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1.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(11): 5384-5393, 2021 Nov 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34708977

RESUMO

Total nitrogen pollution from land-based sources carried by rivers is the main source of inorganic nitrogen entering the sea. Inorganic nitrogen pollution in the coastal waters of Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area(GBA) is a serious problem. The water quality of an adjacent large area of the sea is classified as poor-category Ⅳ. Therefore, clarification of the scale, structure, and discharge pressure of nitrogen emissions from the land area of the GBA is needed to manage marine nitrogen pollution. Based on multi-source data, including land use, socio-economic statistics, and pollution source census information, the scale, source structure, and regional differences of total nitrogen discharge in GBA and surrounding cities were evaluated using administrative and watershed units. The results show that:①The total nitrogen emissions from the study area are approximately 332500 t. Residential waste is the main source of pollution, accounting for 55.4%, followed by cultivation, with 28.18%, while the contribution from animal husbandry and industrial production is relatively limited. ②The regional differences of total nitrogen emissions are obvious, and the total emissions from GBA(231400 t) are significantly higher than those from neighboring cities(101100 t). ③The distribution of marine pollution and intensity of land-based nitrogen pollution emissions are spatially consistent, which indicates that there is a large number of pollution emissions in the East River Basin, Northwest River Delta Basin, and Tan River Basin; the shoreline sections belonging to the basins carry the greatest emission pressure, lead to serious pollution in the Lingding Sea, Jin Bay, and Huangmao Sea.


Assuntos
Poluição Ambiental , Nitrogênio , China , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Hong Kong , Macau , Rios
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682505

RESUMO

The daily practice of filial piety (FP) is well prescribed under the traditional filial norms in the Chinese community. However, exploration of FP practices at the end of parents' lives is limited. The current study explored the FP representation and good death preferences of Macao Chinese. A cross-sectional web-based survey was conducted and discriminant analysis was used to identify possible predictors of FP representation in the context of parents' end of life. Results showed that Macao Chinese were inclined to perform most of the filial duties in the last journey of their parents. Among 705 participants, 150 (21.3%) tended to practice authoritarian FP, and 555 (78.7%) tended to practice reciprocal FP. Age, education, religion, and good death preferences were identified as predictors of different FP representation groups. The findings could help clinicians to obtain a preliminary perception of FP representation of Chinese patients and to determine the appropriate approach for end-of-life care from a family perspective.


Assuntos
Crianças Adultas , Relações Pais-Filho , Adulto , Criança , China , Estudos Transversais , Análise Discriminante , Humanos , Macau
3.
J Int Med Res ; 49(9): 3000605211045517, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34559009

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Malnutrition is widespread among patients undergoing hemodialysis and is linked to high morbidity and mortality rates. We evaluated the nutritional status and malnutrition markers in patients undergoing hemodialysis in Macao. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 360 patients in a hemodialysis center. The modified quantitative subjective global assessment (MQSGA), anthropometric indices and related biochemical test data were used to evaluate nutritional status. RESULTS: The sample's mean age was 63.47 ± 13.95 years. There were 210 well-nourished (58.3%), 139 mild-to-moderately malnourished (38.6%) and 11 severely malnourished (3.1%) patients. Older patients had a higher incidence of severe malnutrition, but there were no significant differences between diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Mid-arm circumference (MAC); mid-arm muscle circumference; body mass index; triceps skin fold thickness; serum albumin, creatinine and urea; and hemoglobin were all valid for assessing nutritional status. MAC and the serum albumin and creatinine concentrations significantly negatively correlated with MQSGA. CONCLUSIONS: Malnutrition is commonplace in patients undergoing hemodialysis in Macao, but their nutritional status is not affected by diabetes. Serum creatinine, serum albumin and MAC, and especially pre-dialysis creatinine concentration, represent effective, readily available, and easily remembered screening measures of nutritional status for patients undergoing maintenance dialysis.


