaneously. The Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT) MinION™ is an affordable and small footprint DNA sequencing device with the potential to quickly deliver reliable and cost effective data. However, there has been no formal validation of forensic species identification using high-throughput (deep read) sequence data from the MinION making it currently impractical for many wildlife forensic end-users. Here, we present a MinION deep read sequence data validation study for species identification. First, we tested whether the clustering-based bioinformatics pipeline NGSpeciesID can be used to generate an accurate consensus sequence for species identification. Second, we systematically evaluated the read variation distribution around the generated consensus sequences to understand what confidence we have in the accuracy of the resulting consensus sequence and to determine how to interpret individual sample results. Finally, we investigated the impact of differences between the MinION consensus and Sanger control sequences on correct species identification to understand the ability and accuracy of the MinION consensus sequence to differentiate the true species from the next most similar species. This validation study establishes that ONT MinION sequence data used in conjunction with the NGSpeciesID pipeline can produce consensus DNA sequences of sufficient accuracy for forensic genetic species identification.


Assuntos
Genética Forense , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/instrumentação , Análise de Sequência de DNA/instrumentação , Especificidade da Espécie , Animais , Aves/genética , Citocromos b/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Cervos/genética , Humanos , Lynx/genética , Nanoporos , Panthera/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Rupicapra/genética , Sus scrofa/genética
11.
J Wildl Dis ; 57(1): 27-39, 2021 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33635983

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is reported infrequently in wild and domestic felids. We estimated the prevalence of Leptospira spp. infection and exposure using real-time PCR and serology, respectively, in 136 mountain lions (Puma concolor) and 39 bobcats (Lynx rufus) that died or were euthanized between 2009 and 2017 from several regions of California, US. Felids were classified as Leptospira-positive if they were test-positive using real-time PCR targeting the LipL32 gene of pathogenic Leptospira spp. or microscopic agglutination test for six serovars of Leptospira spp. The overall Leptospira spp. prevalence was 46% (63/136) for mountain lions and 28% (11/39) for bobcats. The most common serovar detected in both felid species was Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona. Age class and geographic location were significantly associated with Leptospira spp. in mountain lions, but not in bobcats. Interstitial nephritis, predominately lymphocytic, was diagnosed in 39% (41/106) of mountain lions and 16% (4/25) of bobcats evaluated histologically and was significantly associated with being Leptospira spp.-positive in both species. Our findings suggest that Leptospira spp. infection is common and widespread in California's wild felids and may have clinical impacts on renal and overall health of individuals. Key words: Bobcat, Leptospira spp., leptospirosis, Lynx rufus, mountain lion, nephritis, pathology, Puma concolor.


Assuntos
Nefropatias/veterinária , Leptospira , Leptospirose/veterinária , Lynx , Puma , Animais , California/epidemiologia , Nefropatias/epidemiologia , Nefropatias/microbiologia , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/microbiologia
12.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246833, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33606691

RESUMO

Conservation and management of large carnivores requires knowledge of female and male dispersal. Such information is crucial to evaluate the population's status and thus management actions. This knowledge is challenging to obtain, often incomplete and contradictory at times. The size of the target population and the methods applied can bias the results. Also, population history and biological or environmental influences can affect dispersal on different scales within a study area. We have genotyped Eurasian lynx (180 males and 102 females, collected 2003-2017) continuously distributed in southern Finland (~23,000 km2) using 21 short tandem repeats (STR) loci and compared statistical genetic tests to infer local and sex-specific dispersal patterns within and across genetic clusters as well as geographic regions. We tested for sex-specific substructure with individual-based Bayesian assignment tests and spatial autocorrelation analyses. Differences between the sexes in genetic differentiation, relatedness, inbreeding, and diversity were analysed using population-based AMOVA, F-statistics, and assignment indices. Our results showed two different genetic clusters that were spatially structured for females but admixed for males. Similarly, spatial autocorrelation and relatedness was significantly higher in females than males. However, we found weaker sex-specific patterns for the Eurasian lynx when the data were separated in three geographical regions than when divided in the two genetic clusters. Overall, our results suggest male-biased dispersal and female philopatry for the Eurasian lynx in Southern Finland. The female genetic structuring increased from west to east within our study area. In addition, detection of male-biased dispersal was dependent on analytical methods utilized, on whether subtle underlying genetic structuring was considered or not, and the choice of population delineation. Conclusively, we suggest using multiple genetic approaches to study sex-biased dispersal in a continuously distributed species in which population delineation is difficult.


