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1.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2545: 251-258, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36720817

RESUMO

Angiosperm evolution is marked by numerous, recurring polyploidization events. While hybridization and polyploidization have greatly increased the degree of genetic and phenotypic diversity in plants, the mechanisms underlying changes in the genotype-to-phenotype relationships remain unclear. As the field of natural sciences continues to expand during the post-genomic era, large datasets are becoming increasingly common. However, the development of tools and workflows available to robustly assess these changes have lagged behind data production. A robust homoeolog-specific expression analysis strongly depends upon proper homoeolog calling, the ability to account for reference sequence biases, flexible and accurate methods for dealing with residual bias, and a reproducible workflow. To that end, this chapter aims to provide a detailed description of the potential pitfalls encountered while estimating homoeolog-specific expression as well as provide a workflow that allows for robust inferences based on precise estimates of expression changes.


Assuntos
Genômica , Magnoliopsida , Hibridização Genética , Fluxo de Trabalho
2.
BMC Genom Data ; 24(1): 3, 2023 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36624369

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Phenomenon of codon usage bias exists in the genomes of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The codon usage pattern is affected by environmental factors, base mutation, gene flow and gene expression level, among which natural selection and mutation pressure are the main factors. The study of codon preference is an effective method to analyze the source of evolutionary driving forces in organisms. Epimedium species are perennial herbs with ornamental and medicinal value distributed worldwide. The chloroplast genome is self-replicating and maternally inherited which is usually used to study species evolution, gene expression and genetic transformation. RESULTS: The results suggested that chloroplast genomes of Epimedium species preferred to use codons ending with A/U. 17 common high-frequency codons and 2-6 optimal codons were found in the chloroplast genomes of Epimedium species, respectively. According to the ENc-plot, PR2-plot and neutrality-plot, the formation of codon preference in Epimedium was affected by multiple factors, and natural selection was the dominant factor. By comparing the codon usage frequency with 4 common model organisms, it was found that Arabidopsis thaliana, Populus trichocarpa, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were suitable exogenous expression receptors. CONCLUSION: The evolutionary driving force in the chloroplast genomes of 10 Epimedium species probably comes from mutation pressure. Our results provide an important theoretical basis for evolutionary analysis and transgenic research of chloroplast genes.


Assuntos
Epimedium , Genoma de Cloroplastos , Magnoliopsida , Uso do Códon , Genoma de Cloroplastos/genética , Epimedium/genética , Códon/genética , Eucariotos/genética , Magnoliopsida/genética
3.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 426, 2023 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36624144

RESUMO

The Early Jurassic angiosperm Nanjinganthus has triggered a heated debate among botanists, partially due to the fact that the enclosed ovules were visible to naked eyes only when the ovary is broken but not visible when the closed ovary is intact. Although traditional technologies cannot confirm the existence of ovules in a closed ovary, newly available Micro-CT can non-destructively reveal internal features of fossil plants. Here, we performed Micro-CT observations on three dimensionally preserved coalified compressions of Nanjinganthus. Our outcomes corroborate the conclusion given by Fu et al., namely, that Nanjinganthus is an Early Jurassic angiosperm.


Assuntos
Magnoliopsida , Ovário , Óvulo Vegetal , Genitália Feminina , Ovário/diagnóstico por imagem , Microtomografia por Raio-X
4.
Proc Biol Sci ; 290(1990): 20221485, 2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36629102

RESUMO

Facilitation is likely important for understanding community diversity dynamics, but its myriad potential mechanisms are under-investigated. Studies of pollinator-mediated facilitation in plants, for example, are typically focused on how co-flowering species facilitate each other's pollination within a season. However, pollinator-mediated facilitation could also arise in the form of inter-annual pollination support, where co-occurring plant populations mutually facilitate each other by providing dynamic stability to support a pollinator population through time. In this work, I test this hypothesis with simulation models of annual flowering plant and bee pollinator populations to determine if and how inter-annual pollination support affects the persistence and/or stability of simulated communities. Two-species plant communities persisted at higher rates than single-species communities, and facilitation was strongest in communities with low mean germination rates and highly species-specific responses to environmental variation. Single-species communities were often more stable than their counterparts, likely because of survivorship-persistent single-species communities were necessarily more stable through time to support pollinators. This work shows that competition and facilitation can simultaneously affect plant population dynamics. It also importantly identifies key features of annual plant communities that might exhibit inter-annual pollination support- those with low germination rates and species-specific responses to variation.