Assuntos
Estado Nutricional , Desnutrição Proteico-Calórica , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Macau , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Diálise Renal
4.
J Environ Manage ; 299: 113664, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488110

RESUMO

Water, energy, and food resources are indispensable and irreplaceable resources for the survival and development of human society. This study systematically assessed the three resources system in Guangdong, Hong Kong, and Macao based on constructed direct and nexus-oriented, multi-regional input-output, and ecological network analysis models. Various network analysis (e.g., control, utility, hierarchy, and robustness) was adopted to identify the critical factors of inter-regional resources trade from a perspective of supply-demand. The results indicated that Guangdong, Hong Kong, and Macao have complex control linkages in the three resources trade network, and Guangdong is the key to improving the three resources network structure. The three resources network existed highly competition and exploitation in the three regions. Industrial development is unbalanced and competitive for the three resources. The wholeness water-energy-food trade network of the three regions stayed in a positive environment, but the positive effect level was relatively weak. The three resources network robustness in the three regions is at a medium level. Hong Kong and Macao's water-energy-food network systems have a high vulnerability, and the lowest system robustness was food-related energy in Hong Kong. Finally, we provide some measures to help the sustainable development of the water-energy-food resource system in the three regions, such as cross-regional coordinated management, integration industries development, seawater toilets-flushing, sea rice, and renewable energy.


Assuntos
Recursos Hídricos , Água , Alimentos , Hong Kong , Humanos , Macau
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501808

RESUMO

An emerging paradigm for festival and event management reveals that hosting theme-based festivals can foster economic growth at the local and national levels. As a case of this research, the annual Macau Food Festival was selected to explore relationships among visitors' perceptions of festival quality, festival value, trust in the festival, visitors' satisfaction, and behavior intention. Out of 453 questionnaires distributed, 433 questionnaires were valid for data analysis using partial least squares-structural equation modeling. The results showed that festival quality consisting of the sub-dimensions of hospitality, venue, product, convenience, and program have a positive impact on festival value, trust in festival, and festival satisfaction, which in turn affect festival loyalty. Based on these empirical findings, the current study offers practical and theoretical implications for destination management organizations and festival hosts to sustain annual theme-based festivals held at a certain destination such as Macau Food Festival.


Assuntos
Férias e Feriados , Confiança , Alimentos , Macau , Satisfação Pessoal
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360232

RESUMO

While advance directives (ADs) are considered to be part of government's healthcare agenda, there has not been any public consultation for legislation, nor investigation regarding the public's views about ADs in the Chinese culture of Macao. The current study explored the Macao Chinese people's willingness to make ADs. Data were collected from 724 residents aged 18 years and above. Results showed that 533 respondents (73.6%) claimed that they were willing to complete an AD if the document was recognized legally. The experience of caring for relatives or friends with terminal illnesses, palliative care as the preferred end-of-life treatment option, and scoring higher in the Hospice Care Attitude Scale were the predictors of willingness to make ADs. Results of the study suggested that there was a relatively high number of people who would consider setting up ADs. Our study recommends that healthcare professionals should equip themselves to raise ADs-related discussions with patients. Moreover, the Macao Government is responsible for facilitating the introduction and implementation of ADs in order to improve overall end-of-life care quality in Macao.


Assuntos
Diretivas Antecipadas , Cuidados Paliativos , China , Humanos , Macau , Prevalência
7.
Waste Manag ; 133: 99-109, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390962

RESUMO

Construction and demolition waste (C&DW) has become part of the largest waste stream globally and many cities are facing the shortage of management capability to treat C&DW. These cities seek to transport their C&DW to their neighbor cities for recycling or landfilling, which is recognized as the cross-regional management of C&DW. However, there were few studies to investigate the mechanism of cross-regional mobility in C&DW field. This study developed a model to evaluate the self-fulfillment degree of C&DW management capability at regional level based on the Triple-balance theory. Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area (GBA) was selected as the study case, and the data was collected through on-site surveys, expert interviews, and desktop surveys. The results showed that the self-fulfillment degree of C&DW management capability of the cities, such as Guangzhou, Zhuhai, Foshan, Dongguan, Jiangmen, and Zhaoqing was high, which meant these cities could well manage the C&DW generated within the regions under current situation. The self-fulfillment degree of management capability of Macao, Huizhou, and Zhongshan was evaluated as medium; while the indicators of Hong Kong and Shenzhen fell into low category, which meant they needed to transport surplus C&DW to other cities for further treatment. The research is significant as it provides an innovative evaluation model considering the cross-regional mobility for C&DW management performance assessment. Besides, the findings could assist the waste management sectors to plan the C&DW treatment facilities in GBA, while other cities could also benefit from this study regarding to the cross-regional mobility management of C&DW.


