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1.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1827, 2021 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627228

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) combine the impact of morbidity and mortality, allowing for comprehensive comparisons of the population. The aim was to estimate the DALYs due to Covid-19 in Malta (March 2020-21) and investigate its impact in relation to other causes of disease at a population level. METHODS: Mortality and weekly hospital admission data were used to calculate DALYs, based on the European Burden of Disease Network consensus Covid-19 model. Covid-19 infection duration of 14 days was considered. Sensitivity analyses for different morbidity scenarios, including post-acute consequences were presented. RESULTS: An estimated 70,421 people were infected (with and without symptoms) by Covid-19 in Malta (March 2020-1), out of which 1636 required hospitalisation and 331 deaths, contributing to 5478 DALYs. These DALYs positioned Covid-19 as the fourth leading cause of disease in Malta. Mortality contributed to 95% of DALYs, while post-acute consequences contributed to 60% of morbidity. CONCLUSIONS: Covid-19 over 1 year has impacted substantially the population health in Malta. Post-acute consequences are the leading morbidity factors that require urgent targeted action to ensure timely multidisciplinary care. It is recommended that DALY estimations in 2021 and beyond are calculated to assess the impact of vaccine roll-out and emergence of new variants.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pessoas com Deficiência , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Humanos , Malta/epidemiologia , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , SARS-CoV-2
2.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1828, 2021 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627201

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Seasonal influenza has major implications for healthcare services as outbreaks often lead to high activity levels in health systems. Being able to predict when such outbreaks occur is vital. Mathematical models have extensively been used to predict epidemics of infectious diseases such as seasonal influenza and to assess effectiveness of control strategies. Availability of comprehensive and reliable datasets used to parametrize these models is limited. In this paper we combine a unique epidemiological dataset collected in Malta through General Practitioners (GPs) with a novel method using cross-sectional surveys to study seasonal influenza dynamics in Malta in 2014-2016, to include social dynamics and self-perception related to seasonal influenza. METHODS: Two cross-sectional public surveys (n = 406 per survey) were performed by telephone across the Maltese population in 2014-15 and 2015-16 influenza seasons. Survey results were compared with incidence data (diagnosed seasonal influenza cases) collected by GPs in the same period and with Google Trends data for Malta. Information was collected on whether participants recalled their health status in past months, occurrences of influenza symptoms, hospitalisation rates due to seasonal influenza, seeking GP advice, and other medical information. RESULTS: We demonstrate that cross-sectional surveys are a reliable alternative data source to medical records. The two surveys gave comparable results, indicating that the level of recollection among the public is high. Based on two seasons of data, the reporting rate in Malta varies between 14 and 22%. The comparison with Google Trends suggests that the online searches peak at about the same time as the maximum extent of the epidemic, but the public interest declines and returns to background level. We also found that the public intensively searched the Internet for influenza-related terms even when number of cases was low. CONCLUSIONS: Our research shows that a telephone survey is a viable way to gain deeper insight into a population's self-perception of influenza and its symptoms and to provide another benchmark for medical statistics provided by GPs and Google Trends. The information collected can be used to improve epidemiological modelling of seasonal influenza and other infectious diseases, thus effectively contributing to public health.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Malta/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Telefone
3.
Public Health ; 198: 270-272, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492507

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 is a health burden threatening the elderly and those with comorbidities. Malta is an ageing and cardiometabolic country. The study depicts how Malta protected the elderly and the effect of vaccination on this subpopulation. STUDY DESIGN: Observational study with quantitative analyses. METHOD: Data were obtained from Malta's COVID dashboard, Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation and Maltese newspapers. The case-fatality ratio (CFR) and Years of Life Lost (YLLs) for COVID were calculated. Comparisons were made between COVID-19 mortality and YLL to the pre-COVID leading mortality causes. Comparative observations were made between positive and mortality cases stratified by age groups in relation to the cumulative vaccination doses. RESULTS: The elderly were cocooned during the first wave (CFR 0.98) through the Vulnerable Act, with only 10.80% of positive cases and seven out nine deaths above 65 years. The Vulnerable Act was not reinstated again, with 13.68% of positive cases and 91.34% (n = 369) of deaths above 65 years during the second wave (CRF 1.39). The elderly were given priority in COVID-19 vaccination rollout leading to an inverse relationship between positive cases/mortality and vaccination coverage. CONCLUSION: The elderly should be protected with timely restrictions to reduce morbidity, mortality and burden on healthcare systems. Vaccination is key to protecting the elderly, although mitigation measures, such as physical distancing, are still required to prevent the resurgence of infections and hospitalizations, especially in this group.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Idoso , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Humanos , Malta/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Vis Commun Med ; 44(4): 188-192, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34374329
5.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(10): e14605, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34228863

