Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.355
Filtrar
1.
REVISA (Online) ; 13(1): 128-137, 2024.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1532034

RESUMO

Objetivo: explorar o impacto da doença celíaca no bem-estar e no desenvolvimento de crianças, conforme percebido por suas mães, participantes do grupo "Criança Celíaca" no Facebook. Método: Estudo qualitativo, utilizando o método de história oral. A pesquisa centraliza a questão: Como a doença celíaca influencia a qualidade de vida e a saúde durante o crescimento e desenvolvimento infantil? Seis mães foram escolhidas com base em critérios de inclusão específicos e concordaram em participar do estudo. Os dados foram coletados através de entrevistas gravadas no Zoom e analisados por meio de transcrição, agrupamento e categorização dos depoimentos. Resultados:Os achados são divididos em sete categorias: experiências de crianças com doença celíaca; impacto na qualidade de vida, crescimento e desenvolvimento; interações em eventos sociais; experiências escolares; emoções diante da doença; e necessidades das famílias afetadas. Conclusão: O estudo revela a necessidade de maior envolvimento dos profissionais de enfermagem neste campo, enfatizando a importância do papel ativo dos pais na garantia da qualidade de vida de crianças celíacas


Objective: to explore the impact of celiac disease on the well-being and development of children as perceived by their mothers, members of the "CeliacChild" group on Facebook. Method:This qualitative study, employing oral history methodology. The research focuses on the question: How does celiac disease affect the quality of life and health during childhood growth and development? Six mothers were selected based on specific inclusion criteria and agreed to participate in the study. Data were collected through interviews recorded on Zoom and analyzed through transcription, grouping, and categorization of the testimonies. Results:The findings are divided into seven categories: experiences of children with celiac disease; impact on quality of life, growth, and development; interactions at social events; school experiences; emotions in the face of the disease; and the needs of affected families. Conclusion:The study highlights the need for greater involvement of nursing professionals in this field, emphasizing the importance of parents' active role in ensuring the quality of life of children with celiac disease


Objetivo: explorar el impacto de la enfermedad celíaca en el bienestar y desarrollo de los niños, según lo percibido por sus madres, integrantes del grupo "Niño Celíaco" en Facebook. Método:Este estudio cualitativo, utilizando el método de historia oral. La investigación se centra en la pregunta: ¿Cómo afecta la enfermedad celíaca a la calidad de vida y la salud durante el crecimiento y desarrollo infantil? Se seleccionaron seis madres basadas en criterios específicos de inclusión y acordaron participar en el estudio. Los datos se recopilaron a través de entrevistas grabadas en Zoom y se analizaron mediante transcripción, agrupación y categorización de los testimonios. Resultados:Los hallazgos se dividen en siete categorías: experiencias de niños con enfermedad celíaca; impacto en la calidad de vida, crecimiento y desarrollo; interacciones en eventos sociales; experiencias escolares; emociones frente a la enfermedad; y las necesidades de las familias afectadas. Conclusión:El estudio resalta la necesidad de una mayorimplicación de los profesionales de enfermería en este campo, enfatizando la importancia del rol activo de los padres en garantizar la calidad de vida de los niños celíacos.


Assuntos
Doença Celíaca , Criança , Participação nas Decisões
2.
BMC Geriatr ; 23(1): 620, 2023 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37789286

