Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 53.008
Filtrar
1.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 366-371, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34546584

RESUMO

Co-epidemics happening simultaneously can generate a burden on healthcare systems. The co-occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 with vector-borne diseases (VBD), such as malaria and dengue in resource-limited settings represents an additional challenge to the healthcare systems. Herein, we assessed the coinfection rate between SARS-CoV-2 and VBD to highlight the need to carry out an accurate diagnosis and promote timely measures for these infections in Luanda, the capital city of Angola. This was a cross-sectional study conducted with 105 subjects tested for the SARS-CoV-2 and VBD with a rapid detection test in April 2021. The participants tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 (3.80%), malaria (13.3%), and dengue (27.6%). Low odds related to testing positivity to SARS-CoV-2 or VBD were observed in participants above or equal to 40 years (odds ratio [OR]: 0.60, p = 0.536), while higher odds were observed in male (OR: 1.44, p = 0.392) and urbanized areas (OR: 3.78, p = 0.223). The overall co-infection rate between SARS-CoV-2 and VBD was 11.4%. Our findings showed a coinfection between SARS-CoV-2 with malaria and dengue, which could indicate the need to integrate the screening for VBD in the SARS-CoV-2 testing algorithm and the adjustment of treatment protocols. Further studies are warranted to better elucidate the relationship between COVID-19 and VBD in Angola.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Dengue/epidemiologia , Malária/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Angola/epidemiologia , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Teste para COVID-19 , Febre de Chikungunya/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Viral/sangue , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia
2.
BMJ Open ; 11(11): e048073, 2021 11 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34789490

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This population-based open cohort study aims to investigate biological and sociodemographic drivers of malaria transmission in the main urban hotspot of Amazonian Brazil. PARTICIPANTS: Nearly 20% of the households in the northwestern town of Mâncio Lima were randomly selected and 2690 participants were enrolled since April 2018. Sociodemographic, housing quality, occupational, behavioural and morbidity information and travel histories were collected during consecutive study visits. Blood samples from participants>3 months old were used for malaria diagnosis and human genetic studies; samples from participants with laboratory-confirmed malaria have been cryopreserved for genetic and phenotypic characterisation of parasites. Serology was introduced in 2020 to measure the prevalence and longevity of SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies. FINDINGS TO DATE: Malaria prevalence rates were low (up to 1.0% for Plasmodium vivax and 0.6% for P. falciparum) during five consecutive cross-sectional surveys between April-May 2018 and October-November 2020; 63% of infections diagnosed by microscopy were asymptomatic. Malaria risk is heterogeneously distributed, with 20% study participants contributing 86% of the overall burden of P. vivax infection. Adult males are at greatest risk of infection and human mobility across the urban-rural interface may contribute to sustained malaria transmission. Local P. vivax parasites are genetically diverse and fragmented into discrete inbred lineages that remain stable across space and time. FUTURE PLANS: Two follow-up visits, with similar study protocols, are planned in 2021. We aim to identify high-risk individuals that fuel onwards malaria transmission and represent a priority target for more intensive and effective control interventions. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03689036.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Malária Falciparum , Malária Vivax , Malária , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Lactente , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária Vivax/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , SARS-CoV-2
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1146, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34758727

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Residual malaria is probably an important source for the re-emergence of malaria infection in the elimination era. Assessment to identify the factors influencing residual malaria in high-risk groups is needed to develop evidence-based decisions by stakeholders and policymakers. METHODS: This study was conducted to explore the factors influencing the residual malaria infection among migrant workers in two sentinel sites (endemic vs. pre-elimination areas) in Myanmar using the mixed-model method. RESULTS: A total of 102 migrant respondents (65 in Bamauk and 37 in Shwegyin) were included for the quantitative assessment using pretested questionnaires during household visits. Although 87.3% of them had insecticidal bed nets (ITNs/LLINs), only 68.3% of the migrants in Bamauk and 57.9% in Shwegyin used it regularly. The use of any bed net was high (79.9% in Bamauk vs. 91.0% in Shwegyin). The mean LLINs in their families were 1.64 (95%CI: 1.48-1.81) in Bamauk and 2.89 (95%CI: 2.67-3.11) in Shwegyin. Most of them received no health information for malaria prevention within the last year and their knowledge about malaria was low. Their working nature was a challenge for control measures against malaria in migrants. CONCLUSION: The strategy for distributing LLINs and health promotion activities for mobile/migrant populations should be reviewed, and an appropriate action plan should be developed for the specific migrant group. Moreover, health promotion activities for behavior change communication should be strengthened in the migrant population in Myanmar.


