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1.
Caries Res ; 55(3): 193-204, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34000728

RESUMO

This study evaluated the effect of experimental solutions containing plant extracts on bacterial species and enamel caries prevention. Microcosm biofilm was produced from human saliva mixed with McBain saliva (0.2% sucrose) on bovine enamel for 5 days (3 days under anaerobiosis and 2 days under aerobiosis) at 37°C. From the 2nd day, the following treatments were applied (1 × 60 s/day): Vochysia tucanorum (10 mg/mL); Myrcia bella (5 mg/mL); Matricaria chamomilla (80 mg/mL); Malva sylvestris, fluoride, and xylitol (Malvatricin Plus®); 0.12% chlorhexidine (CHX, PerioGard®); and PBS (negative control). The medium pH was measured. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed for the detection of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus spp. Enamel demineralization was measured by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. The data were compared by means of the Kruskal-Wallis/Dunn, two-way ANOVA/Bonferroni, and ANOVA/Tukey tests (p < 0.05). The pH decreased after sucrose exposure; only CHX reestablished pH >5.5 by the last day. CHX also eliminated Lactobacillusspp., but the other treatments did not differ significantly from PBS. Malvatricin Plus® and CHX eliminated S. mutans, but the other treatments did not differ from PBS. Similar results were seen concerning the reduction of lesion depth and reflectivity. The experimental natural-extract solutions were ineffective against cariogenic bacteria and in preventing the development of enamel caries.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Malva , Matricaria , Desmineralização do Dente , Animais , Biofilmes , Bovinos , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Suscetibilidade à Cárie Dentária , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Streptococcus mutans
2.
Molecules ; 26(8)2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33917070

RESUMO

Hair loss by excessive stress from work and lifestyle changes has become a growing concern, particularly among young individuals. However, most drugs for alopecia impose a plethora of side effects. We have found the powerful impact of Malva verticillata seed extracts on alleviating hair loss. This study further isolated effective chemicals in M. verticillata seed extracts by liquid silica gel column chromatography. Under the screening for the growth rate (%) of human follicles dermal papilla cells (HFDPCs), we identified linoleic acid (LA) and oleic acid in n-hexane of M. verticillate (MH)2 fraction. LA treatment activated Wnt/ß-catenin signaling and induced HFDPCs growth by increasing the expression of cell cycle proteins such as cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 2. LA treatment also increased several growth factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor, insulin-like growth factor-1, hepatocyte growth factor, and keratinocyte growth factor, in a dose-dependent manner. Besides, LA significantly inhibited Dickkopf-related protein expression (DKK-1), a primary alopecia signaling by dihydrotestosterone. Our findings suggest that LA treatment may alleviate a testosterone-induced signaling molecule and induces HFDPCs growth by activating Wnt/ß-catenin signaling.


Assuntos
Folículo Piloso/citologia , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/agonistas , Ácido Linoleico/farmacologia , Malva/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sementes/química , Biomarcadores , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Fracionamento Químico , Expressão Gênica , Folículo Piloso/metabolismo , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/metabolismo , Ácido Linoleico/química , Ácido Linoleico/isolamento & purificação , Modelos Biológicos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Via de Sinalização Wnt/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Chemosphere ; 271: 129524, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33460895

RESUMO

Visible-light-responsible S-doped TiO2(GST) nanoparticles (NPs) are synthesized via sol-gel process, and an aqueous extract of Malva parviflora (MP) plant is used as the green and versatile medium with excellent reducing and capping properties to facilitate the S-doping and crystal growth of anatase. Compared with the counterpart (CST) derived from the conventional organic solvent. GST show a smaller average particle size (20.3 vs. 29.5 nm) with a larger surface area (135 vs 95 m2/g), together with the more significant red shift to longer wavelength in the visible light region. XPS analysis shows Ti4+ cations are substituted by S6+ ions into the lattice structure of TiO2 for both samples. The photodynamics of CST and GST catalysts are examined by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, which shows the surface Ti3+ sites can be oxidized easily by the surface adsorbed O2 molecules, forming O2- radicals. Their photocatalytic activities (PCA) are evaluated by degrading methyl orange (MO) dye under the visible light irradiation. GST exhibit higher PCA in MO bleaching and chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction. In addition, antimicrobial and antioxidant assays of CST and GST NPs also show that the irradiated NPs samples show higher antibacterial activities. GST NPs have a higher antibacterial activity than CST NPs against all tested bacteria and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is optimized to 25 µg/mL. The in-vitro antioxidant activity evaluated by the radical cation de-colorization test using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) further demonstrates that GST NPs give a better antioxidant activity.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Malva , Nanopartículas , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Iluminação , Extratos Vegetais , Luz Solar , Titânio
4.
Nat Prod Res ; 35(6): 1064-1069, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429300