Assuntos
Loci Gênicos , Variação Genética , Lynx/genética , Caracteres Sexuais , Animais , Feminino , Finlândia , Masculino
13.
J Morphol ; 282(4): 553-562, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33491790

RESUMO

The Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) is a medium-sized felid, with a tendency to hunt for prey larger than itself. We studied the lynx hindlimb musculoskeletal anatomy in order to determine possible anatomical adaptations to hunting large prey. In our previous work, we had found characters of both large and small felids in the lynx forelimb. The crouched limbs, typical of all felids, increase the energy demands for the antigravity muscles during locomotion. As a powerful pounce is required for the smaller felid to bring down large prey, strong hindquarters may be needed. We hypothesized that the muscle attachments are more mechanically advantageous and muscles heavier in the lynx as compared to other felids to compensate for the energy requirements. In support of this, we found unique patterns in the hindlimb musculature of the lynx. Insertion of the m. gluteus medius was large with a short moment arm around the hip joint, providing mechanical disadvantage, but rapid movement. The musculus vastus medialis was relatively heavier than in other felids emphasizing the role of the m. quadriceps femoris as a powerful stifle extensor. The extensor muscles support the crouched hind limbs, which is crucial when tackling large prey, and they are also responsible for the swift powerful pounce brought by extending the hindlimbs. However, we cannot rule out the possibility the characters are shared with other Lynx spp. or they are adaptations to other aspects of the locomotor strategy in the Eurasian lynx.


Assuntos
Articulação do Quadril/anatomia & histologia , Lynx/anatomia & histologia , Músculo Esquelético/anatomia & histologia , Joelho de Quadrúpedes/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Fêmur/anatomia & histologia , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Tíbia/anatomia & histologia
14.
Parasitol Res ; 120(1): 365-371, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33174072

RESUMO

Diphyllobothriid tapeworms of the genus Spirometra are causative agents of sparganosis, food-borne zoonotic parasitic disease. They have been recorded in broad spectrum of hosts, including humans, in all continents except Antarctica. Spirometra tapeworms have been intensively studied in several Asian countries; however, they have been rather neglected in Europe. The aim of this study was to provide a pilot screening of Spirometra spp. in Latvia, where data on sparganosis are not available. Tapeworms morphologically identified as diphyllobothriid species were isolated from grey wolves Canis lupus and Eurasian lynxes Lynx lynx from Latvia during the hunting periods 2013-2019. The parasites were subjected to molecular genotyping using sequences of the partial large (LSU rDNA; 615 bp) and small (SSU rDNA; 720 bp) subunits of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene and complete (1566 bp) cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene of the mitochondrial DNA (cox1 mtDNA). Analyses of both ribosomal subunits of 13 tapeworms revealed no intraspecific variation within the respective rDNA subunits. On the other hand, sequence analysis of mitochondrial cox1 revealed intraspecific polymorphism displayed by 12 cox1 haplotypes. Comparison of the current data with sequences of the corresponding DNA regions deposited in the GenBank revealed 99.3-99.5% (LSU rDNA), 99.2% (SSU rDNA) and 99.6-100% (cox1 mtDNA) identity of studied tapeworms with Spirometra erinaceieuropaei, which provided the first confirmation of this diphyllobothriid tapeworm in Latvia. Since S. erinaceieuropaei is probably prevalent in Latvian wildlife and may also occur in other potential host species, further studies are needed in order to acquire complex data on its geographic distribution and transmission in the natural environment of Latvia, as well as on the spectrum of its intermediate, paratenic, and definitive hosts.


Assuntos
Lynx/parasitologia , Esparganose/epidemiologia , Esparganose/veterinária , Spirometra/isolamento & purificação , Lobos/parasitologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Ciclo-Oxigenase 1/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Letônia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Tipagem Molecular , Filogenia , Esparganose/transmissão , Spirometra/genética , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
15.
Syst Parasitol ; 98(1): 73-83, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33184731