Assuntos
Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Cidades , Materiais de Construção , Hong Kong , Macau
8.
BMC Palliat Care ; 20(1): 105, 2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34243748

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The modern hospice movement is often recognised as a social movement. However, such understanding is primarily based on historic reflection and this approach has lacked theoretical exploration. There is a lack of systematic examination of the modern hospice movement by way of social movement theories. AIM: Focusing on the Chinese socio-cultural context of Macao, this study aimed to understand the EoLC movement by applying the social movement theory, the Framing Perspective, as proposed by Snow and Benford in 1988. METHODS: A case study approach was conducted. Semi-structured interviews were held between 2012 and 2013, with pioneers (n = 11) of the EoLC in Macao. Thematic analysis was adopted to analyse the interviews. RESULTS: The Framing Perspective analysis illuminated that there was both growth and stagnation of the EoLC movement. Three themes emerged: 1) the suffering of people at the end of their lives was considered as a social problem needed to be addressed urgently, 2) the incoherent EoLC strategies developed by pioneers indicated the lack of internal ideological cohesion within the movement, 3) external constraints contributed to the stagnation of the movement. CONCLUSIONS: The EoLC development in Macao can be understood as a social movement. The Framing Perspective provided a theoretical way to understand the emergence of EoLC; offering a novel perspective to conceptualise the modern hospice movement. This sociological and theoretical lens opened up new ways for future research to study the emergence of EoLC in different socio-cultural contexts.


Assuntos
Cuidados Paliativos na Terminalidade da Vida , Assistência Terminal , China , Humanos , Macau
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 794: 148671, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34323775

RESUMO

Despite the fact that urban agglomerations have undergone extensive ecological land coverage modifications, exploration of the patterns and driving mechanisms associated with ecological land degradation (ELD) and ecological land restoration (ELR) in urban agglomerations is still limited. This study combined remote sensing technology, as well as landscape index and geographical detector to characterize the spatiotemporal patterns of ELD (isolating, adjacent, and enclosing degradation) and ELR (outlying, edge-expansion, and infilling restoration) in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area (GBA) from 1990 to 2019. Subsequently, the contributions, interactions, and driver changes were quantified. The results showed an ecological land shift from over-exploitation to balanced co-existence, which was facilitated by a spatiotemporal pattern transition from adjacent degradation-led (1990-2010) to edge-expansion restoration-led (2010-2019). Land urbanization rate and population density showed a stronger promoting effect on ELD than natural factors, while tertiary industry, topography, and soil conditions were more significant in ELR. The factors' nonlinear interaction enhanced the degradation-restoration pattern evolution and continued to increase over time-particularly the interaction between construction land expansion and other drivers. Additionally, from 2010 to 2019, 80% of the ELR socio-economic factors turned from negative to positive and gradually became to play a significant role. This study is expected to help ecological protection and restoration planners/managers recognize the factors' interactions and variations, and ultimately improve the ecological network structure that is designed to integrate the city with the ecosystem.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Urbanização , China , Cidades , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Hong Kong , Macau
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299810

