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1.
BMC Prim Care ; 23(1): 297, 2022 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36424550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sustained, routine care is vital to the health of people with HIV (PWH) and decreasing transmission of HIV. We evaluated whether the identification of PWH at-risk of falling out of care and prompts for outreach were effective in retaining PWH in care in the United States. METHODS: In this cluster randomized controlled trial, 20 AIDS Healthcare Foundation Healthcare Centers (HCCs) were randomized to the intervention (n = 10) or control (n = 10) arm; all maintained existing retention efforts. The intervention included daily automated flags in CHORUS™, a mobile app and web-based reporting solution utilizing electronic health record data, that identified PWH at-risk of falling out of care to clinic staff. Among flagged PWH, the association between the intervention and visits after a flag was assessed using logistic regression models fit with generalized estimating equations (independent correlation structure) to account for clustering. To adjust for differences between HCCs, models included geographic region, number of PWH at HCC, and proportions of PWH who self-identified as Hispanic or had the Ryan White Program as a payer. RESULTS: Of 15,875 PWH in care, 56% were flagged; 76% (intervention) and 75% (control) resulted in a visit, of which 76% were within 2 months of the flag. In adjusted analyses, flags had higher odds of being followed by a visit (odds ratio [OR]: 1.08, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.97, 1.21) or a visit within 2 months (OR: 1.07, 95% CI: 0.97, 1.17) at intervention than control HCCs. Among at-risk PWH with viral loads at baseline and study end, the proportion with < 50 copies/mL increased in both study arms, but more so at intervention (65% to 74%) than control (62% to 67%) HCCs. CONCLUSION: Despite challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic, adding an intervention to existing retention efforts, and the reality that behavior change takes time, PWH flagged as at-risk of falling out of care were marginally more likely to return for care at intervention than control HCCs and a greater proportion achieved undetectability. Sustained use of the retention module in CHORUS™ has the potential to streamline retention efforts, retain more PWH in care, and ultimately decrease transmission of HIV. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was first registered at Clinical Trials.gov (NCT04147832, https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT04147832 ) on 01/11/2019.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Infecções por HIV , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Retenção nos Cuidados , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36141746

RESUMO

The number of older people living with HIV (OPLWH) (aged 50-plus) in South Africa is increasing as people age with HIV or are newly infected. OPLWH are potentially vulnerable because of the intersection of age-related and HIV stigmas, co-morbidities, and lack of social support. Evidence from younger populations suggests that social support can improve ART adherence and retention in care. Further, HIV status disclosure plays a role in mediating social support and may reduce stigma by facilitating access to social support. This paper draws on qualitative research with OPLWH to explore the complex associations between disclosure, social support, and HIV stigma among OPLWH in urban Western Cape. The findings demonstrate that OPLWH receive most of their support from their family and this support can facilitate adherence to ART and retention in care. However, social support is facilitated by participants' disclosure, thus, when perceived stigma limits disclosure, social support is less accessible. Gender, age, and pre-existing vulnerability also affect disclosure to and support from kin and community. Given that social support, particularly from family members, amplifies HIV care access and ART adherence, encouraging disclosure stimulating household HIV competency is likely to both address anticipated stigma and support improved OPLWH's health outcomes.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Retenção nos Cuidados , Idoso , Revelação , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Adesão à Medicação , Estigma Social , Apoio Social , África do Sul
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36141757

RESUMO

Despite advances in biomedical treatments, women living with HIV (WLH) who experience homelessness and housing instability suffer suboptimal HIV outcomes, even when linked to treatment. The purpose of this study was to explore experiences of housing instability among WLH and to understand its role in their ability to adhere to antiretroviral medication and remain retained in care. Sixteen women who were linked to Ryan White Program HIV care in South Florida participated in in-depth interviews. The findings focus around four larger themes: difficulty storing medication, privacy- and stigma-related issues, inconsistent access to medication and health care disruptions, and competing and unmet physical and mental health needs. Findings underscore the importance of strategies that are responsive to the disruption of routines and are sensitive to privacy issues in shared dwelling spaces; the proactive inquiry of behavioral and environmental considerations when prescribing antiretroviral medication; and the identification and treatment of comorbid conditions. This study provides evidence for strategies to facilitate self-management and improve modifiable system realities to augment larger-level policy and funding shifts that are critically needed to end the epidemic among vulnerable populations living with HIV.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Pessoas em Situação de Rua , Retenção nos Cuidados , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Habitação , Humanos , Adesão à Medicação/psicologia
4.
J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care ; 21: 23259582221124826, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36083172