Assuntos
Mosquiteiros Tratados com Inseticida , Malária , Migrantes , Características da Família , Humanos , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Mianmar/epidemiologia
4.
Trials ; 22(1): 825, 2021 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34802455

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While there is strong evidence that bite protection methods such as permethrin-treated clothing and topical insect repellents are protective against insect bites, there are few studies assessing the impact on malaria infection. This study will estimate the protective efficacy of treated uniforms and DEET insect repellent on the incidence of malaria infection among military personnel in an operational setting. Permethrin-treated uniforms used with DEET lotion will be compared to etofenprox-treated uniforms with DEET lotion. The effect of DEET lotion will be estimated by comparing permethrin-treated uniforms with DEET or placebo lotion. METHOD: A cluster randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial is planned to evaluate the effectiveness of the interventions on preventing malaria infections in soldiers on active duty at Mgambo National Service Camp in Tanga, Tanzania. The arms are (1) permethrin-treated uniform with 30% DEET liposome formula; (2) permethrin-treated uniform with placebo lotion; (3) candidate insect repellent system, i.e. etofenprox-treated uniform with 30% DEET liposome formula; and (4) placebo, i.e. untreated uniforms with placebo lotion. The primary outcome is the incidence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) by active case detection using surveys every 2 weeks for 12 months. Rapid diagnostic tests will be used for the diagnosis of participants with symptoms. The unit of randomisation will be combania: companies formed by recruits aged 18 to 25 years; combania do activities together and sleep in the same dormitory. Unequal randomisation will be used to optimise statistical power for the primary comparison between permethrin-treated uniforms with DEET and etofenprox-treated uniforms with DEET. DISCUSSION: This trial will provide the estimate of the effects of permethrin with DEET compared to those of the new fabric treatment etofenprox with DEET and any additional effect of using DEET. The results will inform strategies to protect military personnel and civilians who have more outdoor or occupational malaria exposure than the general public. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02938975 .


Assuntos
Repelentes de Insetos , Inseticidas , Malária , Militares , Vestuário , DEET/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Incidência , Repelentes de Insetos/efeitos adversos , Malária/diagnóstico , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Permetrina/efeitos adversos , Piretrinas , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
6.
Front Public Health ; 9: 722943, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34746078

RESUMO

Background: Point of care testing (POCT) for infectious diseases is testing conducted near the patient. It allows clinicians to offer the most appropriate treatment more quickly. As POCT devices have increased in accuracy and become more cost-effective, their use has grown, but a systematic assessment of their use for clinical and public health management of infectious diseases in EU/EEA countries has not been previously undertaken. Methods: A scoping review of the literature on POCT in EU/ EEA countries as at November 2019, and a survey of key stakeholders. Results: 350 relevant articles were identified and 54 survey responses from 26 EU/EEA countries were analysed. POCT is available for a range of infectious diseases and in all countries responding to the survey (for at least one disease). POCT is commonly available for influenza, HIV/AIDS, Legionnaires' disease and malaria, where it is used in at least half of EU/EEA countries. While POCT has the potential to support many improvements to clinical care of infectious diseases (e.g., faster diagnosis, more appropriate use of antimicrobials), the results suggest POCT is infrequently used to support public health functions (e.g., disease surveillance and reporting). Conclusion: Although POCT is in use to some extent in all EU/EEA countries, the full benefits of POCT in wider public health functions have yet to be realised. Further research on barriers and facilitators to implementation is warranted.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis , Influenza Humana , Malária , Doenças Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Malária/diagnóstico , Testes Imediatos
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769754

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Over the last two decades, malaria has remained a major public health concern worldwide, especially in developing countries leading to high morbidity and mortality among children. Nigeria is the world most burdened malaria endemic nation, contributing more than a quarter of global malaria cases. This study determined the prevalence of malaria among children at 6-59 months in Nigeria, and the effects of individual and contextual factors. METHODS: This study utilized data from 2018 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) involving a weighted sample size of 10,185 children who were tested for malaria using rapid diagnostic test (RDT). Given the hierarchical structure of the data set, such that children at Level-1 were nested in communities at Level-2, and nested in states and Federal Capital Territory (FCT) at Level-3, multilevel mixed effect logistic regression models were used for the analysis. RESULTS: The proportion of children 6-59 months of age in Nigeria that had malaria fever positive as assessed by RDTs was 35.5% (3418/10,185), (CI: 33.9-37.1). Kebbi State had 77.7%, (CI: 70.2-83.5), which was the highest proportion of 6-59 months who were malaria positive, next in line was Katsina State with 55.5%, (CI: 47.7-63.1). The Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja had the proportion of 29.6%, (CI: 21.6-39.0), malaria positive children of 6-59 months of age. Children between the age of 48 and 59 months were 2.68 times more likely to have malaria fever than children of ages 6-11 months (AOR = 2.68, 95% CI: 2.03-3.54). In addition, children from the rural area (AOR = 2.12, 95% CI: 1.75-2.57), were more likely to suffer from malaria infection compared to children from urban area. CONCLUSION: The study identified some individual and contextual predictors of malaria among children in Nigeria. These factors identified in this study are potential areas that need to be considered for policy designs and implementations toward control and total elimination of malaria-related morbidity and mortality among children in Nigeria.