RESUMO

The emphasis of the present study is to evaluate a natural product and the potential microbicide activity using a dual chamber infection method. Malva sylvestris extracts and fractions were screened for anti-HIV activity by measuring the virus-antibody neutralization. Plant extracts with strong antiviral activity working in nanomolar or picomolar range can be used to enhance the activity of synthetic compounds and work as anti-HIV agents. The aqueous fraction (AF) of M. sylvestris demonstrated antiviral activity in a model with epithelial and blood cell lines. The AF showed an effective antiviral potential on the TZM-bl cells with reduction scores higher than 60% of infectivity. Quantification of p24 in the supernatant of the co-culture model demonstrated a reduction in the number of viral particles after AF treatment (p < 0.05). Cytokines were quantified and all signaling inflammatory markers; IL1-alpha, IL-beta, IL-6, IL-8 and GM-CSF (p < 0.05) were modulated by positive control and AF treatments. In particular, IL-6 had lower levels of expression in Malva groups when compared to the Zidovudine positive control group. Natural occurring derivatives of M. sylvestris demonstrated to work inhibiting reverse transcriptase enzyme action. M. sylvestris contains highly potential anti-HIV-1 BaL components and may be considered a potential source for new formulations in the development of topical microbicides.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Malva/química , Animais , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Fracionamento Químico , Citocinas/metabolismo , Proteína do Núcleo p24 do HIV/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
5.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 268: 113633, 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33253829

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Malvaviscus arboreus is traditionally used in Mexico and Central America for culinary and medicinal purposes. Leaves and flowers of this species are commonly used for preparation of salads, herbal teas and herbal dyes. Panamanian, Guatemalan and Mexican healers use this medicinal plant for the management of fever, respiratory complications, dysentery, liver and gallbladder problems, stomachache and gastritis between other health troubles. AIM OF THE STUDY: Considering the traditional use of M. arboreous as well as its content in flavonoids and other polyphenols, the objective of this work was to evaluate the gastroprotective effect of an aqueous extract and identify the potential bio-active principles from flowers of this species. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fresh flowers of Malvaviscus arboreus were collected, dried, and macerated with water. The aqueous extract (ExAq) was partitioned using an immiscible mixture of water and ethyl acetate, giving an aqueous (MaAq) and organic (MaEA) fractions. The gastroprotective effect was carried out using an ethanol-induced gastric ulcer experimental test in male rats. While tween 20 was used as a negative control, famotidine (10 mg/kg) and L-arginine (300 mg/kg) were used as positive controls. Compounds 1 and 2 were isolated by several chromatographic techniques and the chemical characterization was carried out by means of the analysis of the NMR spectra in one and two dimensions. RESULTS: The integrate extract (ExAq) to 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg showed gastroprotective effect with high levels of 97.8%, 79.5% and 91.1% respectively. The organic fraction (MaEA) displayed a protection of 91.2%, 96.0% and 99.4% when it was evaluated at 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg respectively. Comparison of these results with famotidine at 10 mg/kg (83% of gastroprotection) indicated that ethyl acetate fraction showed a better gastroprotection. The bio-guided separation of this organic mixture, allowed obtaining the most active fraction (C1F4, 60 mg/kg) which was finally purified to obtain two glycosylated flavonols: kaempferol 3-O-D-sophoroside (1) and kaempferol 3-O-D-sambubioside (2). This mixture of flavonoids (40 y 60 mg/kg) showed 93.7 and 92% of gastroprotective activity respectively. CONCLUSION: This study allowed demonstrating that an aqueous extract and its organic fraction (MaEA) from M. arboreous contain glycosylated flavonoids (1 and 2) which are responsible of the gastroprotective properties of M. arboreous. These results will be used in the future development of a standardized treatment useful in the therapeutic management of gastric ulcers.