Assuntos
Germinação , Magnoliopsida , Abelhas , Animais , Polinização/fisiologia , Reprodução , Plantas , Flores/fisiologia
5.
Genes (Basel) ; 14(1)2023 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36672890

RESUMO

Fourfold degenerate sites within coding regions and intergenic sites have both been used as estimates of neutral evolution. In chloroplast DNA, the pattern of substitution at intergenic sites is strongly dependent on the composition of the surrounding hexanucleotide composed of the three base pairs on each side, which suggests that the mutation process is highly context-dependent in this genome. This study examines the context-dependency of substitutions at fourfold degenerate sites in protein-coding regions and compares the pattern to what has been observed at intergenic sites. Overall, there is strong similarity between the two types of sites, but there are some intriguing differences. One of these is that substitutions of G and C are significantly higher at fourfold degenerate sites across a range of contexts. In fact, A → T and T → A substitutions are the only substitution types that occur at a lower rate at fourfold degenerate sites. The data are not consistent with selective constraints being responsible for the difference in substitution patterns between intergenic and fourfold degenerate sites. Rather, it is suggested that the difference may be a result of different epigenetic modifications that result in slightly different mutation patterns in coding and intergenic DNA.


Assuntos
DNA de Cloroplastos , Magnoliopsida , DNA de Cloroplastos/genética , Magnoliopsida/genética , Mutação , Genoma
6.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0281008, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36716334

RESUMO

Changes in terrestrial vegetation during the mid-Cretaceous and their link to climate and environmental change are poorly understood. In this study, we use plant macrofossils and analysis of fossil pollen and spores from the Western Desert, Egypt, to assess temporal changes in plant communities during the Cenomanian. The investigated strata have relatively diverse sporomorph assemblages, which reflect the nature of parent vegetation. Specifically, the palynofloras represent ferns, conifers, monosulcate pollen producers, Gnetales, and a diverse group of angiosperms. Comparisons of both, dispersed palynoflora and plant macrofossils reveal different characteristics of the palaeoflora owing to a plethora of taphonomical and ecological biases including the depositional environment, production levels, and discrepancies between different plant organs. A combination of detailed records of sporomorphs, leaves, and charcoal from the studied successions provide new understandings of the palaeoclimate and palaeogeography during the Cenomanian and Albian-Cenomanian transition in Egypt. The mixed composition of the palynofloral assemblages reflects the presence of different depositional situations with a weak marine influence, as evidenced by a minor dinoflagellate cysts component. The local vegetation comprised various categories including herbaceous groups including ferns and eudicots, fluvial, open environments, and xeric arboreal communities dominated by Cheirolepidiaceae and perhaps including drought- and/or salt-tolerating ferns (Anemiaceae) and other gymnosperms (Araucariaceae, Ginkgoales, Cycadales, and Gnetales) as well as angiosperms. The presence of riparian and freshwater wetland communities favouring aquatic and/or hygrophilous ferns (of Salviniaceae and Marsileaceae), is noted. The wide variation of depositional settings derived from the palynological data may be attributed to a prevalent occurrence of producers in local vegetation during the early Cenomanian of Egypt. For the purpose of this work on the studied Bahariya Formation and its equivalent rock units, where iconic dinosaurs and other fossil fauna roamed, we attempt to improve the understanding of Egypt's Cenomanian climate, which is reconstructed as generally warm and humid punctuated by phases of considerably drier conditions of varying duration.


Assuntos
Gleiquênias , Magnoliopsida , Traqueófitas , Ecossistema , Biodiversidade , Mudança Climática , Egito , Esporos de Protozoários , Fósseis , Plantas
7.
Genes (Basel) ; 14(1)2023 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36672968