RESUMO

A new species of Crenosoma Molin, 1861 is described from the lungs of the Eurasian lynx, Lynx lynx (L.) (Carnivora: Felidae). Crenosoma vismani n. sp. differs from other species of the genus in the morphology of the male copulatory organs (two ventral rays originating from a common stem; three lateral rays with common stem; gubernaculum 79-92 µm long, well developed, spoon-shaped; spicules 232-253 µm long, slightly curved, with robust dorsal appendage) and a vulva with rounded, prominent vulvar cuticular appendage is located in middle region of body in females. An analysis of the morphology and life-cycle data for Crenosoma petrowi Morozov, 1939 from Ursus americanus Pallas indicate that this nematode should be described as a new species. The validity of Crenosoma schulzi Gagarin, 1958 is resurrected. A new identification key for the species of Crenosoma is provided. Published records of the genus Crenosoma from definitive hosts and patterns of host specificity are presented. Morphological data revealed that the genus Crenosoma should contain 15 species (14 with valid names) with different host specificity, ranging from oioxenous to euryxenous. However, a review of the current genetic data indicates that the actual number of Crenosoma spp. is greater, and the host range is still unknown, even in Europe.


Assuntos
Pulmão/parasitologia , Lynx/parasitologia , Nematoides/classificação , Animais , Feminino , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Masculino , Nematoides/anatomia & histologia , Especificidade da Espécie
16.
Mol Ecol ; 29(23): 4637-4652, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32989809

RESUMO

Clock genes exhibit substantial control over gene expression and ultimately life-histories using external cues such as photoperiod, and are thus likely to be critical for adaptation to shifting seasonal conditions and novel environments as species redistribute their ranges under climate change. Coding trinucleotide repeats (cTNRs) are found within several clock genes, and may be interesting targets of selection due to their containment within exonic regions and elevated mutation rates. Here, we conduct inter-specific characterization of the NR1D1 cTNR between Canada lynx and bobcat, and intra-specific spatial and environmental association analyses of neutral microsatellites and our functional cTNR marker, to investigate the role of selection on this locus in Canada lynx. We report signatures of divergent selection between lynx and bobcat, with the potential for hybrid-mediated gene flow in the area of range overlap. We also provide evidence that this locus is under selection across Canada lynx in eastern Canada, with both spatial and environmental variables significantly contributing to the explained variation, after controlling for neutral population structure. These results suggest that cTNRs may play an important role in the generation of functional diversity within some mammal species, and allow for contemporary rates of adaptation in wild populations in response to environmental change. We encourage continued investment into the study of cTNR markers to better understand their broader relevance to the evolution and adaptation of mammals.


Assuntos
Lynx , Animais , Canadá , Mudança Climática , Fluxo Gênico , Lynx/genética , Repetições de Trinucleotídeos
17.
Viruses ; 12(9)2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32942563

RESUMO

Sonoran felids are threatened by drought and habitat fragmentation. Vector range expansion and anthropogenic factors such as habitat encroachment and climate change are altering viral evolutionary dynamics and exposure. However, little is known about the diversity of viruses present in these populations. Small felid populations with lower genetic diversity are likely to be most threatened with extinction by emerging diseases, as with other selective pressures, due to having less adaptive potential. We used a metagenomic approach to identify novel circoviruses, which may have a negative impact on the population viability, from confirmed bobcat (Lynx rufus) and puma (Puma concolor) scats collected in Sonora, Mexico. Given some circoviruses are known to cause disease in their hosts, such as porcine and avian circoviruses, we took a non-invasive approach using scat to identify circoviruses in free-roaming bobcats and puma. Three circovirus genomes were determined, and, based on the current species demarcation, they represent two novel species. Phylogenetic analyses reveal that one circovirus species is more closely related to rodent associated circoviruses and the other to bat associated circoviruses, sharing highest genome-wide pairwise identity of approximately 70% and 63%, respectively. At this time, it is unknown whether these scat-derived circoviruses infect felids, their prey, or another organism that might have had contact with the scat in the environment. Further studies should be conducted to elucidate the host of these viruses and assess health impacts in felids.