Assuntos
Antiulcerosos/uso terapêutico , Glicosídeos/uso terapêutico , Quempferóis/uso terapêutico , Malva , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Úlcera Gástrica/prevenção & controle , Animais , Antiulcerosos/isolamento & purificação , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Etanol/toxicidade , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/isolamento & purificação , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/uso terapêutico , Glicosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Quempferóis/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Úlcera Gástrica/induzido quimicamente , Úlcera Gástrica/patologia
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 206: 111403, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011513

RESUMO

The present work was aimed to study the effect of melatonin pretreatments on growth, oxidative stress modulation, cadmium (Cd) accumulation, and tolerance in mallow (Malva parviflora, Malvaceae) plants under the hydroponic system. Application of substances that can modulate the harmful effects of Cd on plant yield and reduce its accumulation in the edible parts is of particular importance. Therefore, the mallow plants pretreated with 15, 50, and 100 µM of melatonin were exposed to 50 µM Cd. Our results showed that melatonin, especially at 15 and 50 µM, led to positive effects on Cd tolerance, including a significant increase in growth, photosynthetic pigments, and soluble protein content. Exogenous melatonin could improve relative water content (RWC) and stomatal conductance in the plants treated with Cd, probably through an increase in proline. Further, lower concentrations of melatonin led to a decrease in Cd translocation to the shoots. Based on the results, melatonin considerably increased catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) activities as well as the production of phenols. The increased activity of antioxidant enzymes led to a decrease in electrolyte leakage (EL), lipid peroxidation, and H2O2 content in the plants exposed to Cd stress. Under Cd stress, the increased phenols content in melatonin-pretreated plants could be due to the induction of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity and an increase in shoot soluble carbohydrates. The results showed that the use of melatonin could reduce oxidative stress and improve biomass in the plants exposed to Cd. At least in our experimental conditions, this information appears to be useful for healthy food production.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Bioacumulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Cádmio/toxicidade , Malva/efeitos dos fármacos , Melatonina/farmacologia , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Cádmio/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Malva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Malva/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Prolina/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
7.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 114: 111039, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994005

RESUMO

In this study, new polyurethane (PU)-based nanofibers wound dressings containing Malva sylvestris extract were prepared and their effect on diabetic wound healing process was evaluated. Different amounts of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) were used to improve the absorption ability of wound exudates. The result showed that the usage of 20% w/w CMC in the polymer blend; and producing of nanofibers with an average diameter of 386.5 nm, led to the gradual release of the herbal compound in 85 h and bead-free morphology. Due to the antibacterial activity of wound dressing and wound healing process, the amount of 15% w/w herbal extract was selected as the optimum. For this sample, the fluid absorption was 412.31%. The extract loaded wound dressing samples showed satisfactory effects on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli bacteria. In vivo wound-healing and histological performance observations indicated that the use of the herbal extract in wound dressing improved wound healing significantly. On day 14, the average healing rate for gauze bandage, PU/CMC, and different amounts of 5, 10, 15 and 20% w/w extract containing wound dressings was 32.1 ± 0.2%, 51.4 ± 0.4%, 71 ± 0.14%, 87.64 ± 1.02%, 95.05 ± 0.24% and 95.11 ± 0.2%, respectively. Compared to the control groups, treatments with extract loaded wound dressings were effective in lowering acute and chronic inflammations. In diabetic rat wounds, collagen deposition and neovascularization were higher in wounds treated with an herbal extract containing wound dressing compared to the wounds treated with a gauze bandage and PU/CMC treated wounds. It can be suggested that this product may be considered as a good dual anti-inflammatory-antimicrobial wound dressing candidate for improving the diabetic wound healing.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Malva , Nanofibras , Animais , Carboximetilcelulose Sódica , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Poliuretanos , Ratos , Cicatrização
8.
Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol ; 393(7): 1281-1291, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32342135

RESUMO

Malva parviflora is used as food in the gastronomy of some regions of Mexico and, also, in Mexican traditional medicine for inflammation-related conditions like rheumatoid arthritis. The objective of this work was to evaluate its antiarthritic activity in a mice model. In ICR, female mice were tested the dichloromethane extract (MpD) and fractions MpF4 (extracted with a dichoromethane:methanol system) and MpFphy (a precipitate by acetone:methanol) by using the mono-arthritis with kaolin/carrageenan model. During the treatment, joint inflammation was measured daily, and hyperalgesia was measured using the hot plate test. The treatments diminished both joint inflammation and pain. At the end of the evaluation, the left joint and spleen were extracted for determination of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. The results showed that the MpD, MpF4, and MpFphy treatments modulated the concentration of these proteins. Specifically, MpFphy at 1.0 mg/kg increased IL-4 and IL-10 and decreased IL-17, IL-1ß, and TNF-α. GC-MS analysis showed that MpF4 contained a mixture of a total of nine compounds, three of them newly reported for the species. The studies confirmed the presence of five sterols in the MpFphy fraction, including stigmasterol and ß-sitosterol. These results confirm the anti-rheumatoid and anti-inflammatory activities of a fraction rich in sterols from Malva parviflora. Graphical abstract.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antirreumáticos/farmacologia , Malva/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Antirreumáticos/isolamento & purificação , Artrite Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Experimental/patologia , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Reumatoide/patologia , Carragenina , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/patologia , Caulim , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Esteróis/isolamento & purificação , Esteróis/farmacologia
9.
J Integr Med ; 18(2): 181-188, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32113847