Assuntos
Malária Falciparum , Malária , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Malária/epidemiologia , Análise Multinível , Nigéria/epidemiologia
9.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 33(5): 496-500, 2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34791847

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To re-examine the diagnosis results of reported malaria cases in Sichuan Province from 2014 to 2020, so as to assess the malaria diagnostic capability of Sichuan Provincial Malaria Diagnostic Reference Laboratory. METHODS: The blood and blood smear samples from reported malaria cases were collected by Sichuan Provincial Malaria Diagnostic Reference Laboratory from 2014 to 2020, and subjected to re-examinations using microscopy and nested PCR assay. The re-examination results were compared. RESULTS: A total of 1 710 samples from reported malaria cases were re-examined by Sichuan Provincial Malaria Diagnostic Reference Laboratory from 2014 to 2020, and 1 634 samples were identified positive, with a positive coincidence rate of 95.56% (1 634/1 710) and a 92.29% (1 508/1 634) total coincidence rate of the Plasmodium species. The coincidence rates with P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. malariae and P. ovale were 99.48% (961/966), 97.07% (430/443), 83.05% (98/118) and 67.86% (19/28), respectively, and the coincidence rate was 91.81% (1 513/1 648) between microscopic and nested-PCR results. CONCLUSIONS: The capability of microscopists remains weak at grassroot medical institutions in Sichuan Province. Further training is required among microscopists to improve the malaria surveillance capability in Sichuan Province during the post-elimination stage.


Assuntos
Malária , Plasmodium , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Humanos , Laboratórios , Malária/diagnóstico , Malária/epidemiologia , Microscopia , Plasmodium/genética
10.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 33(5): 501-504, 2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34791848

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the susceptibility of Anopheles sinensis to malathion, deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin in Puyang City, Henan Province, so as to provide the scientific basis for local malaria vector control. METHODS: An. sinensis was captured from Puyang County, Puyang City of Henan Province in September 2018 and July 2020, and the susceptibility of field captured An. sinensis to malathion, deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin was tested using the filter-paper bioassay recommended by WHO. The insecticide resistance level was assessed based on the WHO criteria. RESULTS: In 2018 and 2010, the half knock-down times (KT50) of malathion were 91.08 min and 40.95 min for An. sinensis, with knock-down rates of 37.50% and 60.87% 60 min post-exposure to malathion and 24-hour mortality rates of 90.91% and 100%, respectively, and the insecticide resistance levels were moderately resistant (M) and susceptible (S). The KT50 of deltamethrin were 415.56 min and 341.19 min for An. sinensis in 2018 and 2020, with knock-down rates of 22.92% and 16.98% 60 min post-exposure to malathion and 24-hour mortality rates of 22.92% and 16.98%, and the insecticide resistance levels were all resistant (R). The KT50 of lambda-cyhalothrin were 164.22 min and 236.22 min for An. sinensis in 2018 and 2020, with knock-down rates of 30.39% and 38.30% 60 min postexposure to malathion and 24 h mortality rates of 19.60% and 21.28%, respectively, and the insecticide resistance levels were all R. CONCLUSIONS: An. sinensis is relatively susceptible to malathion but has developed high-level resistance to deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin in Puyang City, Henan Province..