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The long-term control of COVID-19 depends on an effective global vaccination strategy. Protecting healthcare workers (HCWs) from serious infection is critical. Malta, a European country, initiated the vaccination roll-out using Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine targeting HCWs. This study determined vaccination adverse effects (AEs) in this cohort. METHOD: An online survey was disseminated to all HCWs via work email (29/3/21 to 9/4/21) to gather AEs regarding pain, redness and swelling at injection site, fever, chills, fatigue, muscle/joint pains, headache, vomiting and diarrhoea severity following each dose (Likert scale). Descriptive, comparative and multiple binary regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: A response of 30.30% (n = 1480) was achieved with the commonest AEs being pain at injection site (88.92% CI 95%: 87.21-90.42), mostly mild (51%) and moderate (43%). Fatigue was reported by 72.97% (CI 95%: 70.65-75.17), 42% were mild and 41% were moderate. Females reported significantly (P ≤ .05, respectively) more pain (OR: 1.90), redness (OR: 2.49), swelling at injection site (OR: 1.33), fever (OR: 1.74), chills (OR: 2.32), fatigue (OR: 2.43), muscle (OR: 1.54) and joint pains (OR: 2.01), headache (OR: 2.07) and vomiting (OR: 3.43) when adjusted for age and HCW role. Localised AEs were reported following both vaccine doses unlike systemic AEs that were mostly reported after second doses. CONCLUSION: Vaccination benefits outweigh the minor AEs experienced, with females exhibiting a higher susceptibility. The general low vaccination AEs observed within the HCW cohort is encouraging and should help in allaying vaccine hesitancy among the population.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Hospitais Estaduais , Humanos , Malta , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinação/efeitos adversos
6.
Pulm Med ; 2021: 5533123, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34258061

RESUMO

Method: Data was collected retrospectively from electronic hospital records during the periods 1st March until 10th May in 2019 and 2020. Results: There was a marked decrease in AECOPD admissions in 2020, with a 54.2% drop in admissions (n = 119 in 2020 vs. n = 259 in 2019). There was no significant difference in patient demographics or medical comorbidities. In 2020, there was a significantly lower number of patients with AECOPD who received nebulised medications during admission (60.4% in 2020 vs. 84.9% in 2019; p ≤ 0.001). There were also significantly lower numbers of AECOPD patients admitted in 2020 who received controlled oxygen via venturi masks (69.0% in 2020 vs. 84.5% in 2019; p = 0.006). There was a significant increase in inpatient mortality in 2020 (19.3% [n = 23] and 8.4% [n = 22] for 2020 and 2019, respectively, p = 0.003). Year was found to be the best predictor of mortality outcome (p = 0.001). The lack of use of SABA pre-admission treatment (p = 0.002), active malignancy (p = 0.003), and increased length of hospital stay (p = 0.046) were also found to be predictors of mortality for AECOPD patients; however, these parameters were unchanged between 2019 and 2020 and therefore could not account for the increase in mortality. Conclusions: There was a decrease in the number of admissions with AECOPD in 2020 during the COVID-19 pandemic, when compared to 2019. The year 2020 proved to be a significant predictor for inpatient mortality, with a significant increase in mortality in 2020. The decrease in nebuliser and controlled oxygen treatment noted in the study period did not prove to be a significant predictor of mortality when corrected for other variables. Therefore, the difference in mortality cannot be explained with certainty in this retrospective cohort study.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Malta , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0252854, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34260628