RESUMO

Ophiorrhiza baviensis Drake, a flowering medical plant in the Rubiaceae, exists uncertainly within the Ophiorrhiza genus' evolutionary relationships. For the first time, the whole chloroplast (cp) genome of an O. baviensis Drake species was sequenced and annotated. Our findings demonstrate that the complete cp genome of O. baviensis is 154,770 bp in size, encoding a total of 128 genes, including 87 protein-coding genes, 8 rRNAs, and 33 tRNAs. A total of 59 SSRs were screened in the studied cp genome, along with six highly variable loci, which can be applied to generate significant molecular markers for the Ophiorrhiza genus. The comparative analysis of the O. baviensis cp genome with two published others of the Ophiorrhiza genus revealed a high similarity; however, there were some notable gene rearrangements in the O. densa plastome. The maximum likelihood phylogenetic trees were constructed based on the concatenation of the rps16 gene and the trnL-trnF intergenic spacer sequence, indicating a close relationship between the studied O. baviensis and other Ophiorrhiza. This study will provide a theoretical molecular basis for identifying O. baviensis Drake, as well as species of the Ophiorrhiza genus, and contribute to shedding light on the chloroplast genome evolution of Rubiaceae.


Assuntos
Genoma de Cloroplastos , Magnoliopsida , Rubiaceae , Filogenia , Estrutura Molecular , Genoma de Cloroplastos/genética , Sequência de Bases , Magnoliopsida/genética , DNA Intergênico , Rubiaceae/genética
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 120(6): e2214729120, 2023 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36716359

RESUMO

Understanding the processes that enable organisms to shift into more arid environments as they emerge is critical for gauging resilience to climate change, yet these forces remain poorly known. In a comprehensive clade-based study, we investigate recent shifts into North American deserts in the rock daisies (tribe Perityleae), a diverse tribe of desert sunflowers (Compositae). We sample rock daisies across two separate contact zones between tropical deciduous forest and desert biomes in western North America and infer a time-calibrated phylogeny based on target capture sequence data. We infer biome shifts using Bayesian inference with paleobiome-informed models and find evidence for seven independent shifts into desert habitats since the onset of aridification in the late Miocene. The earliest shift occurred out of tropical deciduous forests and led to an extensive radiation throughout North American deserts that accounts for the majority of extant desert rock daisies. Estimates of life history and micro-habitat in the rock daisies reveal a correlation between a suffrutescent perennial life history and edaphic endemism onto rocky outcrops, an ecological specialization that evolved prior to establishment and diversification in deserts. That the insular radiation of desert rock daisies stemmed from ancestors preadapted for dry conditions as edaphic endemics in otherwise densely vegetated tropical deciduous forests in northwest Mexico underscores the crucial role of exaptation and dispersal for shifts into arid environments.


Assuntos
Asteraceae , Magnoliopsida , Teorema de Bayes , Clima Desértico , Filogenia , Ecossistema
9.
Am Nat ; 201(1): 154-162, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36524928

RESUMO

AbstractHybrid seed inviability is a common reproductive barrier in angiosperms. Recent work suggests that the rapid evolution of hybrid seed inviability may, in part, be due to conflict between maternal and paternal optima for resource allocation to developing offspring (i.e., parental conflict). However, parental conflict requires that paternally derived resource-acquiring alleles impose a maternal cost. I test this requirement using three closely related species in the Mimulus guttatus species complex that exhibit significant hybrid seed inviability and differ in their inferred histories of parental conflict. I show that the presence of hybrid seeds significantly affects conspecific seed size for almost all crosses, such that conspecific seeds are smaller after developing with hybrids sired by fathers with a stronger history of conflict and are larger after developing with hybrids sired by fathers with a weaker history of conflict. This work demonstrates a potential maternal cost of paternally derived alleles and also has implications for species fitness in secondary contact.


Assuntos
Magnoliopsida , Sementes , Reprodução , Hibridização Genética
10.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 305: 116057, 2023 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36574790