RESUMO

A retrospective study of 2764 patients was conducted at an HIV clinic in Nigeria to evaluate retention in care in patients treated for TB. At 6 and 12 months after commencement of TB treatment, 1842(66.6%) and 1624(58.8%) participants remained in care. Of the 922 and 1140 not in care at 6 and 12 months, 814(88.3%) and 1006(88.2%) respectively were lost to follow-up (LTFU). VL < 1000copies/ml was associated with higher odds of retention in care at 6 and 12 months (OR = 2.351 and 2.393) than VL > 1000 copies/ml. HAART use was associated with high likelihood of being in care at 12 months (OR = 3.980). CD4 counts of 200-350 and >350 cells/mm3 were associated with increased odds of remaining in care at 12 months compared with CD4 < 200 cells/mm3 (p = 0.005 and p = 0.001). Targeted interventions such as early HAART and close follow-up for high risk groups are likely to improve retention in care.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Retenção nos Cuidados , Tuberculose , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tuberculose/complicações , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia
5.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 41(12): 970-975, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36102695

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Youth born outside of the US with perinatally acquired HIV infection (YBoUS-PHIV) account for most children living with HIV in the US, but there are few data characterizing their care outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of YBoUS-PHIV receiving care across 3 HIV clinics in the Southeastern US between October 2018 and 2019. Primary outcomes were retention in care and viral suppression defined as (1) proportion of suppressed viral loads (VLs) and (2) having all VLs suppressed (definition 1 presented in the abstract). Primary predictors were age, adoption and disclosure status (full, partial and none/unknown). Multivariable logistic regression and χ 2 tests were used to test for associations with care outcomes. Analysis of disclosure status was restricted to youth greater than or equal to 12 years. RESULTS: The cohort included 111 YBoUS-PHIV. Median age was 14 years (interquartile range, 12-18), 59% were female, and 79% were international adoptees. Overall, 84% of patients were retained in care, and 88% were virally suppressed at each VL measurement. Adopted youth were more likely to be virally suppressed than nonadopted youth [odds ratio (OR), 7.08; P < 0.01] although the association was not statistically significant in adjusted analysis (adjusted OR, 4.26; P = 0.07). Neither age nor adoption status was significantly associated with retention. Among 89 patients greater than or equal to 12 years, 74% were fully disclosed of their HIV status, 12% were partially disclosed, and 13% had not started the disclosure process. There was no significant difference in retention or viral suppression by disclosure status. CONCLUSIONS: YBoUS-PHIV achieved high rates of retention and viral suppression. Adopted youth may be more likely to achieve viral suppression which may reflect the need for tailored interventions for nonadopted youth.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Retenção nos Cuidados , Criança , Adolescente , Humanos , Feminino , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Masculino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Estudos Retrospectivos , Carga Viral , Modelos Logísticos
6.
Lancet HIV ; 9(9): e617-e626, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36055294