RESUMO

European Researchers' Night is an annual pan-European synchronized event devoted to public engagement with research. It was first held in 2005 and now occurs in over 400 cities across Europe, with the aim of bringing researchers closer to the general public. To investigate social inclusion in these events, we conducted survey research across three national contexts (Ireland, Malta and the UK) and events in seven cities between 2016 and 2019 (n = 1590). The results from this exploratory descriptive study confirmed one hypothesis, namely that event attendees had substantially higher levels of university qualification than the national publics. This is in line with wider patterns of unequal participation in public engagement with research activities based on socio-economic status. However, we also found mixed evidence on the prevalence of ethnic minority representation among event attendees compared to the general population, thus failing to uphold the second hypothesis that predicted an over-representation of white majority participants. This second finding diverges from existing research findings about ethnic diversity amongst science communication audiences, raising the possibility that some public engagement events are over-performing on this dimension of social inclusion. Overall, the findings demonstrate that European Researchers' Night has potential for addressing the critical goal of enhancing the diversity of audiences for public engagement with research, even as it falls short on the key metric of socio-economic diversity.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Irlanda , Masculino , Malta , Reino Unido
9.
10.
Zootaxa ; 4975(3): 544560, 2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34187031

RESUMO

Brachytrupes megacephalus (Lefebvre, 1827) is of significant biogeographic importance. It occurs in Sicily and on some of the circum-Sicilian and Pelagian islands, as well as in the Maltese Islands, Sardinia and the Maghreb (notably but not exclusively, in Algeria and Tunisia, where it maintains populations in both coastal and desert regions). Within European territory, it occurs solely in Italy and Malta, where it is protected under the EU Habitats Directive and the Bern Convention. In northern Africa, the species is regarded as a polyphagous pest, particularly in Saharan locations. The present work is based on field observations, mostly from the Maltese Islands, that span more than three decades; it provides insights on spatial distribution, population trends and behaviour. In examining the relationship between the species' frequency during its mating season and weather conditions, results suggest a weak yet statistically significant correlation between mating strategies and ambient meteorological conditions. Moreover, patch occupancy in spring and autumn varied considerably within a specified area of study, primarily due to competitive mating strategies employed in spring, with an occupancy ratio of approximately 1:6. To-date, the species is known from 13 locations, one in Gozo and 12 in Malta, of which some constitute the Ahrax promontory metapopulation. Connectivity between the Ahrax subpopulation cluster is discussed in the light of habitat and topographical characteristics. Contrasting findings on variances in behaviour between Maltese populations and other populations in Sicily and the Maghreb are discussed. Discernible behavioural disparities include the length of excavated tunnels during spring and summer/autumn seasons in the different geographical locations, attraction to artificial sources of light, and the degree of damage to crops across geographic regions.


Assuntos
Gryllidae/classificação , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Ecossistema , Ilhas , Malta , Estações do Ano
11.
J Tissue Viability ; 30(3): 339-345, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074581

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Many hospital settings are adopting a zero-tolerance policy towards pressure injury (PI) development; this requires good planning and the implementation of care, as the incidence of PIs reflects the quality of care given in a hospital or facility. AIM: To identify common contributing factors towards the development of PIs in a geriatric rehabilitation hospital and improve patient safety through the reduction of hospital-acquired PIs. METHOD: This was done using root cause analysis (RCA). All patients who developed a Stage 3 or 4 deep tissue injuries or unstageable hospital-acquired PI between December 2017 and April 2018 PIs were investigated using RCA. The RCA was facilitated through the use of a contributing framework developed by the National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel which guides investigations of different areas of care. Qualitative and quantitative data was collected from several sources and placed in a timeline to reconstruct the series of events. The investigator then identified if the PI was avoidable or not by comparing the evidence with pre-set criteria. Content analysis was further used to analyse the themes retrieved. RESULTS: A variety of root causes were common amongst all the cases. These included both flaws in the system, such as poor equipment and inadequate educational programmes, as well as human factors such as a lack of basic routine care. No skin assessment was being performed (n = 0) apart from the assessment done on admission. Documentation of action planning when it comes to PI prevention was also missing (n = 0). It was identified that 7 patients were mobilized on admission while the others (n = 3) had a delay in mobilisation, due to some fragmentation in care. There was no documentation of patient and relative education on the prevention of PIs (n = 0). All the patients were provided with the right pressure redistributing mattress however, some mattresses were bottoming out. Some causes overlapped, with system defects like lack of protocols, equipment and tools pushing human errors to occur. This created a series of events leading to the adverse event. The identification of these factors helped to provide an understanding of the changes that are needed to reduce future harm and improve patient safety. CONCLUSION: Recommendations were proposed to reduce contributing factors to the development of hospital-acquired PIs. These include audits to reinforce adherence to hospital guidelines, streamlining of the documentation system, investment in new equipment and improvements to educational programmes. The recommendations implemented resulted in a decreased incidence rate of HAPIs.