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polypharmacy and potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) are still frequent among older adults in nursing homes. Deprescribing is an intervention that has been shown to be effective in reducing their use. However, the implementation of deprescribing in clinical practice has not yet been widely evaluated. The Quality Circle Deprescribing Module (QC-DeMo) intervention has been trialled through an effectiveness-implementation hybrid type 2 design. The intervention consists of a quality circle workshop session between healthcare professionals HCPs (physicians, nurses, and pharmacists) within a nursing home, in which they define a consensus to deprescribe specific PIMs classes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the implementation of the QC-DeMo intervention in nursing homes. METHODS: This observational study focuses on the implementation part of the QC-DeMo trial. Implementation was based on the Framework for Implementation of Pharmacy Services (FISpH). Questionnaires at baseline and follow-up were used to evaluate reach, adoption, implementation effectiveness, fidelity, implementation, maintenance and the implementation strategies. Other data were collected from the QC-DeMo trial and routine data collected as part of the integrated pharmacy service where the QC-Demo trial was embedded. Implementation strategies included training of pharmacists, integration of the intervention into an existing quality circle dynamic and definition of tailored strategies to operationalise the consensus by each nursing home. RESULTS: The QC-DeMo intervention was successfully implemented in 26 nursing homes in terms of reach, fidelity, adoption, implementation and implementation effectiveness. However, the intervention was found to be implemented with low maintenance as none of the nursing homes repeated the intervention after the trial. Implementation strategies were well received by HCPs: training was adequate according to pharmacists. Pre-existing quality circle dynamic facilitated interprofessional collaboration as involvement and support of each HCP was rated as high. HCPs recognized a specific and important role for each HCP in the deprescribing process. The most relevant tailored strategies to implement the consensus defined by each nursing home were identification of the patients by the pharmacist and a systematic review of medication's patients. CONCLUSIONS: The implementation of a Quality Circle on Deprescribing is feasible but its maintenance in practice remains challenging. This study explores multiple implementation outcomes to better inform future implementation efforts of these types of interventions. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT03688542 ), registered on 26.09.2018.


Assuntos
Desprescrições , Humanos , Idoso , Participação nas Decisões , Suíça , Casas de Saúde , Lista de Medicamentos Potencialmente Inapropriados , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto
3.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 153: 40119, 2023 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37769322

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) should be deprescribed when an indication is lacking or the dose is too high. Academic and media reports have tried to raise awareness and thereby reduce the inappropriate prescribing of PPIs. However, pharmacoepidemiologic studies have shown an unchanged frequency of such inappropriate prescribing over time. Little is known about whether or how general practitioners (GPs) adapt their prescribing practices once their awareness of inappropriate PPI prescribing has been raised. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the prevalence of potentially inappropriate PPI prescribing (too high dose or no indication) in a consecutive sample of patients in Swiss primary care settings. Our goal was then to evaluate how GPs managed the patients with potentially inappropriate PPI prescribing over 12 months after flagging these patients. METHODS: In this observational study, 11 GPs from the canton of Bern in Switzerland used their medical records to identify 20 patients who had been prescribed a PPI for ≥8 weeks and flagged potentially inappropriate PPI prescribing in their records. After 12 months, we asked the same GPs whether the PPI prescriptions of those patients had changed and, if so, how. RESULTS: Of 1,376 patients consecutively screened, 206 (15%) had been prescribed a PPI for ≥8 weeks. Of these 206 patients, 85 (41%) had a potentially inappropriate PPI prescription. Of these 85 patients, 55 (65%) had no indication for PPI, and 30 (35%) had a too-high dose. After one year, only 29 (35%) of the 84 flagged potentially inappropriate PPIs were stopped or reduced. The most frequently mentioned reasons that deprescribing was not possible were a lack of discussion with the patient (no contact or no time), the presence of symptoms requiring the PPI, or the unwillingness of the patient to deprescribe. CONCLUSION: In the Swiss primary care setting, the rate of potentially inappropriate PPI prescribing is high. Having GPs flag potentially inappropriate PPI prescribing did not result in PPI deprescribing in most patients over 12 months. Our findings suggest that more personalised and targeted interventions are necessary to successfully implement the deprescribing of potentially inappropriate PPIs. We see the need to co-design interventions with patients and providers and test behavioural change techniques to enable the deprescribing of inappropriate PPIs.


Assuntos
Clínicos Gerais , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons , Humanos , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/uso terapêutico , Prescrição Inadequada/prevenção & controle , Participação nas Decisões , Atenção Primária à Saúde
5.
Enferm. foco (Brasília) ; 14: 1-7, mar. 20, 2023. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1425689