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Community mobilisation, engaging communities in a process to collectively enact change, could improve HIV testing and care engagement. In South Africa, current rates fall below those needed for epidemic control. We assessed whether community mobilisation increased HIV testing, linkage to care, and retention in care over time in intervention relative to control communities. METHODS: We conducted a cluster-randomised controlled trial in villages in the Agincourt sub-district of the rural Mpumalanga Province in South Africa. 15 villages were randomly assigned to either a community mobilisation intervention engaging residents to address social barriers to HIV testing and treatment (intervention arm) or to a control arm using balanced randomisation. Villages were eligible if they had been fully enumerated in 2014, had not been included in previous mobilisation activities, and included over 500 permanent adult residents aged 18-49 years. Primary outcomes included quarterly rates of HIV testing, linkage to care, and retention in care documented from health facility records among residents of the intervention and control communities over the 3-year study period. Intention-to-treat analyses employed generalised estimating equations stratified by sex. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02197793. FINDINGS: Between Aug 1, 2015, and July 31, 2018, residents in eight intervention communities (n=20 544 residents) and seven control communities (n=17 848) contributed data; 92 residents contributed to both arms. Among men, HIV testing increased quarterly by 12·1% (relative change [RC] 1·121, 95% CI 1·099 to 1·143, p<0·0001) in the intervention communities and 9·5% (1·095, 1·075 to 1·114, p=0·011) in the control communities; although increases in testing were greater in the intervention villages, differences did not reach significance (exponentiated interaction coefficient 1·024, 95% CI 0·997 to 1·052, p=0·078). Among women, HIV testing increased quarterly by 10·6% (RC 1·106, 95% CI 1·097 to 1·114, p<0·0001) in the intervention communities and 9·3% (1·093, 1·084 to 1·102, p=0·053) in the control communities; increases were greater in intervention communities (exponentiated interaction coefficient 1·012, 95% CI 1·001 to 1·023, p=0·043). Quarterly linkage increased significantly among women in the intervention communities (RC 1·013, 95% CI 1·002 to 1·023, p=0·018) only. Quarterly linkage fell among men in both arms, but decreased significantly among men in the control communities (0·977, 0·954 to 1·002, p=0·043). Quarterly retention fell among women in both arms; however, reductions were tempered among women in the intervention communities (exponentiated interaction coefficient 1·003, 95% CI <1·000 to 1·006, p=0·062). Retention fell significantly among men in both arms with difference in rates of decline. INTERPRETATION: Community mobilisation was associated with modest improvements in select trial outcomes. The sum of these incremental, quarterly improvements achieved by addressing social barriers to HIV care engagement can impact epidemic control. However, achieving optimal impacts will probably require integrated efforts addressing both social barriers through community mobilisation and provision of improved service delivery. FUNDING: US National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Mental Health, and United States President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief through Right to Care and Project SOAR.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Retenção nos Cuidados , Adulto , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Teste de HIV , Humanos , Masculino , População Rural , África do Sul/epidemiologia
7.
Front Public Health ; 10: 872746, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35983357

RESUMO

Background: Implementation mapping is a systematic, collaborative, and contextually-attentive method for developing implementation strategies. As an exemplar, we applied this method to strategy development for Managed Problem Solving Plus (MAPS+), an adapted evidence-based intervention for HIV medication adherence and care retention that will be delivered by community health workers and tested in an upcoming trial. Methods: In Step 1: Conduct Needs Assessment, we interviewed 31 stakeholders to identify determinants of MAPS+ implementation in 13 clinics serving people with HIV in Philadelphia County. In Step 2: Develop Logic Model, we used these determinants as inputs for a working logic model guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research. In Step 3: Operationalize Implementation Strategies, our team held a virtual stakeholder meeting to confirm determinants. We synthesized stakeholder feedback, then identified implementation strategies that conceptually matched to determinants using the Expert Recommendations for Implementing Change taxonomy. Next, we operationalized implementation strategies with specific examples for clinic settings. We linked strategies to behavior change theories to allow for a mechanistic understanding. We then held a second virtual stakeholder meeting to present the implementation menu for feedback and glean generalizable insights for how these strategies could be operationalized in each stakeholder's clinic. In Step 4: Protocolize Strategies, we incorporated stakeholder feedback and finalized the implementation strategy menu. Findings: Implementation mapping produced a menu of 39 strategies including revise professional roles, identify and prepare champions, use warm handoffs, and change record systems. The process of implementation mapping generated key challenges for implementation strategy development: lack of implementation strategies targeting the outer setting (i.e., sociopolitical context); tension between a one-size-fits-all and individualized approach for all clinics; conceptual confusion between facilitators and strategies; and challenges in translating the implementation science lexicon for partners. Implications: This case exemplar advances both MAPS+ implementation and implementation science methods by furthering our understanding of the use of implementation mapping to develop strategies that enhance uptake of evidence-based interventions. The implementation menu will inform MAPS+ deployment across Philadelphia in an upcoming hybrid trial. We will carry out Step 5: Test Strategies to test the effectiveness and implementation of MAPS+.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Retenção nos Cuidados , Terapia Comportamental , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Adesão à Medicação
8.
AIDS Patient Care STDS ; 36(9): 343-355, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36037010

