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1.
J Biosci ; 462021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33969827

RESUMO

Very large and stable, socially coherent primate groups, not including fission-fusion societies, are usually rare in nature, owing to constraints imposed by various ecological and social factors. Moreover, unlike species in open habitats, those in forests tend to have smaller groups, and this becomes further accentuated in small and fragmented forest patches. We report here an unusually large troop of stump-tailed macaques Macaca arctoides from the Hollongapar Gibbon Sanctuary, a small and isolated lowland tropical rainforest patch in the Upper Brahmaputra Valley of northeastern India - this is possibly the largest wild group of the species recorded anywhere across its distribution range. We hypothesise the potential factors driving the formation of such a large social group of this vulnerable cercopithecine primate and discuss the conservation implications of this phenomenon.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal/fisiologia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Macaca arctoides/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Índia , Masculino , Floresta Úmida , Estações do Ano , Especificidade da Espécie
2.
Malar J ; 19(1): 350, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004070

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Certain species of macaques are natural hosts of Plasmodium knowlesi and Plasmodium cynomolgi, which can both cause malaria in humans, and Plasmodium inui, which can be experimentally transmitted to humans. A significant number of zoonotic malaria cases have been reported in humans throughout Southeast Asia, including Thailand. There have been only two studies undertaken in Thailand to identify malaria parasites in non-human primates in 6 provinces. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of P. knowlesi, P. cynomolgi, P. inui, Plasmodium coatneyi and Plasmodium fieldi in non-human primates from 4 new locations in Thailand. METHODS: A total of 93 blood samples from Macaca fascicularis, Macaca leonina and Macaca arctoides were collected from four locations in Thailand: 32 were captive M. fascicularis from Chachoengsao Province (CHA), 4 were wild M. fascicularis from Ranong Province (RAN), 32 were wild M. arctoides from Prachuap Kiri Khan Province (PRA), and 25 were wild M. leonina from Nakornratchasima Province (NAK). DNA was extracted from these samples and analysed by nested PCR assays to detect Plasmodium, and subsequently to detect P. knowlesi, P. coatneyi, P. cynomolgi, P. inui and P. fieldi. RESULTS: Twenty-seven of the 93 (29%) samples were Plasmodium-positive by nested PCR assays. Among wild macaques, all 4 M. fascicularis at RAN were infected with malaria parasites followed by 50% of 32 M. arctoides at PRA and 20% of 25 M. leonina at NAK. Only 2 (6.3%) of the 32 captive M. fascicularis at CHA were malaria-positive. All 5 species of Plasmodium were detected and 16 (59.3%) of the 27 macaques had single infections, 9 had double and 2 had triple infections. The composition of Plasmodium species in macaques at each sampling site was different. Macaca arctoides from PRA were infected with P. knowlesi, P. coatneyi, P. cynomolgi, P. inui and P. fieldi. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence and species of Plasmodium varied among the wild and captive macaques, and between macaques at 4 sampling sites in Thailand. Macaca arctoides is a new natural host for P. knowlesi, P. inui, P. coatneyi and P. fieldi.


Assuntos
Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Macaca , Malária/veterinária , Doenças dos Macacos/epidemiologia , Plasmodium/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Macaca arctoides , Macaca fascicularis , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/parasitologia , Doenças dos Macacos/parasitologia , Plasmodium knowlesi/isolamento & purificação , Prevalência , Especificidade da Espécie , Tailândia/epidemiologia
3.
Primates ; 61(5): 685-694, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32318928

RESUMO

Male copulation calls sometimes play important roles in sexual strategies, attracting conspecific females or advertising their social status to conspecific males. These calls generally occur in sexually competitive societies such as harem groups and multi-male and multi-female societies. However, the call functions remain unclear because of limited availability of data sets that include a large number of male and female animals in naturalistic environments, particularly in primates. Here, we examined the possible function of male-specific copulation calls in wild stump-tailed macaques (Macaca arctoides) by analyzing the contexts and acoustic features of vocalizations. We observed 395 wild stump-tailed macaques inhabiting the Khao Krapuk Khao Taomor Non-Hunting Area in Thailand and recorded all occurrences of observed copulations. We counted 446 male-specific calls in 383 copulations recorded, and measured their acoustic characteristics. Data were categorized into three groups depending on their social status: dominant (alpha and coalition) males and non-dominant males. When comparing male status, alpha males most frequently produced copulation calls at ejaculation, coalition males produced less frequent calls than alpha males, and other non-dominant males rarely vocalized, maintaining silence even when mounting females. Acoustic analysis indicated no significant influence of status (alpha or coalition) on call number, bout duration, or further formant dispersion parameters. Our results suggest that male copulation calls of this species are social status-dependent signals. Furthermore, dominant males might actively transmit their social status and copulations to other male rivals to impede their challenging attacks, while other non-dominant males maintain silence to prevent the interference of dominants.


Assuntos
Copulação , Macaca arctoides/psicologia , Predomínio Social , Vocalização Animal , Animais , Masculino , Tailândia
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