RESUMO

Objetivo: conhecer a participação política dos profissionais da enfermagem enquanto reflexo de suas entidades representativas. Métodos: pesquisa qualitativa de abordagem histórico-social. Dentro do recorte histórico de 1972 a 2018, entre março e setembro de 2019, entrevistaram-se 5 ex-presidentes das Associação Brasileira de Enfermagem - Seção Santa Catarina e do Conselho Regional de Enfermagem de Santa Catarina. A compreensão dos dados se deu por meio da análise de conteúdo de Bardin e interpretação através do marco conceitual de Denise Elvira Pires de Pires. Resultados: percebe-se uma significativa mudança de quadro da participação política da enfermagem através das décadas. Desde a criação da ABEn-SC a enfermagem transita de um corpo forte e unido para uma trajetória e participação em subsequente desarticulação. Conclusão: A desmobilização de uma categoria é multifatorial. Reflexo da desarticulação das entidades representativas da profissão, raízes histórico-culturais de sua fundação e do imaginário individual e social de uma profissão. (AU)


Objective: To Know the political participation of nursing professionals as a reflection of their representative entities. Methods: qualitative research of a historical-social nature in the history of 1975 to 2018, between March and September 2019. Interviewed 5 former presidents of the Brazilian Nursing Association - Santa Catarina Section and the Regional Nursing Council of Santa Catarina. The understanding of the data took place through the analysis of Bardin's content and interpretation through the conceptual framework of Denise Elvira Pires de Pires, profession, discipline and work. Results: there is a significant change in the framework of political participation in nursing over the decades. With a fragile articulation between the entities representing the category. Conclusion: The demobilization of the professional category is multifactorial. Reflection of the disarticulation of the entities representing the profession, the historical and cultural roots of its foundation and the individual and social imagery of the profession. (AU)


Objetivo: conocer la participación política de los profesionales de enfermería como reflejo de sus entidades representativas. Métodos: investigación cualitativa de carácter histórico-social en la historia de 1975 a 2018, entre marzo y septiembre de 2019. Se entrevistó a 5 ex presidentes de la Asociación Brasileña de Enfermería - Sección Santa Catarina y el Consejo Regional de Enfermería de Santa Catarina. La comprensión de los datos se llevó a cabo a través del análisis del contenido y la interpretación de Bardin a través del marco conceptual de Denise Elvira Pires de Pires, profesión, disciplina y trabajo. Resultados: hay un cambio significativo en el marco de participación política en enfermería a lo largo de las décadas. Con una articulación frágil entre las entidades que representan la categoría. Conclusión: La desmovilización de la categoría profesional es multifactorial. Reflejo de la desarticulación de los entes representativos de la profesión, las raíces históricas y culturales de su fundación y el imaginario individual y social de la profesión. (AU)


Assuntos
Enfermagem , Sociedades de Enfermagem , Política Organizacional , História da Enfermagem , Participação nas Decisões
6.
Rev. enferm. Cent.-Oeste Min ; 12: 4244, nov. 2022.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1434954

RESUMO

Objetivo: analisar, organizar e planejar o trabalho da equipe da Atenção Primária à Saúde, mediantea aplicação da Matriz Swot. Método: estudo qualitativo do tipo pesquisa-ação, realizada em uma Unidade de Saúde, cuja produção e registro das informações envolveram representantes do ensino, atenção, gestão e controle social, totalizando 15 participantes. Foram cinco rodas de conversae utilizou-se a Matriz Swot como tecnologia para a organização do trabalho. Os dados foram tratados mediante análise temática. Resultados: a aplicação da Matriz Swot permitiu mapear potencialidades: vínculo e longitudinalidade, associados ao tempo de serviço dos profissionais, infraestrutura de qualidade, bom relacionamento entre equipe e com usuários. O repensar acerca do cenário da produção de saúde permitiu identificar fragilidades: burocratização, cobrança por produção, ineficiente planejamento das ações, interferências políticas e falta de autocuidado dos usuários. Conclusão: a inserção da tecnologia foi exitosa, especialmente por ser idealizada, a partir da percepção das potencialidades e fragilidades locais.


ABSTRACT Purpose: toanalyze, organize and plan the work of a Primary Health Care team by applying Swot Matrix. Method: this is a research-action, qualitative study carried out in a Health Unit, the production and information record of which comprised 15 participants, representing the fields of teaching, caring, management and social control fields. There were five conversation sessions and the Swot Matrix tool was used as organization technology. Thematic analysis was used to assess the data. All the ethic measures were taken. Results: the application of the Swot Matrix allowed to map potentialities: bond and longitudinality, associated with the professionals' length of service, qualified infrastructure, good relationship between team members and users. Rethinking the health production scenario made it possible to identify weaknesses, such as bureaucratization, charging for production, inefficient action planning, political interference, and the users' lack of self-care. Conclusion: the insertion of the technology was successful, especially because it was conceived based on the perception of local strengths and weaknesses.