RESUMO

Retention in care (RIC) reduces HIV transmission and associated morbidity and mortality. We examined whether delivery of comprehensive services influenced individual RIC within the International epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) network. We collected site data through IeDEA assessments 1.0 (2000-2009) and 2.0 (2010-2016). Each site received a comprehensiveness score for service availability (1 = present, 0 = absent), with tallies ranging from 0 to 7. We obtained individual-level cohort data for adults with at least one visit from 2000 to 2016 at sites responding to either assessment. Person-time was recorded annually, with RIC defined as completing two visits at least 90 days apart in each calendar year. Multivariable modified Poisson regression clustered by site yielded risk ratios and predicted probabilities for individual RIC by comprehensiveness. Among 347,060 individuals in care at 122 sites with 1,619,558 person-years of follow-up, 69.8% of person-time was retained in care, varying by region from 53.8% (Asia-Pacific) to 82.7% (East Africa); RIC improved by about 2% per year from 2000 to 2016 (p = 0.012). Every site provided CD4+ count testing, and >90% of individuals received care at sites that provided combination antiretroviral therapy adherence measures, prevention of mother-to-child transmission, tuberculosis screening, HIV-related prevention, and community tracing services. In adjusted models, individuals at sites with more comprehensive services had higher probabilities of RIC (0.71, 0.74, and 0.83 for scores 5, 6, and 7, respectively; p = 0.019). Within IeDEA, greater site-level comprehensiveness of services was associated with improved individual RIC. Much work remains in exploring this relationship, which may inform HIV clinical practice and health systems planning.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Fármacos Anti-HIV , Infecções por HIV , Retenção nos Cuidados , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas
9.
J Subst Abuse Treat ; 141: 108848, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35926256

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: People with substance user disorder (SUD) have frequent intersections with the health care system; however, engagement and retention in SUD care remain low, particularly for marginalized populations. Low-threshold treatment models that aim to eliminate barriers to care are one proposed intervention to increase access and equity in SUD treatment. METHODS: This is a retrospective, cohort study of patients treated at a low-threshold bridge clinic from 2016 to 2021. The study's primary aim was to describe patient characteristics associated with engagement, defined as two or more completed visits, and treatment retention at 60 days, defined as a completed visit 45-to-75 days after first visit. A secondary outcome was transfer to ongoing treatment after bridge clinic. The study analyzed multivariable models assessing demographic and clinical predictors for each outcome using generalized estimating equations. RESULTS: The study found that 1857 patients completed 2730 care episodes. The mean age was 38.7 years old, 70 % were male, 30 % female, 79 % White, 7 % Black, 9 % Latinx, and 97 % spoke English. Opioid use disorder (OUD) was the most common type of SUD, seen among 84 % of episodes, followed by alcohol (30 %), and stimulant use disorder (28 %). Seventy percent of bridge clinic episodes of care resulted in engagement, 38 % were retained at 60 days, and 28 % had transfer to care documented. In adjusted analyses, engagement was lower for Black patients compared to White patients and higher for patients who received buprenorphine or naltrexone. Retention for Black patients was also lower compared to White patients and higher for patients who were unhoused and patients who received buprenorphine or naltrexone. Transfer of care was more likely among patients who received buprenorphine. CONCLUSIONS: At a low-threshold bridge clinic 70 % of patients successfully engaged in care and 38 % were retained at two months. While OUD and AUD were most prevalent, stimulant use was common in this population. Patients who received buprenorphine or naltrexone had higher engagement, and retention, and those receiving buprenorphine also had higher care transfer. Black patients had lower rates of engagement and retention. Treatment providers need to adopt low-threshold SUD care models to eliminate racial disparities and address the needs of people using stimulants.