Assuntos
Doença Iatrogênica/epidemiologia , Lesão por Pressão/etiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Roupas de Cama, Mesa e Banho/normas , Roupas de Cama, Mesa e Banho/estatística & dados numéricos , Desenho de Equipamento/normas , Desenho de Equipamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Malta , Projetos Piloto , Análise de Causa Fundamental/métodos , Higiene da Pele/métodos , Higiene da Pele/normas , Higiene da Pele/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
J Vis Commun Med ; 44(4): 181-187, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33973833

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 remains pandemic with countries scrambling to mass vaccinate populations, prioritising health-care workers, the elderly and the vulnerable. Malta is a small Mediterranean country with a population of circa half a million with free healthcare at point-of-care. This paper reviews the adaptations made to cope with mass vaccination. METHODS: Permission was obtained to tour hospital facilities. Photographs were taken with and edited on a mobile phone, a previously utilised methodology. RESULTS: Vaccination commenced on 27/12/20 with priorities as above. Malta Medical School lecture halls were initially used, followed by outpatients at the country's regional hospital, as well as other lecture halls, and National Health Service clinics. Virtually all medically vulnerable individuals have had their first doses as well as most individuals ≥60 years of age, with the 55-60 year age group currently targeted. Malta is well ahead of the European Union average. DISCUSSION: Exacting logistics and cooperation by all local authorities (such as the University of Malta) has resulted in a highly successful vaccine rollout. The eventual licencing of vaccination for children and the availability of booster dose/s will further facilitate the eventual attainment of herd immunity. This must be a global effort lest escape variants render these efforts futile.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Idoso , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Criança , Humanos , Malta , Vacinação em Massa , SARS-CoV-2 , Medicina Estatal , Vacinação
14.
J Soc Psychol ; 161(4): 477-491, 2021 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33906584

RESUMO

What mitigates prejudice against migrants in situations of uncertainty? Addressing this question, we explored how individuals with greater COVID-19 concern perceive migrants as a greater threat and show prejudice against them, indirectly through the mechanism of need for cognitive closure and binding moral foundations.This study was conducted in two European countries: Malta and Italy. Six hundred and seventy-six individuals participated in this quantitative study (Malta: N = 204; Italy N = 472). Results from this study showed that the need for cognitive closure and binding moral foundations mediate the relationship between COVID-19 concern and prejudice against migrants in both countries. When testing the three binding moral foundations (loyalty, authority, and purity), the authority foundation seems to be the most consistent predictor.The implications of the findings contribute to theories about how situational uncertainty caused by COVID-19, together with the need for epistemic certainty and binding morality, contribute to increased prejudiced attitudes against migrants.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Princípios Morais , Preconceito/psicologia , Migrantes/psicologia , Incerteza , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cognição , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Malta , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Preconceito/estatística & dados numéricos , SARS-CoV-2 , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Front Public Health ; 9: 587459, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33869124