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the hydroalcoholic extracts of Malva sylvestris flowers or Carum carvi and Medicago sativa seeds, alone and in combination, which have been used in traditional Iranian medicine. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into 6 treatment groups: distilled water, sodium salicylate (SS), M. sylvestris extract (600 mg/kg), C. carvi extract (600 mg/kg), M. sativa extract (300 mg/kg) and combined extract (including 300 mg/kg M. sylvestris and C. carvi extracts, and 150 mg/kg M. sativa extract). The formalin pain model was used to evaluate the antinociceptive effects of the treatments. For anti-inflammatory effect, acute (one hour after injection) and chronic (during a week after injection) paw inflammation was measured after subcutaneous injection of 2.5% formalin in the hindpaw. Finally, tissue samples from all groups were prepared for histopathological studies. RESULTS: The combined extract significantly inhibited the nociception in the acute phase of the formalin test (P < 0.001). In the chronic phase, all the extracts and SS had significant analgesic effect (P < 0.001). Analgesic activity of the combined extract was significantly stronger than SS (P < 0.01). In the acute inflammation model, M. sylvestris, C. carvi and the combined drug had significant inhibitory effects against paw edema (P < 0.05). All extracts, individually and in combination, significantly alleviated chronic paw inflammation (P < 0.01). The combined extract had much more anti-inflammatory activity than SS (P < 0.05). Histopathological results indicated improvement and reduction of inflammatory factors in the treatment groups. CONCLUSION: M. sylvestris, C. carvi and M. sativa have analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. Potentially, each of these extracts or a mixture of them might be a valuable alternative drug to control pain and inflammation.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Carum , Malva , Medicago sativa , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Combinação de Medicamentos , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional , Nociceptividade/efeitos dos fármacos , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Medição da Dor , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Ratos Wistar
10.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 96: 254-261, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31839587

RESUMO

The dietary effects of a native medicinal plant from Iran, common mallow (Malvae sylvestris), was evaluated on growth performance, innate immune parameters, mucosal immune parameters, and resistance of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) against Yersinia ruckeri. Therefore, 360 fish (initial weight 10.42 ± 0.09 g) were randomly distributed into 12 fiberglass tanks. Experimental diets supplemented with 0 (as control- C), 1% (M1), 3% (M2) and 5% (M3) levels of M. sylvestris flowers extract were fed to the fish based on 3% of body weight for 8 weeks. At the terminal sampling, growth performance, liver and digestive enzymes activities, blood and mucosal immune responses were determined. Results showed that M2 and M3 had greater final weight, weight gain, SGR, survival rate and lower FCR; higher levels of total protein, albumin, globulin, and lower cortisol levels in comparison to control; 5% extract also lowered cholesterol and glucose levels as well as Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) activity. We reported higher values of hematocrit, hemoglobin, Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH), Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV), White Blood Cell (WBC), Red Blood Cell (RBC) and lymphocytes for treated groups. Innate immune responses (Alternative complement activity (ACH50) in M2 and M3 group, total Immunoglobulin (Ig) and lysozyme in M3), mucosal immune parameters (ACH50, total Ig for M2 and M3 group and lysozyme in all treated groups) were enhanced. Activities of digestive enzymes (protease in all treated groups, amylase for 3 and 5%, while lipase only for 5%) and lower activity of liver ALT enzyme in individuals treated with highest dose was observed. Overall results indicated that the extract can positively affect growth performance and immune responses of rainbow trout.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Imunidade Inata , Malva/química , Oncorhynchus mykiss/imunologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Resistência à Doença/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade nas Mucosas/efeitos dos fármacos , Oncorhynchus mykiss/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Distribuição Aleatória , Yersiniose/imunologia , Yersiniose/veterinária , Yersinia ruckeri/fisiologia
11.
Phytother Res ; 34(3): 546-567, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713320