Assuntos
Anopheles , Inseticidas , Malária , Piretrinas , Animais , Resistência a Inseticidas , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Controle de Mosquitos , Mosquitos Vetores , Nitrilas/farmacologia , Piretrinas/farmacologia
11.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 33(5): 544-550, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34791858

RESUMO

Mosquitoes are the main vectors of many infectious diseases, including malaria and yellow fever, which seriously threaten human health across the world. In addition to the use of chemical insecticides, genetic control is a new attempt to currently available interventions used for mosquito vector control. In terms of ecological safety, however, symbiotic control as a novel approach has been proposed for mosquito control. Since there are multiple symbiotic microflora inhabiting in a variety of tissues of mosquitoes, including the digestive tract, they may affect the transmission of mosquito-borne infectious diseases through affecting the lifespan, reproductive competence, and vector competence of the host. In this review, the interactions between symbionts in mosquitoes were summarized, and the research progress of mosquito-associated symbionts in the management of mosquitoborne infectious diseases was reviewed.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Malária , Animais , Vetores de Doenças , Humanos , Malária/prevenção & controle , Controle de Mosquitos , Mosquitos Vetores
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1140, 2021 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749657

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite a tremendous decline in the burden of malaria through public health interventions, it is yet remains a critical parasitic health problem in Ethiopia. Insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spray are considered as the most effective preventive interventions against malaria. This study intended to determine the role of health extension workers in influencing the relationship between vector control strategies and malaria prevalence in Ethiopia. METHODS: The study adopted a descriptive study based on panel data collected from 10 regions of Ethiopia from 2010 to 2018. The data collected were analyzed using STATA version 13.0. Structural equation modelling was used to assess the mediating effect of health extension workers in the relationship. Further, the random effect model was employed to investigate the direct relationship among the study variables. RESULTS: We observed a strong mediating role of health extension workers to the relationship between strategic interventions and malaria prevalence, where the direct path is (ß = 0.64, p < 0.05), and the indirect path (ß = 0.72, p < 0.001) and (ß = 0.98, p < 0.001) confirming the mediation condition to appear. Our analysis revealed that, insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spray significantly impacts the malaria prevalence (ß = 0.20, p < 0.05) and (ß = 0.70, p < 0.001) respectively. Further, our analysis suggests that the cumulative effect of indoor residual spray and insecticide-treated mosquito nets have helped better avert malaria prevalence (ß = 81.3%, P < 0.05). Moreover, the finding demonstrates the incremental rate of 30.2%, which is the indirect effect of the research [(ß = 0.813) - (ß1 = 0.511)]. CONCLUSION: The findings are potentially useful for the health sector in charge of infectious disease prevention and control, particularly in developing countries explaining how these group provided support to reduce malaria ensuring the provision of proper health message about the program.


Assuntos
Mosquiteiros Tratados com Inseticida , Inseticidas , Malária , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Controle de Mosquitos
13.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e210207, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34755820

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment of mycoses is often ineffective, usually prolonged, and has some side effects. These facts highlight the importance of discovering new molecules to treat fungal infections. OBJECTIVES: To search the Medicines for Malaria Venture COVID Box for drugs with antifungal activity. METHODS: Fourteen human pathogenic fungi were tested against the 160 drugs of this collection at 1.0 µM concentration. We evaluated the ability of the drugs to impair fungal growth, their fungicidal nature, and morphological changes caused to cells. FINDINGS: Thirty-four molecules (21.25%) presented antifungal activity. Seven are antifungal drugs and one is the agricultural fungicide cycloheximide. The other drugs with antifungal activity included antibiotics (n = 3), antimalarials (n = 4), antivirals (n = 2), antiparasitcs (n = 3), antitumor agents (n = 5), nervous system agents (n = 3), immunosuppressants (n = 3), antivomiting (n = 1), antiasthmatic (n = 1), and a genetic disorder agent (n = 1). Several of these drugs inhibited Histoplasma capsulatum and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis growth (15 and 20, respectively), while Fusarium solani was not affected by the drugs tested. Most drugs were fungistatic, but niclosamide presented fungicidal activity against the three dimorphic fungi tested. Cyclosporine affected morphology of Cryptococcus neoformans. MAIN CONCLUSIONS: These drugs represent new alternatives to the development of more accessible and effective therapies to treat human fungal infections.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Cryptococcus neoformans , Malária , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Humanos , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770086

RESUMO

There is broad consensus that successful and sustained larval source management (LSM) interventions, including bio-larviciding campaigns, require embeddedness in local community institutions. Ideally, these community structures should also be capable of mobilizing local resources to (co-)finance interventions. To date, farmer cooperatives, especially cooperatives of rice growers whose economic activity facilitates mosquito breeding, have remained under the radar in designing community-based bio-larviciding campaigns. This study explores the potential of rice farmer cooperatives in Bugesera district, Rwanda, to take up the aforementioned roles. To this purpose, we surveyed 320 randomly selected rice farmers who belonged to one of four rice cooperatives in the area and elicited their willingness-to-pay (WTP) for application of Bti, a popular bio-larvicide, in their rice paddies. Results from a (non-incentivized) bidding game procedure, which tested two alternative contribution schemes showed that financial contributions would be significantly different from zero and sufficient to carry a co-financing share of 15-25 per cent. A strong heterogeneity in mean WTP is revealed across cooperatives, in addition to variation among individual farmers, which needs to be anticipated when engaging farmer cooperatives in LSM.