RESUMO

Citizens and scientists can work together to improve the collective well-being, if citizens are inspired to help the advancement of science, and researchers motivated to listen to the voices of citizens. The benefits of such collaboration are increasingly recognized by both citizens and scientists, as reflected in the growing number of related publications and initiatives. This is especially relevant for emerging areas of research, where early involvement of citizens could help to envision, prioritize, and plan prospective studies. The Problematic Usage of the Internet (PUI) is one such area, which is fast becoming a public mental health concern. However, there remains a lack of clarity regarding the practical guidelines and ethical requirements for citizen involvement at the earliest stages of PUI. In our paper, we propose a conceptual framework and a template for initial involvement of citizens in PUI. They are derived from our community case studies, conducted in six European countries (Georgia, Greece, Malta, North Macedonia, Portugal, and Spain) and consisting of consultation with diverse groups of interested citizens (students, parents, teachers, and health professionals). Informed by our consultation exercises, we also highlight four ethical aspects for citizen involvement in the research on PUI or novel disciplines in general. They follow simple guiding principles to ensure that scientists will: enable a long-term commitment and inclusive opportunities for citizens, challenge established power hierarchies, and support collaboration, co-production and co-authorship with citizens. We believe that the proposed practical guidelines and ethical considerations, provide a valuable foundation on which to advance our understanding and generate international strategies for citizen involvement in PUI.


Assuntos
Internet , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Europa (Continente) , Georgia , Grécia , Humanos , Malta , Portugal , Estudos Prospectivos , República da Macedônia do Norte , Espanha
16.
Ulster Med J ; 90(1): 16-21, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33642629

RESUMO

Background: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder which can have a strong impact on patients' quality of life including influence on various social aspects and psychological ramifications. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence and consequences of IBS in medical students and junior doctors in Malta. Method: An online survey was sent out to all medical students enrolled at University of Malta and all doctors training with the Malta Foundation Programme. Key Results: The prevalence of IBS was 17.7% (total number =192), with 6.2% being previously diagnosed with IBS and the rest (11.5%) having symptoms consistent with IBS according to the Rome IV criteria. There was no statistically significant difference in BMI and in activity level as determined by the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire between IBS and non-IBS group.Absenteeism was significantly commoner in students/ doctors with IBS (47.1%) than in those without IBS (9.5%; p=0.0001). Of those previously diagnosed with IBS, 66.7% self-medicated compared to 45.4% of those diagnosed through the questionnaire. 71.6% of those in the IBS group tried dietary modification as to control their symptoms.On the Kessler 6 Distress scale, 91.2% of the IBS group had a score >6, with 44.1% having a score >13. The mean Visceral Sensitivity Index Score was 40.1 (95% CI 33.6 - 46.6). Conclusion: IBS is prevalent, yet under-recognized, in medical students and junior doctors. Measures should be instituted for timely, confidential detection and management of IBS and its related psychological consequences.


Assuntos
Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/epidemiologia , Corpo Clínico Hospitalar/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/psicologia , Masculino , Malta/epidemiologia , Corpo Clínico Hospitalar/psicologia , Prevalência , Qualidade de Vida , Distribuição por Sexo , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
17.
Nurs Open ; 8(4): 1812-1821, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33675289

RESUMO

AIM: To compare undergraduate nursing students' evaluations of a gamified educational webinar to a non-gamified version. Both webinars covered the topic "Determinants of health," part of public health education. DESIGN: A post-test evaluation design with a comparison group, and an additional qualitative component. METHODS: First-year students reading for a Bachelor of Science in Nursing at the Malta College of Arts, Science and Technology were randomly allocated into two classes of 26 students each, and to the gamified and non-gamified webinars. The revised "Students Evaluations of Educational Quality" questionnaire was sent to all participants. Participants were also asked to provide comments on their learning experience. RESULTS: A total of 40 participants who attended the gamified and non-gamified webinars completed the questionnaire. Educational quality was perceived as "good" to "very good," in both groups. Most participants in the gamified webinar group remarked that gamification helped to increase their engagement and interaction.