RESUMO

Malvaceae family is typical from the Mediterranean region, contains 240 genera and more than 4,200 species. They are most commonly used as ornamental plants, although they can also be conceived as a food resource and remedy for various diseases, such as digestive, respiratory, genitourinary, throat infections, and skeletal and skin disorders, as also injuries where they are profoundly applied for skin care and as antiseptic and demulcent. They also possess diuretic, lenitive, spasmolytic, and laxative effects, besides to be used as antidiarrheal. Thus, the present review provides in-depth data on Malva spp. potential applications and phytochemical composition for food and pharmaceutical industries. Habitat and cultivation conditions and the clinical reports related to its biological effects are also emphasized. Malva spp. possess a wide variety of chemical constituents (such as polysaccharides, coumarins, flavonoids, polyphenols, vitamins, terpenes, and tannins) found in different plant organs, especially in leaves and flowers, connected to their biological activity. In general, Malva spp. have rather moderate antimicrobial activity, high antiinflammatory and wound healing activities, strong antioxidant activity, and anticancer properties. Results from in vitro and in vivo experiments encourage more in-depth studies, namely clinical trials, towards to improve knowledge on the use of Malva spp. for the treatment of various health conditions in humans.


Assuntos
Malva/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cumarínicos/análise , Flavonoides/análise , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais , Polissacarídeos/análise , Taninos/análise , Terpenos/análise , Vitaminas/análise
12.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 249: 112401, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31739103

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVENCE: The use of herbal medicines is increasing in developed countries as alternative and/or supportive therapy to conventional health care medicines. Malva neglecta Wallr. (Family: Malvaceae) has been reported as wound healing remedy in traditional medicines, however no experimental data is available on its wound healing potentials. The aim of this study was to explore phytochemistry and validate wound healing potentials of the plant using animal models. MATERIALS AND METHODS: M. neglecta crude methanolic extract (Mn.Cme) was chemically characterized using HPLC-DAD and GCMS analysis. Acute dermal toxicity was determined in albino rats following Organization of Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) 402 established standards. Wound healing potentials were evaluated in rats using excision wound model. Wounds (177 mm2) were made by an excision on the skin of rats which were placed individually in cages. Mn.Cme was formulated in ointment form and was applied topically onto the wound area once daily for 14 days. The wound area was measured with translucent paper and thereafter estimated on a 1 mm2 graph sheet every 3rd day until epithelialization and complete wound closure was recorded. Wound contraction was calculated as a percentage of the original wound size. Antioxidant potentials were also evaluated via FRAP, DPPH and H2O2 free radicals scavenging assays. RESULTS: HPLC-DAD analysis revealed 25 phenolic compounds with higher amounts of hydrotyrosol (109.3 mg/g), coumaroylhexoside (97.4 mg/g), kaempferol-3-(p-coumaroyldiglucoside)-7-glucoside (37.2 mg/g), quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (31.5 mg/g) and epicatechin-3-O-(4-O-methyl)-gallate (31.3 mg/g). In GC-MS analysis, oleic acid (19.67%), taurine (17.60%), ethylene dimercaptan (14.67%), isoeugenol (14.61%), patchoulane (10.36%), methyl 12-methyltetradecanoate (8.47%) and isopropyl myristate (7.02%) were highly abundant compounds. No sign of toxicity was observed in the acute dermal toxicity test. Our test sample (Mn.Cme) exhibited considerable wound healing tendency at all doses (1 g, 1.5 g, 2 g per 10 g of ointment base) with reduced epithelialization period in a dose-related manner. Absolute healing was observed after application of 2 g of Mn.Cme ointment. Further, Mn.Cme exhibited considerable anti-radical potential in all assays. CONCLUSION: It may be concluded that M. neglecta possess very potent secondary metabolites which are previously reported for wound healing potentials. The plant has considerable antioxidant and wound healing properties and thus warrant further studies to uncover the molecular mechanism its wound healing potentials.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Malva/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Metanol/química , Pomadas , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta/química , Polifenóis/química , Polifenóis/isolamento & purificação , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/lesões , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda
13.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 187: 109811, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654866