Assuntos
Buprenorfina , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Retenção nos Cuidados , Adulto , Buprenorfina/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Naltrexona/uso terapêutico , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
AIDS ; 36(8): 1181-1189, 2022 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35796732

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe retention in HIV care based on various definitions of retention in the modern treatment era. DESIGN: A cohort study of people enrolled in care at seven mostly urban HIV clinics across the United States, 2010-2018. METHODS: We estimated retention based on missed visits, kept visits, kept encounters (clinical visits, CD4 counts, and viral loads), and HIV labs. We contrasted risk factors for retention by different definitions and estimated odds ratios for of viral suppression and hazard ratios for mortality in 2 years immediately following the year in which retention was defined (the study year). RESULTS: Across 108 171 person-years (N = 21 481 people), in 71% of years people kept ≥75% of scheduled visits; in 78%, people kept ≥2 visits >90 days apart; in 74%, people had ≥2 HIV labs >90 days apart; and in 47%, people had no gaps >6 months in clinic visits. Missing >25% of scheduled visits despite attending ≥2 visits >90 days apart was associated with nonwhite non-Hispanic race/ethnicity, history of injection drug use, and prior AIDS diagnosis. In contrast, attending ≥75% of scheduled visits while not attending ≥2 visits >90 days apart was associated with male sex, white race, no injection drug use history, and no prior AIDS diagnosis. Subsequent viral nonsuppression was more strongly associated with missed- than kept-visit measures of retention; 2-year mortality was only associated with failure to be retained by missed-visit measures. DISCUSSION: Missed and kept-visit definitions of retention capture different constructs. Missed-visit measures are more strongly associated with poor HIV outcomes.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Infecções por HIV , Retenção nos Cuidados , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
11.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 236: 109497, 2022 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35607834

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Methadone for opioid use disorder (OUD) treatment is restricted to licensed opioid treatment programs (OTPs) with substantial barriers to entry. Underutilized regulations allow non-OTP providers to administer methadone for opioid withdrawal for up to 72 h while arranging ongoing care. Our low-barrier bridge clinic implemented a new pathway to treat opioid withdrawal and facilitate OTP linkage utilizing the "72-hour rule." METHODS: Patients presenting to a hospital-based bridge clinic were evaluated for OUD, opioid withdrawal, and treatment goals. Eligible patients were offered methadone opioid withdrawal management with rapid OTP referral. OTPs accepted patients as direct admissions. We described bridge clinic patients who received at least one dose of methadone between March-August 2021 and key clinical outcomes including OTP referral completion within 72 h. For the subset of patients referred to our two primary OTP partners, we described OTP linkage (i.e., attended at least one OTP visit within one month) and OTP retention at one month. RESULTS: Methadone was administered during 150 episodes of care for 142 unique patients, the majority of whom were male (73%), white (67%), and used fentanyl (85%). In 92% of episodes (138/150), a plan for ongoing care was in place within 72 h. Among 121 referrals to two primary OTP partners, 87% (105/121) linked and 58% (70/121) were retained at one month. CONCLUSIONS: Methadone administration for opioid withdrawal with direct OTP admission under the "72-hour rule" is feasible in an outpatient bridge clinic and resulted in high OTP linkage and 1-month retention rates. This model has the potential to improve methadone access.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Retenção nos Cuidados , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metadona/uso terapêutico , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos/métodos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/tratamento farmacológico
12.
J Viral Hepat ; 29(8): 588-595, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35545901

RESUMO

The hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment landscape is shifting given the advent of direct-acting antivirals and a global call to action by the World Health Organization. Eliminating HCV is now an issue of healthcare delivery. Treatment is limited by the complexity of the HCV care continuum, expensive therapy and competing health burdens experienced by an underserved HCV population. The objective of this literature review was to assess strategies to improve retention in HCV care, with particular focus on those implemented in the United States. We identified barriers in HCV care retention and propose solutions to increase HCV treatment delivery. The following recommendations are herein described: improving the cohesion of health services through localized care and integrated case management, expanding the supply of non-specialist HCV treatment providers, leveraging patient navigators and care coordinators, improving adherence through directly observed therapy and reducing cost barriers through value-based payment and pharmaceutical subscription models.