RESUMO

When facing an infectious disease disaster, nurses' willingness to work is critical. Nurses' lack of willingness to work during a pandemic may worsen the shortage of health care personnel. The purpose of this study is to assess the willingness of nurses to participate in the fight against COVID-19 in China and to identify factors associated therewith. This cross-sectional study examines nurses working in 11 Chinese cities including Macau, Hong Kong, Shenzhen, Dongguan, Huizhou, Guangzhou, Zhaoqing, Foshan, Jiangmen, Zhongshan, and Zhuhai. Questionnaires were collected from 19 May to 7 August 2020. A total of 8065 questionnaires were received, of which 8030 valid questionnaires were included for analysis. A total of 53.4% of participants reported that they had signed up to support the COVID-19 pandemic response. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that being single (OR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.60-0.87), having no children (OR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.68-0.97), possessing higher professional qualifications (OR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.14-1.37), having a more prestigious professional title (OR = 1.68, 95%CI: 1.50-1.90), being an administrative supervisor (OR = 0.53, 95% CI: 0.45-0.63), having a higher caring dimensions inventory score (OR = 1.01, 95% CI: 1.01-1.01), working in a hospital (OR = 0.53, 95% CI: 0.39-0.72), and receiving employer-provided care training (OR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.68-0.87) were predictive of nurses' willingness to participate in the fight against COVID-19. We suggest that unmarried nurses should be given priority when recruiting to fight an epidemic and, for married nurses with children who are recruited to fight an epidemic, supporting measures should be provided for childcare. We suggest strengthening workplace training of caring for nurses in order to better retain and recruit qualified support for an epidemic outbreak of infectious diseases.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Criança , China , Estudos Transversais , Hong Kong , Humanos , Macau , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 55(7): 910-915, 2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34304431

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the employment situation of graduates of public health-related majors and explore the associated factors of turnover intention among public health practitioners in China. Methods: In April 2020, the convenient sampling method was used to recruit public health related graduates from 98 universities with public health-related majors from 31 provinces in China (excluding Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan) and from Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (only including working or unemployed status, no requirement for graduation years). A total of 1 322 questionnaires were collected, of which 1 165 (88.1%) were valid. Through the network questionnaire survey, the information of public health graduates' work situation, job satisfaction and turnover intention were collected. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to analyze the associated factors of turnover intention, and structural equation model was constructed to explore the correlation between turnover intention and job satisfaction. Results: The age of 1 165 graduates was (28.1±4.8) years. Among them, 719 (61.7%) were female and 856 (73.5%) graduates were engaged in public health-related work after graduation. The results of multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that compared with those over 30 years old, graduates under 30 years old had higher turnover intention (OR=2.531, 95%CI: 1.549-4.155). Compared with those with junior or no title, graduates with senior title had higher turnover intention (OR=2.310, 95%CI: 1.047-5.162). The results of structural equation model analysis showed that the four factors of job satisfaction, 'salary and welfare', 'promotion development', 'work itself', and 'internal and external environment', were negatively correlated with turnover intention. The internal and external environment had the greatest impact on turnover intention (total effect =-0.539). Conclusion: Most graduates of public health-related majors are engaged in public health-related work in China. Age, professional title and job satisfaction are the associated factors of turnover intention.


Assuntos
Intenção , Saúde Pública , Adulto , China , Estudos Transversais , Emprego , Feminino , Hong Kong , Humanos , Satisfação no Emprego , Macau , Inquéritos e Questionários , Taiwan , Adulto Jovem
12.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(8): 3652-3662, 2021 Aug 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34309252

RESUMO

This study examines the current aerosol pollution scenario in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao (GHM) Greater Bay Area, based on OMAERUV daily data products, to define the spatial and temporal distribution from 2008 to 2019 and predict variation trends of the ultraviolet aerosol index (UVAI). Changes and potential source areas were analyzed, and their influencing factors were identified. The annual time series of UVAI in the GHM Greater Bay Area showed a downward trend, with an average annual decrease of 2.3%; the monthly time series showed an inverted "V" shape beginning in spring, with the highest seasonal UVAI occurring in spring, followed by winter and autumn. Summer exhibited the lowest UVAI; spatially, the central region has consistently exhibited high values, with an average annual UVAI of 0.35 calculated over 12 years. The distribution of UVAI in the time series is mainly sustainable, and 82.69% of the area will show a downward trend in the future. The main potential sources from beyond the study area are carbon sources and marine biological sources produced by eastern industry; the main potential sources of UVAI are carbon and biomass sources in spring, biomass aerosol sources in summer, and carbon sources in autumn. It accounts for the largest proportion, and aerosol sources of sand and dust in winter have increased. Through correlation analysis, aerosols and PM2.5 were found to be interdependent. Industrial production activities are an important contributor of atmospheric aerosols, and precipitation can reduce the atmosphere. Due to the aerosol content produced by industrial production, secondary industrial activities will accelerate the formation of aerosols when the temperature rises.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Aerossóis/análise , Hong Kong , Macau , Estações do Ano
13.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(8): 3663-3675, 2021 Aug 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34309253