RESUMO

This study was conducted to investigate the role of phenolic compounds in the antioxidant defense system in Malva parviflora L. plants treated with cadmium (Cd). After surface sterilization, the seeds were sown on seedling trays. Forty-day-old plants were then transferred to hydroponic cultures with Cd (40 µM) or without Cd (control). Some biochemical and physiological parameters were assayed on the sixth day after Cd treatment. Based on the results, the plants showed an increase in leaf soluble carbohydrates, total phenolic compounds, total flavonoids, and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity at the end of the exposure period. However, length, fresh weight, chlorophyll (Chl) b, total Chl, stomatal conductance and starch content decreased under Cd treatment. There was no significant difference between the plants exposed to Cd and the control group for Chl a, SPAD index, carotenoids, and anthocyanins as well as the H2O2 content six days after treatment. The Cd content in the roots was considerably higher than that in the shoots. In assessing the antioxidant capacity of plant extracts, different results were observed using 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) test and beta-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching assay. According to the results of this study, it seems that increased activity of PAL enzyme leads to an increase in biosynthesis of phenolic compounds in M. parviflora. This mechanism probably increases the antioxidant capacity of the plant to suppress Cd-induced toxicity and oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Cádmio/toxicidade , Malva/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Malva/metabolismo , Fenilalanina Amônia-Liase/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo
14.
Rev. peru. med. integr ; 5(2): 61-67, 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, MOSAICO - Saúde integrativa | ID: biblio-1146106

RESUMO

Objetivos. Determinar los factores asociados al uso de plantas medicinales en gestantes del Hospital Rezola de Cañete en el año 2019. Materiales y métodos. Diseño no experimental, tipo básico, nivel correlacional - transversal, método inductivo; la muestra estuvo conformada por 335 gestantes del Hospital Rezola de Cañete atendidas en el consultorio de ginecoobstetricia y a quienes se le aplicó la encuesta. Resultados. El 88,4% de las gestantes usaron plantas medicinales; el 11,6% no usó plantas medicinales. Entre los factores socioculturales y obstétricos referentes al uso de plantas medicinales se encuentra la edad (p= 12,41); el grado de instrucción (p= 12,35); el número de gestaciones previas (p= 27,63); el lugar de nacimiento (p= 5,09). El factor no asociado fue el lugar de procedencia (p= 3,676). Las plantas más usadas fueron la manzanilla 95%; el anís 65%; el té 58%; la hierba luisa 51%, y la malva 33%. Discusión. La mayoría de las gestantes del Hospital Rezola de Cañete que usaron plantas medicinales manifestaron resultados favorables y no observaron complicación alguna.


Objective. To determine the factors associated with the use of medicinal plants in pregnant women at the Rezola Hospital in Cañete in the year 2019. Materials and methods. Nonexperimental design, basic type, correlational-cross-sectional level, inductive method; the sample was conformed by 335 pregnant women from the Rezola de Cañete Hospital attended in the office of gynecology and obstetrics and to whom the survey was applied. Results. 88.4% of the pregnant women used medicinal plants; 11.6% did not use medicinal plants. Among the sociocultural and obstetric factors related to the use of medicinal plants are age (p= 12.41); education level (p= 12.35); the number of previous pregnancies (p= 27.63); place of birth (p= 5.09). The non-associated factor was the place of origin (p= 3.676). The most used plants were chamomile 95%; aniseed 65%; tea 58%; lemon verbena 51%, and mallow 33%. Discussion. Most of the pregnant women from the Rezola Hospital in Cañete who used medicinal plants showed favorable results and did not observe any complications.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Adolescente , Adulto , Plantas Medicinais , Gestantes , Peru , Inquéritos e Questionários , Camomila , Pimpinella , Malva , Hospitais Públicos
15.
Int J Phytoremediation ; 21(14): 1397-1406, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648539

RESUMO

Human risks increase by consuming plants growing in trace/heavy metals contaminated soil irrigated with polluted water. The present study aims to assess the ability of common mallow to accumulate trace/heavy metals from polluted soils at South Greater Cairo, Egypt; and their hazardous effects on consumer's health. Five quadrats were used to collect soil and plant samples from three sites of un-polluted and polluted fields for chemical analysis and measurement of growth variables, as well as for assessing the daily intake of metals (DIM) and hazard quotient (HQ). Irrigation water analysis showed elevated concentrations of the investigated metals and mineral salts in the polluted area compared with the un-polluted one. Plant samples showed reduction in their growth parameters; as well as pigments and nutrient content in the metal-contaminated soil. In addition, Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Co concentrations in the shoots and roots of plants grown in polluted fields were higher compared with plants grown in un-polluted site. The bioaccumulation and translocation factors of most investigated metals indicated the great ability of common mallow to accumulate such metals, which would increase the human intake of metals in their daily diets compared to their reference values (RfD). The hazard quotient (HQ) of Pb, Cr, Fe, Mn and Zn for children and Pb, Cd, Fe and Mn for adults was >1, indicating health hazards for the consumers of common mallow cultivated in the polluted area.