Objetivo: analizar, organizar y planificar el trabajo del equipo de Atención Primaria de Salud, aplicando la Matriz Swot. Método: investigación-acción realizada en una Unidad de Salud, cuya producción y registro de información involucró a representantes de educación, atención, gestión y control social, totalizando 15 participantes. Hubo cinco rondas de conversaciones y se utilizó la Matriz Swot como tecnología para la organización del trabajo. Los datos se procesaron mediante análisis temático. Resultados: la aplicación de la Matriz Swot permitió mapear potencialidades: vínculo y longitudinalidad, asociadas al tiempo de servicio de los profesionales, infraestructura de calidad, buena relación entre el equipo y con los usuarios. El replanteamiento del escenario de producción en salud permitió identificar debilidades: burocratización, cobro por producción, planificación ineficiente de acciones, injerencia política y falta de autocuidado por parte de los usuarios. Conclusión: la inserción de la tecnología fue exitosa, especialmente porque se concibió a partir de la percepción de fortalezas y debilidades locales.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Desenvolvimento Tecnológico , Enfermagem , Planejamento , Participação nas Decisões
7.
BMJ Open ; 12(5): e058453, 2022 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35508344

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To understand how and why participation in quality circles (QCs) improves general practitioners' (GPs) psychological well-being and the quality of their clinical practice. To provide evidence-informed and practical guidance to maintain QCs at local and policy levels. DESIGN: A theory-driven mixed method. SETTING: Primary healthcare. METHOD: We collected data in four stages to develop and refine the programme theory of QCs: (1) coinquiry with Swiss and European expert stakeholders to develop a preliminary programme theory; (2) realist review with systematic searches in MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO and CINHAL (1980-2020) to inform the preliminary programme theory; (3) programme refinement through interviews with participants, facilitators, tutors and managers of QCs and (4) consolidation of theory through interviews with QC experts across Europe and examining existing theories. SOURCES OF DATA: The coinquiry comprised 4 interviews and 3 focus groups with 50 European experts. From the literature search, we included 108 papers to develop the literature-based programme theory. In stage 3, we used data from 40 participants gathered in 6 interviews and 2 focus groups to refine the programme theory. In stage 4, five interviewees from different healthcare systems consolidated our programme theory. RESULT: Requirements for successful QCs are governmental trust in GPs' abilities to deliver quality improvement, training, access to educational material and performance data, protected time and financial resources. Group dynamics strongly influence success; facilitators should ensure participants exchange knowledge and generate new concepts in a safe environment. Peer interaction promotes professional development and psychological well-being. With repetition, participants gain confidence to put their new concepts into practice. CONCLUSION: With expert facilitation, clinical review and practice opportunities, QCs can improve the quality of standard practice, enhance professional development and increase psychological well-being in the context of adequate professional and administrative support. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42013004826.


Assuntos
Clínicos Gerais , Participação nas Decisões , Atenção à Saúde , Clínicos Gerais/psicologia , Humanos , Melhoria de Qualidade , Projetos de Pesquisa
8.
Z Evid Fortbild Qual Gesundhwes ; 170: 14-20, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35431151

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Quality indicators to assess the quality of primary care have only been applied on a national or regional level in European countries, and there have been no comparisons between regions of different countries. In the interventional pre-post-study "Improvement of Quality by Benchmarking - IQuaB" (level of evidence: 3), we aimed to improve and compare quality of process care in 57 participating general practices in Salzburg, Austria, and South Tyrol, Italy. METHODS: The intervention consisted of self-audit, benchmarking and quality circles. Quality indicators for eight common chronic diseases (e. g., diabetes) were extracted from the electronic health records in 2012, 2013 and 2014. Based on 19 quality indicators, a supra-regional quality score was calculated and compared using Mann-Whitney U tests. RESULTS: A relatively weak baseline performance was identified in both regions. In all three assessments, the median quality score increased in both regions and was significantly higher in South Tyrol than in Salzburg. During the study period the median supra-regional quality score increased from 20.00 to 38.00 in the Salzburg sample and from 47.00 to 79.50 in the South Tyrolian sample. The differences between the two regions were significant at baseline and after intervention (2012: p=0.015, 2014: p=0.001). DISCUSSION: Despite data extraction challenges in Austria, we are convinced that our data highlight real differences in (processual) quality of care between the two regions. CONCLUSIONS: The reasons underlying the persisting differences between the two regions may include: (1) different functions in electronic health records, (2) benchmarking as an integral part of the electronic health record, (3) gate-keeping system and use of registration lists, (4) state-supported quality initiatives.