Assuntos
Malária , Oryza , Animais , Fazendeiros , Humanos , Malária/prevenção & controle , Melhoramento Vegetal , Ruanda
15.
Chimia (Aarau) ; 75(11): 916-922, 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798913

RESUMO

We describe our work resulting in the selection of ACT-451840 ( 38 ) as a novel antimalarial drug with a novel mode of action. The compound was broadly characterized in vitro as well as in vivo in rat PK experiments as well as two different mouse malaria models. In the P. berghei infected mouse model cure could be achieved at oral doses of 300 mg/kg over 3 consecutive days. ACT-451840 was clinically investigated up to an experimental human malaria infection model, where therapeutic effects could be shown.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos , Malária , Acrilamidas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Camundongos , Piperazinas , Plasmodium berghei , Ratos
16.
Rev Saude Publica ; 55: 73, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730752

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the environmental production of malaria in the municipalities of Marabá, Parauapebas, and Canaã dos Carajás, in Pará, from 2014 to 2018. METHODS: This ecological, cross-sectional study used epidemiological data in the Sistema de Informações de Vigilância Epidemiológica da Malária (Malaria Epidemiological Surveillance Information System) from the Secretaria de Saúde do Estado do Pará (State of Pará Health Department), cartographic data from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE), and environmental data in the Projeto TerraClass (TerraClass Project) from the National Institute of Space Research (INPE). Statistical analyses used the chi-square test, while the spatial ones, the kernel and Moran's (I) global bivariate techniques. RESULTS: We analyzed a total of 437 confirmed cases of malaria in the selected area and period. The highest percentage of cases occurred among male miners and farmers, living in rural areas; Plasmodium vivax was the most frequent species; and the most used diagnosis, the thick drop/smear. We also observed a heterogeneous distribution of the disease - with evidence of spatial dependence between incidence areas and different forms of land use, and spatial autocorrelations related to the high variability of anthropic activities in the municipalities. CONCLUSION: The environmental production of malaria relates mainly to cattle production and mining - anthropisms related to land use and occupation in the observed municipalities. Spatial data analysis technologies sufficed for the construction of the epidemiological scenario of the disease.


Assuntos
Malária , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Cidades/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Incidência , Malária/epidemiologia , Masculino
17.
Korean J Parasitol ; 59(5): 513-518, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34724772

RESUMO

The incidence of vivax malaria in Korea was reduced to a low plateau. For successful elimination of vivax malaria, socio-behavioral changes in the communities are essential. This study aimed to figure out awareness of the inhabitants on the vivax malaria endemicity. The 407 participants including vivax malaria patients and uninfected inhabitants in Gimpo- and Paju-si, Gyeonggi-do, known as high-risk areas in Korea. We used a community-based study design and non-probability sampling method using primary data. Except for the perception about the public health facilities' capability to cope with anti-malaria programs, the 2 groups of participants shared the same level of awareness about public promotional and educational measures and opinions for malaria elimination from the community. Thus, our future goals for malaria prevention and elimination are to develop more active and well-organized community-based education and evaluation programs collaborating with the community healthcare authorities and local governments.


Assuntos
Malária Vivax , Malária , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Humanos , Malária Vivax/epidemiologia , Malária Vivax/prevenção & controle , Plasmodium vivax , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
18.
Mikrobiyol Bul ; 55(4): 603-616, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34666659