RESUMO

Based on the collected urban motor vehicle activity ownership and traffic flow of highways, combined with the mileage and source profiles of VOCs, using the emission factor method, we established high-resolution emission inventories from 2016 to 2019 for urban and 2016-based highway motor vehicles, respectively, in Henan Province, China. The results showed that gasoline vehicles, particularly minibuses and ordinary motorcycles, were the main contributors of CO, VOCs, and NH3, whereas heavy-duty and light-duty diesel trucks emitted SO2, NOx, and PM. Vehicles with China 1, China 3, and China 4 emission standards contributed significantly to pollutant emissions in the fleet. The temporal variation in traffic flow was consistent with the changes in freight and passenger traffic, with higher coefficients of variation for highways from August to October and the lowest in November. The weekly and daily changes in urban trunk roads showed distinct weekend effects and clear double-peak features, respectively. High-value emission areas were concentrated in urban centers with dense transport networks and high traffic volumes and on roads radiating outward from urban areas. The Lianhuo Expressway and the Beijing-Hong Kong-Macau Expressway were high-emission roads. Light-duty gasoline vehicles made the largest contribution to the ozone formation potential (OFP) of VOCs from motor vehicles. Five species, such as ethylene and propylene, contributed significantly to VOC emissions and OFP. The average annual growth rate of vehicle ownership from 2016 to 2019 was 5.7%. Compared with 2016, VOC emissions increased by 2.8% in 2019, whereas emissions of other pollutants showed decreasing trends of different degrees, with decreases of 76.3%, 51.7%, 50.3%, 43.1%, 16.7%, and 5.9% for SO2, PM2.5, PM10, NH3, CO, and NOx, respectively. The emission reduction percentage of each pollutant in 2019 under the control policies relative to the baseline scenario ranged from 15.6% to 82.4%.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Emissões de Veículos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Pequim , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Hong Kong , Macau , Veículos Automotores , Emissões de Veículos/análise
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281094

RESUMO

This study aims to analyze the development trend of the manufacturing industry transformation and upgrading in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area (2008-2018). On the basis of synergetics, the order parameter method of factor analysis is used to study these factors. The results show that: (1) There are five slow variable factors, such as intelligent manufacturing industry, technological innovation, scale agglomeration, market demand, and fixed asset investment, which are important power sources of the transformation and upgrading of the manufacturing industry in Greater Bay Area. The development of these factors is relatively mature, and they cooperate with each other. (2) Similar to a fast variable of manufacturing development ecology, green development is an important coordinating factor in removing bottlenecks. Finally, suggestions for the development of the transformation and upgrading of the manufacturing industry are put forward.


Assuntos
Comércio , Indústria Manufatureira , China , Hong Kong , Investimentos em Saúde , Macau
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281104

RESUMO

Previous studies have reported lateral violence (LV) styles among nurses and the adverse impacts of LV on nurses and nursing. Young nurses, including nursing students and novice nurses, are often victims of LV. A large qualitative research study that contained three sub-studies exploring professional identity development in different professional stages was conducted by a research team in Macau, Special Administrative Region of China. Semi-structured interviews with nursing students and clinical nurses were carried out; among the 58 participants in the three sub-studies, 20 described some forms of LV and their ways of dealing with them. Framed by the feminist perspective, the researchers explored young nurses' coping strategies in dealing with LV perpetrated by senior colleagues. Two themes were developed reflecting the coping strategies for LV: "making extra efforts" and "soothing emotional distress". Three sub-themes were under the theme of "making extra efforts": "catching up knowledge", "making the most use of learning resources", "adjusting communication manner"; another batch of sub-themes was under the theme of "soothing emotional distress": "seeking support from schoolmates", "living with family but crying alone", and "adjusting lifestyle". The study implied that young nurses exerted their agency in coping with LV in clinical practices. Nursing managers and educators should support young nurses' efforts in overcoming power-based LV and incivility.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Enfermeiras Administradoras , China , Humanos , Macau , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Violência
16.
BMC Palliat Care ; 20(1): 87, 2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34158024