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Caesalpinia coriaria (Jacq.) Willd is widely used as a traditional medinal plant in Mexico for protective and healing purposes and the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the gastroprotective effect of extract of Caesalpinia coriaria pods against ethanol-induced and indomethacin-induced gastric lesion models, its anti-inflammatory and antioxidative activities, and its main compounds through LC-MS analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Wistar rats were orally administered a methanol extract obtained from the pods of C. coriaria at doses of 10, 30, 100, and 300 mg/kg prior to inducing gastric lesions with ethanol or indomethacin. Gastric mucosal lesions were evaluated by macroscopic and histopathological alterations. Determination of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), alpha tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), leukotriene B4 (LTB4), nitrites/nitrates, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and H2S gastric levels were investigated. Its main compounds of the active extract through LC-MS analysis. RESULTS: Phenolic compounds were identified as major components of methanol extract. LC-MS analysis identified 15 constituents, and the significant compounds were gallic acid, 3-O-galloylquinic acid, digalloylglucose, tetragalloylglucose, valoneic acid dilactone, pentagalloylglucose, digalloylshikimic acid, and ellagic acid. Pretreatment with the extract at doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg significantly reduced gastric ulcer lesions in both models. Compared with the reference drugs (omeprazole or ranitidine, respectively), no significant difference was found (p < 0.05). The extract's gastroprotective effect was accompanied by significant decreases in leukocyte recruitment, and gastric levels of TNF-α and LTB4 by two to fourfold (p < 0.05). Also, gastric levels of PGE2 gastric levels were maintained and the antioxidant enzyme activities of SOD and nitrate/nitrite in the gastric tissue were improved (p < 0.05). The LC-MS analysis indicated the presence of hydrolyzable tannins (mainly gallic acid derivatives). CONCLUSION: The results suggest that the gastroprotective effect of the methanol extract of C. coriaria pods occurs through anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and NO modulation properties, and gallic acid derivatives may be the main possible compounds responsible for its actions.


Assuntos
Antiulcerosos , Caesalpinia , Magnoliopsida , Úlcera Gástrica , Ratos , Animais , Indometacina , Metanol/uso terapêutico , Ratos Wistar , Etanol/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Fitoterapia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Úlcera Gástrica/induzido quimicamente , Úlcera Gástrica/tratamento farmacológico , Úlcera Gástrica/prevenção & controle , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Ácido Gálico/uso terapêutico , Superóxido Dismutase , Antiulcerosos/farmacologia , Antiulcerosos/uso terapêutico
11.
DNA Res ; 30(1)2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36521020

RESUMO

Cornaceae is a core representative family in Cornales, the earliest branching lineage in the Asterids on the life tree of angiosperms. This family includes the only genus Cornus, a group of ~55 species. These species occur widely in Northern Hemisphere and have been used as resources for horticultural ornaments, medicinal and industrial manufacturing. However, no any genome sequences are available for this family. Here, we reported a chromosome-level genome for Cornus controversa. This was generated using high-fidelity plus Hi-C sequencing, and totally ~771.80 Mb assembled sequences and 39,886 protein-coding genes were obtained. We provided evidence for a whole-genome duplication event (WGD) unique to C. controversa. The evolutionary features of this genome indicated that the expanded and unique genes might have contributed to response to stress, stimulus and defense. By using chromosome-level syntenic blocks shared between eight living genomes, we found high degrees of genomic diversification from the ancestral core-eudicot genome to the present-day genomes, suggesting an important role of WGD in genomic plasticity that leads to speciation and diversification. These results provide foundational insights on the evolutionary history of Cornaceae, as well as on the Asterids diversification.


Assuntos
Cornaceae , Cornus , Magnoliopsida , Cornaceae/genética , Filogenia , Genoma , Magnoliopsida/genética , Cornus/genética , Cariótipo , Evolução Molecular , Genoma de Planta
12.
J Org Chem ; 88(1): 347-354, 2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36571835

RESUMO

Seven lindenane-type sesquiterpenoid trimers, including four new ones (1-4) and three known analogues (5-7), were isolated from Chloranthus fortunei guided by high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection with characteristic absorption at 210 and 350 nm. Their structures, including absolute configurations, were achieved by high-resolution mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance, electronic circular dichroism, and quantum chemical calculations. Compound 1 was the first example of two lindenane units connected by a C-15-C-15' bond. The 5/7/5-fused ring system in 2 was presumably formed biogenetically by key keto-enol tautomerism and Cope rearrangement from 5. The 5/3/6 carbon skeleton in 3-5 and epi-cyclopropane in 3 and 6 might have originated from trishizukaol A (7) with a normal 3/5/6-fused ring system through vinylcyclopropane rearrangement. The biomimetic conversion from 7 to 3-6 was successfully achieved by adding a 365 nm ultraviolet lamp and a free radical initiator, and 2 was also spontaneously converted to 5 in methanol and CDCl3, which proved the correctness of the structural identification and the speculation described above. Compounds 1-7 exhibited anti-inflammatory activity with IC50 values in the range of 2.90-22.80 µmol/L.