Assuntos
Circovirus/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/virologia , Lynx/virologia , Puma/virologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Circovirus/classificação , Circovirus/genética , Metagenômica , México , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência , Suínos
18.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0225355, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750055

RESUMO

Across taxa, sex-specific demands vary temporally in accordance with reproductive investments. In solitary carnivores, females must provision and protect young independently while meeting increased energetic demands. Males seek to monopolize access to females by maintaining large territories and defending them from other males. For many species, it is poorly understood how these demands relate to broad-scale animal movements. To investigate predictions surrounding the reproductive strategies of solitary carnivores and effects of local conditions on bobcat (Lynx rufus) spatial ecology, we examined the effects of sex and reproductive season on home range size, movement rate, and resource selection of bobcats in the central Appalachian Mountains. Male seasonal home ranges were approximately 3 times larger than those of females (33.9 ± 2.6 vs. 12.1 ± 2.4 km2, x±SE), and male movement rates were 1.4 times greater than females (212.6 ± 3.6 vs. 155 ± 8.2 m/hr), likely reflecting male efforts to maximize access to females. Both sexes appear to maintain relatively stable seasonal home ranges despite temporally varying reproductive investments, instead adjusting movements within home ranges. Males increased movements during the dispersal period, potentially reflecting increased territoriality prior to breeding. Females increased movements during the kitten-rearing period, when foraging more intensively, and frequently returning to den sites. Both sexes selected home ranges at higher elevations. However, females selected deciduous forest and avoided fields, whereas males selected fields and avoided deciduous forest, perhaps explained by male pressure to access multiple females across several mountain ridges and higher risk tolerance. Seasonal changes in home range selection likely reflect changes in home range shape. Increased female avoidance of fields during kitten rearing may indicate female avoidance of presumably resource rich, yet risky, fields at the time when kittens are most vulnerable. Our results indicate that while reproductive chronology influences the spatial ecology of solitary carnivores, effects may be constrained by territoriality.


Assuntos
Demografia/tendências , Lynx/fisiologia , Reprodução/fisiologia , Animais , Região dos Apalaches , Gatos , Ecossistema , Feminino , Florestas , Comportamento de Retorno ao Território Vital , Masculino , Movimento , Estações do Ano , Caracteres Sexuais , Territorialidade , Virginia
19.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 7225, 2020 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350363

RESUMO

For decades, taphonomists have dedicated their efforts to assessing the nature of the massive leporid accumulations recovered at archaeological sites in the northwestern Mediterranean region. Their interest lying in the fact that the European rabbit constituted a critical part of human subsistence during the late Pleistocene and early Holocene. However, rabbits are also a key prey in the food webs of Mediterranean ecosystems and the base of the diet for several specialist predators, including the Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus). For this reason, the origin of rabbit accumulations in northwestern Mediterranean sites has proved a veritable conundrum. Here, we present the zooarchaeological and taphonomic study of more than 3000 faunal and 140 coprolite remains recovered in layer IIIa of Cova del Gegant (Catalonia, Spain). Our analysis indicates that this layer served primarily as a den for the Iberian lynx. The lynxes modified and accumulated rabbit remains and also died at the site creating an accumulation dominated by the two taxa. However, other agents and processes, including human, intervened in the final configuration of the assemblage. Our study contributes to characterizing the Iberian lynx fossil accumulation differentiating between the faunal assemblages accumulated by lynxes and hominins.


Assuntos
Cadeia Alimentar , Lynx/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Animais , Humanos , Coelhos , Espanha
20.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233444, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437401

RESUMO

Catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) is often used to monitor wildlife populations and to develop statistical population models. Animals caught and released are often not included in CPUE metrics and their inclusion may create more accurate indices of abundance. We used 21 years of detailed harvest records for bobcat (Lynx rufus) in Wisconsin, U.S.A., to calculate CPUE and 'actual CPUE' (ACPUE; including animals caught and released) from bobcat hunters and trappers. We calibrated these metrics to an independent estimate of bobcat abundance and attempted to create simple but effective models to estimate CPUE and ACPUE using harvest success data (i.e., bobcats harvested/available permits). CPUE showed virtually no relationship with bobcat abundance across all years, but both CPUE and ACPUE had stronger, non-linear, and negative relationships with abundance during the periods when the population was decreasing. Annual harvest success strongly predicted composite ACPUE and CPUE from hunters and trappers and hunter ACPUE and CPUE but was a poorer predictor of trapper ACPUE and CPUE. The non-linear, and sometimes weak, relationships with bobcat abundance likely reflect the increasing selectivity of bobcat hunters for trophy animals. Studies calibrating per-unit-effort metrics against abundance should account for population trajectories and different harvest methods (e.g., hunting and trapping). Our results also highlight the potential for estimating per-unit-effort metrics from relatively simple and inexpensive data sources and we encourage additional research into the use of per-unit-effort metrics for population estimation.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Lynx , Animais , Densidade Demográfica , Wisconsin
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