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since the establishment of a hospice in the year 2000 and the development of a palliative care ward in 2019, there is no study examining public's knowledge of palliative care, nor preference of end of life care in Macao. AIM: Targeting Chinese residents of Macao, the current study has 3 goals: i) to understand the level of knowledge of palliative care, ii) to explore the preference of end of life treatments, and iii) to identify the associated factors of the preference of end of life treatments. METHODS: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted using a structured questionnaire. The study employed non-probability quota sampling through which Macao residents aged 18 and above were recruited between July and September 2020. RESULTS: A total of 737 responses were valid. The average correct rate of palliative care knowledge ranged from 40.4% to 85.5%. Pertaining to end of life treatments, 62.0% of the respondents chose comfort care. However, almost half of the respondents agreed that life-sustaining treatments should not be stopped under any circumstances. Respondents who scored higher in palliative care knowledge and those with secondary and tertiary education were associated factors of choosing comfort care rather than life-sustaining treatments. In addition, respondents who agreed that futile life-sustaining treatments should be stopped were also associated with preference for comfort care. CONCLUSION: The understanding of palliative care amongst Macao residents is inadequate. Despite the public's inclination towards comfort care, it is generally believed that life-sustaining treatments should not be stopped at the end of life. The study results suggest that not only the knowledge of palliative care should be enhanced amongst the general public in Macao, but information about life-sustaining treatments should also be offered to patients and families by healthcare professionals, in aiding end of life treatment decision making.


Assuntos
Cuidados Paliativos , Assistência Terminal , China , Estudos Transversais , Cultura , Humanos , Macau , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071373

RESUMO

This study aims to analyze the development trend of the manufacturing industry of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area (from 2008 to 2018) by constructing an evaluation system. On the basis of push-pull-mooring theory, we analyze these factors by using an entropy and cluster model. The results show the following: (1) Technological development had an obvious spatial distribution pattern of core regional radiation, while others did not. (2) Economic development was based on the city's existing industrial development system, while environmental development depended on governmental policies. (3) Compared with the environmental factor, the development trends of the economic and technological factors were more similar. Lastly, we provide four strategies for the development of the manufacturing industry in different cities.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , China , Cidades , Hong Kong , Macau
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066659

RESUMO

The shortage of healthcare human resources is an important challenge for coping with the aging society in Macao. Since little attention has been paid to continuous education of healthcare assistants, this study aims to develop and evaluate a continuous education program, supporting the expansion and optimization of the competence of healthcare assistants. It is a cluster-randomized trial study. All healthcare assistants who were employed in nursing homes in Macao were eligible for this study. Six nursing homes were recruited and randomly assigned either an experimental group (3 nursing homes; 45 healthcare assistants) or a control group (3 nursing homes; 40 healthcare assistants). Healthcare assistants were assessed at baseline and after intervention with the Healthcare Assistants Care Knowledge Test and the Healthcare Assistants Care Competence Self-Assessment. The experimental group received a continuous education program with 10 themes during 2017-2018 while the control groups did not. The results of the generalized estimating equation showed that care knowledge in the experimental group was significantly different from that of the control group (Wald Chi Square = 3.848, p < 0.05) as well as care competence (Wald Chi Square = 13.361, p < 0.001). This study developed a continuous program for health assistants and provided evidence that continuous education programs improve and maintain the level of care knowledge and care competency of healthcare assistants.