Assuntos
Magnoliopsida , Sesquiterpenos , Estrutura Molecular , Biomimética , Magnoliopsida/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Sesquiterpenos/química
13.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 179: 107676, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36535519

RESUMO

The superfamily Eriophyoidea includes >5000 named species of very small phytophagous mites. As for many groups of phytophagous invertebrates, factors responsible for diversification of eriophyoid mites are unclear. Here, we used an inferred phylogeny of 566 putative species of eriophyoid mites based on fragments of two mitochondrial genes and two nuclear genes to examine factors associated with their massive evolutionary diversification through time. Our dated phylogeny indicates a Carboniferous origin for gymnosperm-associated Eriophyoidea with subsequent diversification involving multiple host shifts to angiosperms-first to dicots, and then to monocots or shifts back to gymnosperms-beginning in the Cretaceous period when angiosperms diverged. Speciation rates increased more rapidly in the Eriophyidae + Diptilomiopidae (mostly infesting angiosperms) than in the Phytoptidae (mostly infesting gymnosperms). Phylogenetic signal, speciation rates, dispersal and vicariance results combined with inferred topologies show that hosts played a key role in the evolution of eriophyoid mites. Speciation constrained by hosts was probably the main driver behind eriophyoid mite diversification worldwide. We demonstrate monophyly of the Eriophyoidea, whereas all three families, most subfamilies, tribes, and most genera are not monophyletic. Our time-calibrated tree provides a framework for further evolutionary studies of eriophyoid mites and their interactions with host plants as well as taxonomic revisions above the species level.


Assuntos
Magnoliopsida , Ácaros , Humanos , Animais , Filogenia , Ácaros/genética , Magnoliopsida/genética , Genes Mitocondriais , Núcleo Celular/genética
14.
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 800, 2022 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36463111

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Seagrasses are higher marine flowering plants that evolved from terrestrial plants, but returned to the sea during the early evolution of monocotyledons through several separate lineages. Thus, they become a good model for studying the adaptation of plants to the marine environment. Sequencing of the mitochondrial (mt) genome of seagrasses is essential for understanding their evolutionary characteristics. RESULTS: In this study, we sequenced the mt genome of two endangered seagrasses (Zostera japonica and Phyllospadix iwatensis). These data and data on previously sequenced mt genomes from monocotyledons provide new evolutionary evidence of genome size reduction, gene loss, and adaptive evolution in seagrasses. The mt genomes of Z. japonica and P. iwatensis are circular. The sizes of the three seagrasses (including Zostera marine) that have been sequenced to date are smaller than that of other monocotyledons. Additionally, we found a large number of repeat sequences in seagrasses. The most abundant long repeat sequences were 31-40 bp repeats. Our study also found that seagrass species lost extensive ribosomal protein genes during evolution. The rps7 gene and the rpl16 gene of P. iwatensis are exceptions to this trend. The phylogenetic analysis based on the mt genome strongly supports the previous results. Furthermore, we identified five positive selection genes (atp8, nad3, nad6, ccmFn, and matR) in seagrasses that may be associated with their adaptation to the marine environment. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we sequenced and annotated the mt genomes of Z. japonica and P. iwatensis and compared them with the genome of other monocotyledons. The results of this study will enhance our understanding of seagrass adaptation to the marine environment and can inform further investigations of the seagrass mt genome.


Assuntos
Genoma Mitocondrial , Magnoliopsida , Genoma Mitocondrial/genética , Filogenia , Aclimatação/genética , Tamanho do Genoma
15.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 188: 105225, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36464345

RESUMO

Green prevention and control of plant pathogens is a development direction of sustainable and low-carbon agriculture given the limitation of traditional chemicals. Plant-derived antipathogenic constituents (PAPCs) exhibit the advantages of being environmental benign and a broad spectrum of target pathogens over traditional chemicals. Here, we review the research advances on plant sources, chemical compositions, activities of antipathogenic constituents in the past 20 years. Reported PAPCs are classified into categories of phenols, flavonoids, terpenoids, alkaloids and antimicrobial peptides. Angiosperms, gymnosperms and some lower plants are the main plant source of detected PAPCs. The PAPCs act on pathogens through multiple pathways including destroying cell structures, blocking key composition synthesis and inhibiting cell metabolism. The development trends of PAPCs are finally prospected. This review serves as a comprehensive review on the study of plant antipathogenic constituents and a key reference for forecasting the source, characteristic and activity of PAPC.