Assuntos
Malva , Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Adulto , Biodegradação Ambiental , Criança , Egito , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Solo
16.
J Neuroimmunol ; 336: 577029, 2019 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487612

RESUMO

Neuro-inflammation is widely regarded as the inflammation occurred in the central nervous system (CNS) tissue, which authentically involved in the pathogenesis such as depression although the underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated. Malva sylvestris (MS), a plant widely used in traditional medicine to mitigate urological, respiratory and oral diseases, exhibits excellent anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. In the present study, we first used LPS-induced depression-like mice to evaluate the neuro-protective effect of MS extract. We found that, after 7 days' administration of MS extract, the cognitive impairment of LPS-induced depression-like mice was efficiently alleviated, evaluated by behavioral test including the Open field, Morris water maze (MWM), Elevated plus-maze (EPM) and Rota-rod test. Furthermore, we found that MS extract also inhibited the LPS-induced neuron apoptosis and astrogliosis both in the cortex and the CA1 region of hippocampus. Finally, our findings showed that the extract of MS relieved inflammatory stress induced by LPS injury, indicated by the down-regulation of IL-1ß/6 and TNF-α, and up-regulation of IL-4 level both in vitro and in vivo. Collectively, MS extract exhibits neuro-protective activity in vivo, and therefore, it may be widely used for food to relieve the symptoms of neuro-inflammation associated disorders such as depression.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Astrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Gliose/tratamento farmacológico , Malva , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Astrócitos/imunologia , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Depressão/induzido quimicamente , Depressão/imunologia , Depressão/metabolismo , Gliose/imunologia , Gliose/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/fisiologia , Camundongos , Componentes Aéreos da Planta , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Distribuição Aleatória
17.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 118: 109349, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545221

RESUMO

Neuroinflammation, a centralized immune response, is a physiological process by which the organism attempts to remove an injurious stimulus in the central nervous system. Nonetheless, it is known that chronic inflammatory processes play an important role in the onset and progression of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer´s disease (AD). Based on this, new strategies to treat AD have been proposed. Among them, the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) decreases the incidence of this disease. Unfortunately, the prolonged use of NSAIDs results in adverse secondary effects. In this context, plants secondary metabolites have become of great interest. Particularly, our group has demonstrated that the hydroalcoholic extract of Malva parviflora (MpHA) has anti-inflammatory effect and is capable of improving the cognitive deficit present in an AD model. To further characterize the Malva parviflora compounds with anti-inflammatory properties, here we generated a fraction from a dichloromethane extract, which constitutes a less complex mix of compounds than the MpHA. This approach allowed us to isolate a fraction (MpF10) with anti-inflammatory activity, able to ameliorate the spatial learning and memory impairment, and to reduce both astrogliosis as well as IL-1ß and TNF production in a murine model of LPS-mediated neuroinflammation. Among the identified compounds in the MpF10, we found daucosterol (MpDau), which prevented LPS-induced neuroinflammation. Interestingly, MpF10 and MpDau inhibit NFκB activity in macrophages exposed to LPS. Therefore, we propose that the compounds present in the MpF10 represent an alternative to treat neuroinflammation, an important process developed during neurodegenerative diseases such as AD.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Malva/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Inflamação/patologia , Lipopolissacarídeos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/patologia , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
18.
J Neuroinflammation ; 16(1): 143, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291963