Assuntos
Assistentes de Enfermagem , Pessoal Técnico de Saúde , Educação Continuada , Humanos , Macau , Casas de Saúde
19.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 55(6): 752-758, 2021 Jun 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34139816

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the regional inequality of height among Chinese Han students aged 7 to 18 years from 1985 to 2014. Methods: The Chinese Han students aged 7 to 18 years with complete basic information and height data from 30 mainland provinces (excluding Hong Kong, Macao, Taiwan and Tibet in China) were extracted as participants from 6 successive cross-sectional surveys of the Chinese National Survey on Student's Constitution and Health (CNSSCH). After excluding extreme and illogical cases, a total of 1 495 182 students were included in the analysis. The data of gross domestic product (GDP) per capita of each province at each survey year were collected from the website of National Bureau of statistics of China. Mann-Kendall trend test was used to analyze the trend of mean height across years. Weighted linear regression model was used to analyze the association between mean height of students aged 7 to18 years and GDP per capita at provincial level. Height difference, height ratio, slope index of inequality (SII) and relative index of inequality (RII) were used to measure the height inequality by gender and age groups. Results: The mean height of Chinese Han students aged 7 to 18 years increased from 144.9 cm in 1985 to 151.8 cm in 2014 (P<0.05). The height difference between urban and rural students in all age groups was reducing (P<0.05). The height difference between urban and rural boys aged 13 to 15 years decreased from 5.3 cm in 1985 to 2.5 cm in 2014, and the difference between urban and rural girls aged 7 to 12 years decreased from 4.6 cm in 1985 to 2.4 cm in 2014. The mean height of students aged 7 to 18 years was positively associated with GDP per capita in all survey years for both genders (P<0.001). Taking Shanghai and Guizhou as the representatives of economically developed and underdeveloped provinces, from 1985 to 2014, the height differences between two provinces were 6.8-9.2 cm, 8.0-12.4 cm and 6.3-8.8 cm for boys aged 7 to 12 years, 13 to 15 years and 16 to 18 years, respectively, and the height ratios were stable at 1.05-1.07, 1.05-1.08 and 1.04-1.05 respectively. From 1985 to 2014, the SII of mean height for boys in three age groups were 4.4-6.2, 4.9-6.7 and 2.5-4.7, respectively. The RII of mean height of boys in three age groups were 1.03-1.05, 1.03-1.04 and 1.01-1.03, respectively. In the same period, the SII of mean height for girls in three age groups were 4.2-6.2, 2.8-4.5 and 2.5-3.9, and the RII were 1.03-1.05, 1.02-1.03 and 1.02, respectively. Conclusion: From 1985 to 2014, the urban-rural inequality of height development among Chinese Han students aged 7 to 18 years was narrowing, but the socio-economic inequality of height persisted and remained at a relatively stable level.


Assuntos
Estudantes , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hong Kong , Humanos , Macau , Masculino , Taiwan , Tibet
20.
Waste Manag ; 130: 107-116, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077839

RESUMO

Food waste has attracted wide attention around the world. A better understanding of food waste generation and consumers' willingness to pay (WTP) for effective food waste management is important for addressing growing food waste challenges, but this is still largely missing in the literature, especially for developing countries and cities in Asia. In this study, we conducted field interviews and questionnaire surveys, with effective samples of 463 residents and 18 restaurants in Macau. Our results show that over 80% of respondents think food waste in Macau is serious. "Food exceeded expiration date (28.2%)" and "Ordering too much food (39.5%)" are the two main reasons for throwing away food at home and when eating out, respectively. Vegetables and fruits (22.4%) are the most common type of food wasted at home, followed by snacks (17.3%), in Macau. About 70% of respondents agreed to pay for separate food waste collection and treatment facilities, and the WTP value per household in Macau is 42.5 MOP (Macau Pataca)/month. Respondents' income level was positively and significantly correlated with their WTP, while age and educational level had negative effects on the WTP, under the 5% significance level. Some respondents' perceptions and attitudes on food waste also significantly affected their WTP, according to our analysis. Because of the lack of effective management measures and collection facilities, about 72% of surveyed restaurants mixed their food waste into municipal solid waste (MSW). More information sharing, education and promotion should be done to raise environmental protection awareness and improve the food waste treatment system.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Ásia , Atitude , Cidades , Alimentos , Macau , Restaurantes , Inquéritos e Questionários
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