Assuntos
Magnoliopsida , Terpenos , Agricultura , Peptídeos Antimicrobianos , Flavonoides/farmacologia
16.
BMC Plant Biol ; 22(1): 592, 2022 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36526980

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nitraria sibirica Pall. is a halophytic shrub with strong environmental adaptability that can survive in extremely saline-alkali and drought-impacted environments. Gene expression analysis aids in the exploration of the molecular mechanisms of plant responses to abiotic stresses. RT-qPCR is the most common technique for studying gene expression. Stable reference genes are a prerequisite for obtaining accurate target gene expression results in RT-qPCR analysis. RESULTS: In this study, a total of 10 candidate reference genes were selected from the transcriptome of N. sibirica, and their expression stability in leaves and roots under different treatment conditions (salt, alkali, drought, cold, heat and ABA) was evaluated with the geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, comparative ΔCt and RefFinder programs. The results showed that the expression stability of the candidate reference genes was dependent on the tissue and experimental conditions tested. ACT7 combined with R3H, GAPDH, TUB or His were the most stable reference genes in the salt- or alkali-treated leaves, salt-treated roots and drought-treated roots, respectively; R3H and GAPDH were the most suitable combination for drought-treated leaves, heat-treated root samples and ABA-treated leaves; DIM1 and His maintained stable expression in roots under alkali stress; and TUB combined with R3H was stable in ABA-treated roots. TBCB and GAPDH exhibited stable expression in heat-treated leaves; TBCB, R3H, and ERF3A were stable in cold-treated leaves; and the three most stable reference genes for cold-treated roots were TBCB, ACT11 and DIM1. The reliability of the selected reference genes was further confirmed by evaluating the expression patterns of the NsP5CS gene under the six treatment conditions. CONCLUSION: This study provides a theoretical reference for N. sibirica gene expression standardization and quantification under various abiotic stress conditions and will help to reveal the molecular mechanisms that confer stress tolerance to N. sibirica.


Assuntos
Genes de Plantas , Magnoliopsida , Genes de Plantas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Padrões de Referência , Magnoliopsida/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Cloreto de Sódio , Álcalis
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(23)2022 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36499377

RESUMO

Resurrection plants are able to deal with complete dehydration of their leaves and then recover normal metabolic activity after rehydration. Only a few resurrection species are exposed to freezing temperatures in their natural environments, making them interesting models to study the key metabolic adjustments of freezing tolerances. Here, we investigate the effect of cold and freezing temperatures on physiological and biochemical changes in the leaves of Haberlea rhodopensis under natural and controlled environmental conditions. Our data shows that leaf water content affects its thermodynamical properties during vitrification under low temperatures. The changes in membrane lipid composition, accumulation of sugars, and synthesis of stress-induced proteins were significantly activated during the adaptation of H. rhodopensis to both cold and freezing temperatures. In particular, the freezing tolerance of H. rhodopensis relies on a sucrose/hexoses ratio in favor of hexoses during cold acclimation, while there is a shift in favor of sucrose upon exposure to freezing temperatures, especially evident when leaf desiccation is relevant. This pattern was paralleled by an elevated ratio of unsaturated/saturated fatty acids and significant quantitative and compositional changes in stress-induced proteins, namely dehydrins and early light-induced proteins (ELIPs). Taken together, our data indicate that common responses of H. rhodopensis plants to low temperature and desiccation involve the accumulation of sugars and upregulation of dehydrins/ELIP protein expression. Further studies on the molecular mechanisms underlying freezing tolerance (genes and genetic regulatory mechanisms) may help breeders to improve the resistance of crop plants.