Assuntos
Medicina Geral , Áustria , Alemanha , Humanos , Itália , Participação nas Decisões
9.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-212319

RESUMO

Introducción: La pandemia ocasionada por el SARS-CoV-2 ha supuesto una reestructuración sin precedentes de la asistencia sanitaria y también de los centros de salud.Objetivo. Conocer las percepciones del personal médico del Centro de Salud Albaycín sobre la respuesta del equipo de Atención Primaria ante la pandemia de la COVID-19 en los meses de marzo y abril de 2020.Métodos. Estudio cualitativo, observacional de orientación fenomenológica mediante entrevistas individuales. El ámbito de estudio es el Centro de Salud Albaycín. La saturación teórica determinó el tamaño de la muestra (la totalidad de la plantilla médica). Se llevó a cabo un análisis narrativo del contenido.Resultados. Los discursos muestran seis categorías de análisis: organización de la toma de decisiones, características de la respuesta dada, mantenimiento de los pilares de la Atención Primaria, cualidades del equipo potenciadas, rol de la docencia y nuevas dinámicas generadas.Los resultados describen una respuesta adecuada, coordinada con la comunidad y anticipada a las directrices institucionales. La toma de decisiones ha sido consensuada y horizontal, potenciándose las cualidades del equipo. A pesar de las limitaciones, se ha mantenido la accesibilidad y la longitudinalidad. Durante la pandemia se ha visto afectada la calidad asistencial y la actividad docente.Discusión. Un liderazgo transformacional, que refuerza el vínculo entre profesionales y fomenta la participación activa también de los residentes, permite una respuesta satisfactoria ante una situación emergente. Contar con la participación de la comunidad puede generar confianza en la organización y mejorar los resultados en salud. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Saúde , Participação nas Decisões
10.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 289, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933030

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) are common among nursing homes (NH) residents, as is polypharmacy. Deprescribing has emerged in the past decade as a safe and effective way to reduce the use of PIMs and improve patient outcomes. However, effective deprescribing interventions are expensive, as they require specialised staff and a great amount of time for each resident. The Quality Circle Deprescribing Module (QC-DeMo) intervention was designed to be less resource-intensive than medication reviews, the current deprescribing gold standard. It consists of a QC session in which physicians, nurses, and pharmacists define a local deprescribing consensus for specific PIMs classes, which is then implemented in the NH. The intervention was trialled in a RCT, with the NH as unit of analysis. METHODS: After randomisation, intervention NHs enacted the QC-DeMo at the start of the follow-up year. The primary outcomes were the proportion of PIM galenic units and number of PIM defined daily dose per average resident and per day (DDD/res). PIM status was assessed by a combination of the 2015 Beers list and the Norwegian General Practice-Nursing Home criteria. Secondary outcomes were the number of DDD/res to avoid and to reevaluate; safety outcomes were mortality, hospitalisations, falls, and use of physical restraints. Outcomes were evaluated at follow-up using linear regression models, adjusting for the outcome baseline values. RESULTS: Fifty-eight NHs took part in the trial; no individual residents were recruited. The intervention did not reduce the primary outcomes, but a strong trend towards reduction was seen for the number of PIM DDD/res, which accounts for the doses used. PIM DDD/res to reevaluate were significantly reduced, mostly through a reduction in the use of proton-pump inhibitors. Falls and use of physical restraints were not affected, but a statistical interaction between the mission of the NH (geriatric unit or specialised dementia unit) and the intervention group was seen for mortality and hospitalisations. CONCLUSIONS: The QC-DeMo intervention can reduce the use of some PIM classes, and could usefully complement other deprescribing interventions. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT03688542 ), registered on 26.09.2018, retrospectively registered.