Assuntos
Hepatite C Crônica , Hepatite C , Retenção nos Cuidados , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Hepacivirus , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Estados Unidos
13.
AIDS Behav ; 26(11): 3480-3493, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35445996

RESUMO

Despite advances in antiretroviral treatment (ART), the HIV epidemic persists in the United States (U.S.), with inadequate adherence to treatment and care a major barrier to ending the epidemic. Health literacy is a critical factor in maximizing ART adherence and healthcare utilization, especially among vulnerable populations, including racial and ethnic minorities. This U.S-based systematic review examines psychosocial variables influencing health literacy among persons with HIV (PWH), with a focus on racial and ethnic minorities. Although findings are limited, some studies showed that HIV-related stigma, self-efficacy, and patient trust in providers mediate the relationship between health literacy and both ART adherence and HIV care retention. To inform effective, equitable health literacy interventions to promote adherence to HIV treatment and care, further research is needed to understand the factors driving the relationship between health literacy and HIV outcomes. Such work may broaden our understanding of health literacy in the context of racial equity.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Letramento em Saúde , Retenção nos Cuidados , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Minorias Étnicas e Raciais , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Adesão à Medicação/psicologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
AIDS Behav ; 26(11): 3494-3505, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35467229

RESUMO

Medical records of pregnant and postpartum women living with HIV and their infants attending a large referral facility in Kenya from 2015 to 2019 were analyzed to identify characteristics associated with retention in care and viral suppression. Women were stratified based on the timing of HIV care enrollment: known HIV-positive (KHP; enrolled pre-pregnancy) and newly HIV-positive (NHP; enrolled during pregnancy). Associations with retention at 18 months postpartum and viral suppression (< 1000 copies/mL) were determined. Among 856 women (20% NHP), retention was 83% for KHPs and 53% for NHPs. Viral suppression was 88% for KHPs and 93% for NHPs, but 19% of women were missing viral load results. In a competing risk model, viral suppression increased by 18% for each additional year of age but was not associated with other factors. Overall, 1.9% of 698 infants with ≥ 1 HIV test result were HIV-positive. Tailored interventions are needed to promote retention and viral load testing, particularly for NHPs, in the PMTCT continuum.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV , Infecções por HIV , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Retenção nos Cuidados , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Lactente , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas/prevenção & controle , Quênia/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Encaminhamento e Consulta
15.
AIDS Behav ; 26(10): 3279-3288, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35394586

RESUMO

Predictive analytics can be used to identify people with HIV currently retained in care who are at risk for future disengagement from care, allowing for prioritization of retention interventions. We utilized machine learning methods to develop predictive models of retention in care, defined as no more than a 12 month gap between HIV care appointments in the Center for AIDS Research Network of Integrated Clinical Systems (CNICS) cohort. Data were split longitudinally into derivation and validation cohorts. We created logistic regression (LR), random forest (RF), and gradient boosted machine (XGB) models within a discrete-time survival analysis framework and compared their performance to a baseline model that included only demographics, viral suppression, and retention history. 21,267 Patients with 507,687 visits from 2007 to 2018 were included. The LR model outperformed the baseline model (AUC 0.68 [0.67-0.70] vs. 0.60 [0.59-0.62], P < 0.001). RF and XGB models had similar performance to the LR model. Top features in the LR model included retention history, age, and viral suppression.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Retenção nos Cuidados , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Análise de Sobrevida
16.
AIDS Behav ; 26(10): 3164-3173, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35362911

RESUMO

HIV care engagement is a dynamic process. We employed group-based trajectory modeling to examine longitudinal patterns in care engagement among people who were newly diagnosed with HIV and enrolled in the Ryan White program in Florida (n = 9,755) between 2010 and 2015. Five trajectories were identified (47.9% "in care" with 1-2 care visit(s) per 6 months, 18.0% "frequent care" with 3 or more care visits per 6 months, 11.0% "re-engage", 11.0% "gradual drop out", 12.6% "early dropout") based on the number of care attendances (including outpatient/case management visits, viral load or CD4 test) for each six-month during the first five years since diagnosis. Relative to "in care", people in the "frequent care" trajectory were more likely to be Hispanic/Latino and older at HIV diagnosis, whereas people in the three suboptimal care retention trajectories were more likely to be younger. Area deprivation index, rurality, and county health rankings were also strongly associated with care trajectories. Individual- and community-level factors associated to the three suboptimal care retention trajectories, if confirmed to be causative and actionable, could be prioritized to improve HIV care engagement.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Retenção nos Cuidados , Administração de Caso , Florida/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Carga Viral
17.
Trials ; 23(1): 268, 2022 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35395930