Assuntos
Bacharelado em Enfermagem , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Malta , Projetos Piloto , Saúde Pública
18.
Isotopes Environ Health Stud ; 57(3): 301-315, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33769149

RESUMO

Emissions from traffic over the past few decades have become a significant source of air pollution. Among the pollutants emitted are nitrogen oxides (NOx), exposure to which can be detrimental to public health. Recent studies have shown that nitrogen (N) stable isotope ratios in tree-rings and foliage express a fingerprint of their major N source, making them appropriate for bio-monitoring purposes. In this study, we have applied this proxy to Aleppo pines (Pinus halepensis) at three distances from one of the busiest roads in Malta, a country known to suffer from intense traffic pollution. Our results showed that N and organic carbon (C) stable isotope ratios in tree-rings do not vary over the period 1980-2018 at any of the investigated sites; however, statistically significant spatial trends were apparent in both tree-rings and foliage. The roadside and transitional sites exhibited more positive δ15N and more negative δ13C values compared to those at a rural control site. This is likely due to the incorporation of 15N-enriched NOx and 13C-depleted CO2 from traffic pollution. Sampled top-soil also exhibited the δ15N trend. Our results constitute the first known application of dendrogeochemistry to atmospheric pollution monitoring in Malta.


Assuntos
Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Poluição Relacionada com o Tráfego/análise , Árvores/anatomia & histologia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Malta , Solo/química , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 166: 112200, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33677331

RESUMO

This study aims to determine the level of floating marine litter in coastal and inshore areas around Malta and Gozo (Central Mediterranean) and to investigate factors which influence litter distribution. Observations of macro-litter and mega-litter were conducted through seasonal boat surveys around Malta and Gozo during 2018-2019. Visual observations were conducted along line transects whilst maintaining a 6 m observation width. For coastal areas, of up to -1 km away from the shoreline, the total density of litter ranged between 27 and 2428 items/km2, with a mean of 292 ± 85 items/km2. Within inshore areas the density varied between 180 and 46,289 items/km2, with a mean of 3242 ± 1880 items/km2. The highest density was present in winter, this being 2.5 higher than the lowest density season. 91% of the litter was plastic. The manner in which anthropogenic factors and natural events influenced litter accumulations and distributions, are described.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Resíduos , Malta , Mar Mediterrâneo , Plásticos , Estações do Ano , Resíduos/análise
20.
Pharm. pract. (Granada, Internet) ; 19(1): 0-0, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-201721

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pandemic is at a paradoxical stage, with vaccine roll out initiated but a significantly elevated level of infection and death. Hope for recovery lies in high equitable vaccine uptake. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to: i) explore attitudes and factors influencing attitudes, towards the COVID-19 vaccine amongst people living in Malta, ii) identify the reasons as to why individuals are unsure or unwilling to take the vaccine. METHODS: Two consecutive, short, anonymous online surveys using social media platforms were used to gather data from adult individuals. The first study was open to residents in Malta, while the second study invited international participation. Study 1 consisted of 17 questions inspired by the Theories of Planned Behaviour and Reasoned Action. Study 2 asked participates whether they were willing, unwilling or unsure of taking the vaccine and their reasons for being unsure or unwilling. RESULTS: A total of 2,529 individuals participated in Study 1 and 834 in Study 2. In both studies respondents were predominantly female having a tertiary education. Over 50% declared that they were willing to take the vaccine, with males being more willing (t=5.83, df=1164.2, p < 0.00005). Opinions of significant others- family and friends (r=0.22, p < 0.005) and health professionals (r=0.74, p < 0.005) were associated with willingness to take the vaccine. Vaccine hesitancy was present in the study population with 32.6% being unsure and 15.6% declaring that they were not willing to take the vaccine. Females were more likely to be unsure (Chi-squared=14.63, df=4, p = 0.006). Lack of vaccine safety was the main reason cited for unwillingness to take the vaccine. Predictors for willingness to take the vaccine were: i) The belief that the COVID-19 vaccine will protect the health of the people who take it; ii) Valuing the advice of health professionals regarding the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccine; iii) Having taken the influenza vaccine last year and; iv) Encouraging their elderly parents to take the vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 vaccination information campaigns should promote group strategies, focusing on emphasising the safety of the vaccine and offer reassurance, especially to women


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Programas de Imunização/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinação em Massa/estatística & dados numéricos , Atitude , Intenção , Vírus da SARS/patogenicidade , Vacinas/administração & dosagem , Programas de Imunização/organização & administração , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Movimento contra Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Malta/epidemiologia
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