RESUMO

Microscopic methods are accepted as the gold standard in the diagnosis of malaria and in the followup of treatment. However, as the microscopical methods require experienced personnel, it is important to confirm the diagnosis with a different method for accurate diagnosis and treatment follow-up. In our study, we aimed to investigate the utility of the use of real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR), as well as microscopic methods for malaria treatment follow-up. In our study, we formed five groups each consisting of five male Balb/c mice. Each mouse was injected intraperitoneally with 107/ml Plasmodium berghei parasites. After 48 hours following the injection, the mice in the first, second and third groups received 50 mg/kg/day of chloroquine treatment for one, two and three days, respectively. The fourth group was not treated and the fifth group of mice received saline for three days. The parasitemia was monitored for 21 days by blood smears prepared from the end of tail of the mice and searching the presence of the target gene region of the parasite by rRT-PCR. Both the blood smears and rRT-PCR results were positive for groups I, II, IV and V. Both blood smears and rRT-PCR results of mice in groups other than the third group were found to be positive. Blood smears of the mice in third group were found to be positive on the 5th and 7th days of the infection, and the subsequent preparations were evaluated as negative. rRT-PCR results showed positivity on day seven, but no presence of the target gene region of the parasite was detected on the other days. The comparison of microscopy and rRT-PCR methods, had shown parallel results. Apart from the microscopic examination method, it was concluded that the rRT-PCR method is important in the diagnosis of malaria and in the follow-up of the patient during the treatment process, and that different methods that support each other should be used.


Assuntos
Malária , Animais , Cloroquina , Seguimentos , Humanos , Malária/diagnóstico , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Camundongos , Microscopia , Plasmodium berghei/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1073, 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34663245

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several inflammatory molecules participate in the immune response to malaria. Interleukin (IL)-18 is an inflammatory cytokine activated by NLRP3 inflammasomes. In clinical falciparum malaria, with and without HIV co-infection, data on IL-18 and in particular on its binding protein, IL-18bp, is scarce. METHODS: Clinical data and blood samples were collected from adults in Mozambique with P. falciparum infection, with (n = 70) and without (n = 61) HIV co-infection, from HIV-infected patients with similar symptoms without malaria (n = 58) and from healthy controls (n = 52). In vitro studies were performed in endothelial cells using hemozoin crystals. RESULTS: (i) IL-18 and IL-18bp were markedly up-regulated during falciparum malaria with particular high levels in malaria patients co-infected with HIV and severe malaria disease. (ii) In the malaria group as a whole, both IL-18 and IL-18bp were positively correlated with disease severity, parasitemia, and endothelial cell activation as assessed by vWF in plasma. (iii) Whereas there was no change in IL-18 levels in malaria patients co-infected with HIV during follow-up, the patients with malaria only had slightly increased IL-18 levels. Further, the IL-18pb levels declined and thereby contributed to an increase in IL-18/IL-18bp ratio in all subgroups of malaria patients. (iv) IL-27, previously shown to be up-regulated in this malaria cohort, markedly induced a release of IL-18bp from endothelial cells in vitro, and notably, this presumably anti-inflammatory effect was counteracted by hemozoin. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the IL-18 system could be an important mediator in the immune pathogenesis during falciparum malaria, potentially also representing a target for therapy.


Assuntos
Interleucina-18 , Malária , Células Endoteliais , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular , Parasitemia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
20.
Vaccine ; 39(43): 6398-6406, 2021 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593270

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We previously demonstrated that RTS,S/AS01B and RTS,S/AS01E vaccination regimens including at least one delayed fractional dose can protect against Plasmodium falciparum malaria in a controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) model, and showed inferiority of a two-dose versus three-dose regimen. In this follow-on trial, we evaluated whether fractional booster vaccination extended or induced protection in previously protected (P-Fx) or non-protected (NP-Fx) participants. METHODS: 49 participants (P-Fx: 25; NP-Fx: 24) received a fractional (1/5th dose-volume) RTS,S/AS01E booster 12 months post-primary regimen. They underwent P. falciparum CHMI three weeks later and were then followed for six months for safety and immunogenicity. RESULTS: Overall vaccine efficacy against re-challenge was 53% (95% CI: 37-65%), and similar for P-Fx (52% [95% CI: 28-68%]) and NP-Fx (54% [95% CI: 29-70%]). Efficacy appeared unaffected by primary regimen or previous protection status. Anti-CS (repeat region) antibody geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) increased post-booster vaccination. GMCs were maintained over time in primary three-dose groups but declined in the two-dose group. Protection after re-challenge was associated with higher anti-CS antibody responses. The booster was well-tolerated. CONCLUSIONS: A fractional RTS,S/AS01E booster given one year after completion of a primary two- or three-dose RTS,S/AS01 delayed fractional dose regimen can extend or induce protection against CHMI. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT03824236. linked to this article can be found on the Research Data as well as Figshare https://figshare.com/s/ee025150f9d1ac739361.


Assuntos
Vacinas Antimaláricas , Malária Falciparum , Malária , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Humanos , Malária Falciparum/prevenção & controle , Plasmodium falciparum , Vacinação
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...