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A failure of clinical trials to retain participants can influence the trial findings and significantly impact the potential of the trial to influence clinical practice. Retention of participants involves people, often the trial participants themselves, performing a behaviour (e.g. returning a questionnaire or attending a follow-up clinic as part of the research). Most existing interventions that aim to improve the retention of trial participants fail to describe any theoretical basis for the potential effect (on behaviour) and also whether there was any patient and/or participant input during development. The aim of this study was to address these two problems by developing theory- informed, participant-centred, interventions to improve trial retention. METHODS: This study was informed by the Theoretical Domains Framework and Behaviour Change Techniques Taxonomy to match participant reported determinants of trial retention to theoretically informed behaviour change strategies. The prototype interventions were described and developed in a co-design workshop with trial participants. Acceptability and feasibility (guided by (by the Theoretical Framework of Acceptability) of two prioritised retention interventions was explored during a focus group involving a range of trial stakeholders (e.g. trial participants, trial managers, research nurses, trialists, research ethics committee members). Following focus group discussions stakeholders completed an intervention acceptability questionnaire. RESULTS: Eight trial participants contributed to the co-design of the retention interventions. Four behaviour change interventions were designed: (1) incentives and rewards for follow-up clinic attendance, (2) goal setting for improving questionnaire return, (3) participant self-monitoring to improve questionnaire return and/or clinic attendance, and (4) motivational information to improve questionnaire return and clinic attendance. Eighteen trial stakeholders discussed the two prioritised interventions. The motivational information intervention was deemed acceptable and considered straightforward to implement whilst the goal setting intervention was viewed as less clear and less acceptable. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to develop interventions to improve trial retention that are based on the accounts of trial participants and also conceptualised and developed as behaviour change interventions (to encourage attendance at trial research visit or return a trial questionnaire). Further testing of these interventions is required to assess effectiveness.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental , Motivação , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Pesquisadores , Retenção nos Cuidados , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 301, 2022 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35346094

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, displaced populations face an increased burden of tuberculosis (TB). Uganda is currently hosting unprecedented big numbers of refugees from the East African region. Recent evidence shows increased spread of multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB) across East Africa as a result of migrants from Somalia- a high MDR-TB prevalent country, calling for urgent identification and management of cases for the countries in the region. One of the strategies recommended is optimization of diagnosis, treatment and prevention of TB in refugees. This study aimed at exploring the barriers to and facilitators for TB case finding and retention in care among urban slum refugees and suggestions on how to improve. This was to guide the development of interventions to improve TB case finding and retention in care among the said population. METHODS: A cross-sectional study utilizing qualitative methods was conducted among refugees in an urban slum in Kampala City, Uganda. Key informant interviews with health care workers and community leaders and in-depths interviews with refugee TB patients and care takers of TB patients were conducted (30 interviews in total). Interview questions were based on constructs from the COMB-B model (Capability, Opportunity and Motivation Model of Behaviour change). Manual content analysis was performed and identified targeted intervention strategies guided by the related Behavior Change Wheel implementation framework. RESULTS: Key barriers included; physical capability (availability of and easily accessible private facilities in the community with no capacity to diagnose and treat TB), psychological capability (lack of knowledge about TB among refugees), social opportunity (wide spread TB stigma and language barrier), physical opportunity (poor living conditions, mobility of refugees), reflective motivation (lack of facilitation for health workers), automatic motivation (discrimination and rejection of TB patients). Facilitators were; physical capability (availability of free TB services in the public health facilities), social opportunity (availability of translators). We identified education, incentivization, training, enablement, and restructuring of the service environment as relevant intervention functions with potential to address barriers to and enhance facilitators of TB case finding and retention among refugees in urban slums. CONCLUSION: The key barriers to TB control among refugees living urban slums in Kampala- Uganda, included; poor access to health services, limited knowledge about TB, TB stigma, language barrier and lack of facilitation of community health workers. Identified intervention strategies included; education, training, enablement, environmental restructuring and persuasion. The findings could serve as a guide for the design and implementation of interventions for improving the same.