Assuntos
Craterostigma , Lamiales , Magnoliopsida , Magnoliopsida/metabolismo , Dessecação , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Aclimatação , Sacarose/metabolismo , Congelamento , Desidratação/metabolismo
18.
Biol Lett ; 18(12): 20220477, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36514955

RESUMO

Whole-genome duplication is a common mutation in eukaryotes with far-reaching phenotypic effects, the resulting morphological and fitness consequences and how they affect the survival of polyploid lineages are intensively studied. Another important factor may also determine the probability of establishment and success of polyploid lineages: inbreeding depression. Inbreeding depression is expected to play an important role in the establishment of neopolyploid lineages, their capacity to colonize new environments, and in the simultaneous evolution of ploidy and other life-history traits such as self-fertilization. Both theoretically and empirically, there is no consensus on the consequences of polyploidy on inbreeding depression. In this meta-analysis, we investigated the effect of polyploidy on the evolution of inbreeding depression, by performing a meta-analysis within angiosperm species. The main results of our study are that the consequences of polyploidy on inbreeding depression are complex and depend on the time since polyploidization. We found that young polyploid lineages have a much lower amount of inbreeding depression than their diploid relatives and their established counterparts. Natural polyploid lineages are intermediate and have a higher amount of inbreeding depression than synthetic neopolyploids, and a smaller amount than diploids, suggesting that the negative effect of polyploidy on inbreeding depression decreases with time since polyploidization.


Assuntos
Depressão por Endogamia , Magnoliopsida , Poliploidia , Diploide , Endogamia , Magnoliopsida/genética
19.
Planta ; 257(1): 10, 2022 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36509964

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: We discovered that the internodal swellings of Phryma (eudicots) stems were same as the internodal pulvini of Poaceae (monocots) from the viewpoints of internal structures and functions. The stems of eudicots are usually rod-shaped and are composed of nodes, attached by leaves, and internodes. The internodes of some species, belonging to the clade 'asterids' and its sister clade 'Caryophyllales' of eudicots, have swellings, which have negative tropism, at the basal or apical part of each internode. To know the internal features of the swollen internodes, we performed outer morphological and anatomical studies on the swollen internodes of Phryma, eudicots, one of the genera having swollen internodes, from the winter bud stage to the flowering stage. The results revealed the following: (i) the swollen regions of the internodes were composed of less lignified tissues (e.g., endodermis without Casparian strips, and xylem having less lignified xylem fibers); (ii) the internodal less lignified parts were supported by collenchyma; (iii) the endodermis includes amyloplasts, having accumulated starch granules, which would function as statoliths for negative gravitropism. Consequently, we determined that the swollen parts of the Phryma internodes are same as the internodal pulvini of Poaceae of monocots from the viewpoints of internal structures and functions.


Assuntos
Lamiales , Magnoliopsida , Gravitropismo , Plastídeos , Poaceae
20.
Ann Bot ; 130(7): 1029-1040, 2022 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36534688

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Plant propagules often possess specialized morphologies that facilitate dispersal across specific landscapes. In the fruit dimorphism of a coastal shrub, Scaevola taccada, individual plants produce either cork-morph or pulp-morph fruits. The former is buoyant and common on sandy beaches, whereas the latter does not float, is bird-dispersed, and is common on elevated sites such as slopes on sea cliffs and behind rocky shores. We hypothesized that beach populations bridge the heterogeneous landscapes by serving as a source of both fruit types, while dispersal is biased for the pulp morph on elevated sites within the islands and for the cork morph between beaches of different islands. Based on this hypothesis, we predicted that populations in elevated sites would diverge genetically over time due to isolation by distance, whereas beach populations would maintain high genetic similarity via current gene flow. METHODS: The genetic structure and gene flow in S. taccada were evaluated by investigating genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms in plants from 17 sampling sites on six islands (belonging to the Ryukyu, Daito and Ogasawara Islands) in Japan. KEY RESULTS: Geographical isolation was detected among the three distant island groups. Analyses within the Ryukyu Islands suggested that sandy beach populations were characterized by genetic admixture, whereas populations in elevated sites were relatively isolated between the islands. Pairwise FST values between islands were lowest between sandy beaches, intermediate between sandy beaches and elevated sites, and highest between elevated sites. CONCLUSIONS: Dispersal across the ocean by cork morphs is sufficiently frequent to prevent genetic divergence between beaches of different islands. Stronger genetic isolation of elevated sites between islands suggests that bird dispersal by pulp morphs is restricted mainly within islands. These contrasting patterns of gene flow realized by fruit dimorphism provide evidence that fruit characteristics can strongly mediate genetic structure.


Assuntos
Frutas , Magnoliopsida , Fluxo Gênico , Caracteres Sexuais , Japão , Estruturas Genéticas
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