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neuropathology strongly associated with the activation of inflammatory pathways. Accordingly, inflammation resulting from obesity exacerbates learning and memory deficits in humans and in animal models of AD. Consequently, the long-term use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents diminishes the risk for developing AD, but the side effects produced by these drugs limit their prophylactic use. Thus, plants natural products have become an excellent option for modern therapeutics. Malva parviflora is a plant well known for its anti-inflammatory properties. METHODS: The present study was aimed to determine the anti-inflammatory potential of M. parviflora leaf hydroalcoholic extract (MpHE) on AD pathology in lean and obese transgenic 5XFAD mice, a model of familial AD. The inflammatory response and Amyloid ß (Aß) plaque load in lean and obese 5XFAD mice untreated or treated with MpHE was evaluated by immunolocalization (Iba-1 and GFAP) and RT-qPCR (TNF) assays and thioflavin-S staining, respectively. Spatial learning memory was assessed by the Morris Water Maze behavioral test. Microglia phagocytosis capacity was analyzed in vivo and by ex vivo and in vitro assays, and its activation by morphological changes (phalloidin staining) and expression of CD86, Mgl1, and TREM-2 by RT-qPCR. The mechanism triggered by the MpHE was characterized in microglia primary cultures and ex vivo assays by immunoblot (PPAR-γ) and RT-qPCR (CD36) and in vivo by flow cytometry, using GW9662 (PPAR-γ inhibitor) and pioglitazone (PPAR-γ agonist). The presence of bioactive compounds in the MpHE was determined by HPLC. RESULTS: MpHE efficiently reduced astrogliosis, the presence of insoluble Aß peptides in the hippocampus and spatial learning impairments, of both, lean, and obese 5XFAD mice. This was accompanied by microglial cells accumulation around Aß plaques in the cortex and the hippocampus and decreased expression of M1 inflammatory markers. Consistent with the fact that the MpHE rescued microglia phagocytic capacity via a PPAR-γ/CD36-dependent mechanism, the MpHE possess oleanolic acid and scopoletin as active phytochemicals. CONCLUSIONS: M. parviflora suppresses neuroinflammation by inhibiting microglia pro-inflammatory M1 phenotype and promoting microglia phagocytosis. Therefore, M. parviflora phytochemicals represent an alternative to prevent cognitive impairment associated with a metabolic disorder as well as an effective prophylactic candidate for AD progression.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Disfunção Cognitiva/patologia , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Malva , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Microglia/metabolismo , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Fagocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta
19.
Prep Biochem Biotechnol ; 49(9): 876-883, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31244366

RESUMO

Box-Behnken Design (BBD) was used to optimize the extraction conditions of polyphenols from Malva (Malva parviflora L.) leaves. The effect of ethanol concentration (20-80%), solvent/leaf powder ratio (10:1 to 30:1, v/w) and extraction time (5-45 min) on the polyphenols yield and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of the obtained extracts were investigated. Quadratic models fit well. The optimal conditions (53.40% ethanol, solvent/leaf powder ratio 20:1 (v/w), and 15 min) resulted in an extract with a maximum yield of polyphenols (1098.4 mg GAE/100 g leaf powder) and high inhibition percentage of DPPH radical (33.31%) with desirability 0.742. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis indicated that the major identified polyphenol compounds extracted at the optimal conditions were naringenin, ρ-coumaric acid, apigenin-7-glucoside, luteolin, and cinnamic acid. These findings indicate that M. parviflora leaf extracts possess DPPH radical scavenging activity and could be used as a natural source for bioactive products.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Malva/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Polifenóis/isolamento & purificação , Algoritmos , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Etanol/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis/farmacologia
20.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 112: 108635, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30798126

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gentamycin, contrary to its wide range of antimicrobial effects, has a high potential for nephrotoxicity, and renal injury can have effects on other organs such as the liver. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of hydro alcoholic Malva sylvestris(MS) extract on nephrotoxicity induced by gentamicin, and also its remote organ injury in the liver. METHODS: Renal and hepatic functions were evaluated through measurement of creatinine, urea-nitrogen, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in plasma. Oxidative stress was assessed through measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) levels, and histopathologic injuries were evaluated using H & E stained sections. For evaluation of inflammation, TNF-α and ICAM-1 mRNA expression levels were measured in the renal tissue using Real-time PCR method. RESULTS: Gentamicin resulted in an increase in the levels of creatinine, urea-nitrogen, AST, ALT, and ALP in the plasma, as well as an increase in TNF-α and ICAM-1 mRNA expression levels in the renal tissue, renal and hepatic histopathologic injuries and MDA level, and a decrease in FRAP. Administration of MS led to improvement in the function of kidney and liver, a decrease in the expression levels of proinflammatory factors, reduction of oxidative stress, and also a decrease in tissue injuries. CONCLUSION: MS extract can protect the kidney against toxic effects of gentamicin, and thus, the degree of harmful effects of nephrotoxicity on remote organs including the liver will be decreased.


Assuntos
Gentamicinas/toxicidade , Nefropatias/prevenção & controle , Hepatopatias/prevenção & controle , Malva/química , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Inflamação , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/imunologia , Rim/patologia , Nefropatias/imunologia , Nefropatias/patologia , Testes de Função Renal , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/imunologia , Fígado/patologia , Hepatopatias/imunologia , Hepatopatias/patologia , Testes de Função Hepática , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/imunologia , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Ratos Wistar
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