Assuntos
Refugiados , Retenção nos Cuidados , Tuberculose , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Áreas de Pobreza , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Uganda/epidemiologia
19.
J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care ; 21: 23259582221082607, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35229678

RESUMO

Studies investigating same-day antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation demonstrate different clinical outcomes depending on settings. We retrospectively reviewed adults with newly positive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody testing. The proportion of individuals who were retained in care at 12 months was compared between early (≤2 weeks) and late (>2 weeks) ART initiation groups. Of all, the median (IQR) time from HIV diagnosis to ART initiation was 18 (9-30) days. This duration was 7 (7-13) days in the early ART initiation group (n = 116) and 28 (21-46) days in the late ART initiation group (n = 154). In the multivariate logistic regression, having pneumocystis pneumonia [odds ratio (OR) 9.30, 95% CI 2.56-33.75], tuberculosis (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.03-4.73), and weight loss (OR 12.98, 95% CI 1.00-167.68) were associated with late ART initiation. The early ART initiation group had a slightly higher proportion of individuals retained in care at 12 months than those in the late ART initiation group (88.8% vs 80.5%, P = .066) and had a higher significant proportion of HIV viral load suppression (81.0% vs 70.1%, P = .041). No significant differences were observed in the proportion of individuals who died at 12 months (2.6% vs 3.2%, P = 1.000) between the two groups. Early ART initiation trends to retain individuals in care and higher HIV viral load suppression was determined. Nevertheless, ART initiation timing might not be a solely important factor in improving HIV care and minimizing mortality among HIV-infected individuals in a university hospital setting.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV , Infecções por HIV , Retenção nos Cuidados , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hospitais , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Carga Viral
20.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263663, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35139118

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several interventions to improve long term retention (12 months and above) on treatment have been rigorously evaluated in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). However, research on interventions to improve retention of patients in the early stages of treatment (6 months) during this era of Universal Test and Treat has only recently emerged. The aim of this study is to systematically map evidence of interventions used to improve early retention of patients in antiretroviral therapy (ART) programmes in SSA. METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane electronic databases to identify studies describing interventions aimed at improving early retention in ART treatment. We applied the methodological frameworks by Arksey and O'Malley (2005) and Levac et al. (2010). We also followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) checklist. Interventions were categorized according to key broad areas in the existing literature. RESULTS: A total of 2,241 articles were identified of which 19 met the inclusion criteria and were eligible for this review, with the majority either being randomized control trials 32% (n = 6) or cohort studies 32% (n = 6). The studies reviewed were conducted in 11 SSA countries. The most common interventions described under key broad areas included: Health system interventions such as Universal Test-and-Treat, integration of ART initiation, HIV Testing and Counselling and Antenatal Care services and reduction of ART drug costs; Patient centered approaches such as fast track ART initiation, Differentiated Drug Delivery models and point of care HIV birth testing; Behavioral interventions and support through lay counselors, mentor mothers, nurse counselors and application of quality improvement interventions and financial incentives. Majority of the studies targeted the HIV positive adults and pregnant women. CONCLUSION: With the introduction of Universal Test-and-Treat and same-day initiation of ART, findings suggest that adoption of policies that expand ART uptake with the goal of reducing HIV transmission at the population level, promoting patient centered approaches such as fast track ART initiation, Differentiated Service Delivery models and providing adequate support through Mentor Mothers, lay and nurse counselors may improve early retention in HIV care in SSA. However, these interventions have only been tested in few countries in the region which points to how hard evidence based HIV programming is. Further research investigating the impact of individual and a combination of interventions to improve early retention in HIV care, including for various groups at high risk of attrition, is warranted across SSA countries to fast track the achievement of 95-95-95 Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) targets by 2030.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Retenção nos Cuidados/organização & administração , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Terapia Comportamental/organização & administração , Terapia Comportamental/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas/prevenção & controle , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Cuidado Pré-Natal/organização & administração , Retenção nos Cuidados/normas , Retenção nos Cuidados/estatística & dados numéricos
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