Assuntos
Desprescrições , Idoso , Humanos , Prescrição Inadequada/prevenção & controle , Participação nas Decisões , Noruega , Casas de Saúde , Polimedicação , Lista de Medicamentos Potencialmente Inapropriados , Suíça
11.
Edumecentro ; 13(1): 283-289, ene.-mar. 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1149246

RESUMO

RESUMEN La percepción de los trabajadores sobre el funcionamiento de las estructuras y procesos que ocurren en su medio laboral se denomina clima organizacional. Cada institución manifiesta un clima propio influenciado de forma positiva o negativa por factores internos y externos tanto físicos como estructurales. Aunque los estudios de clima se aplican con mayor frecuencia en el mundo empresarial, su uso se extiende a otras organizaciones complejas como las académicas por la variedad de subsistemas y el capital humano que la componen y las diversas percepciones que generan. El presente artículo tiene como objetivo: exponer algunas consideraciones acerca del uso de los estudios sobre clima organizacional en los procesos de mejora de la calidad universitaria, a través de un acercamiento a sus definiciones y la experiencia del uso de estos estudios en ámbitos académicos, de manera específica en la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Villa Clara.


ABSTRACT The perception of workers about the functioning of the structures and processes that occur in their work environment is called organizational climate. Each institution manifests its own climate influenced positively or negatively by internal and external factors, both physical and structural. Although climate studies are more frequently applied in the business world, its usage extends to other complex organizations such as academic ones due to the variety of subsystems and the human capital that compose it and the diverse perceptions that they generate. This article aims to: present some considerations about the use of studies on organizational climate in the processes of improvement of university quality, through approaching to its definitions and the experience of the use of these studies in the academic environment, specifically at Villa Clara University of Medical Sciences.


Assuntos
Organização e Administração , Qualidade de Vida , Educação Médica , Participação nas Decisões
12.
J Gen Intern Med ; 36(9): 2672-2677, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33555552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of the Choosing Wisely (CW) campaign is debated as recommendations alone may not modify physician behavior. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess whether behavioral interventions with physician assessment and feedback during quality circles (QCs) could reduce low-value services. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: Pre-post quality improvement intervention with a parallel comparison group involving outpatients followed in a Swiss-managed care network, including 700 general physicians (GPs) and 150,000 adult patients. INTERVENTIONS: Interventions included performance feedback about low-value activities and comparison with peers during QCs. We assessed individual physician behavior and healthcare use from laboratory and insurance claims files between August 1, 2016, and October 31, 2018. MAIN MEASURES: Main outcomes were the change in prescription of three low-value services 6 months before and 6 months after each intervention: measurement of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prescription rates of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and statins. KEY RESULTS: Among primary care practices, a QC intervention with physician feedback and peer comparison resulted in lower rates of PPI prescription (pre-post mean prescriptions per GP 25.5 ± 23.7 vs 22.9 ± 21.4, p value<0.01; coefficient of variation (Cov) 93.0% vs 91.0%, p=0.49), PSA measurement (6.5 ± 8.7 vs 5.3 ± 6.9 tests per GP, p<0.01; Cov 133.5% vs 130.7%, p=0.84), as well as statins (6.1 ± 6.8 vs 5.6 ± 5.4 prescriptions per GP, p<0.01; Cov 111.5% vs 96.4%, p=0.21). Changes in prescription of low-value services among GPs who did not attend QCs were not statistically significant over this time period. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate a modest but statistically significant effect of QCs with educative feedback in reducing low-value services in outpatients with low impact on coefficient of variation. Limiting overuse in medicine is very challenging and dedicated discussion and real-time review of actionable data may help.


Assuntos
Clínicos Gerais , Participação nas Decisões , Adulto , Retroalimentação , Humanos , Masculino , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Padrões de Prática Médica , Melhoria de Qualidade
13.
Texto & contexto enferm ; 29: e20190013, Jan.-Dec. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | BDENF - Enfermagem, LILACS | ID: biblio-1145160

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: to know and reflect on the best practices in nursing and their interface with the Expanded Family Health and Basic Healthcare Centers (NASF-AB). Method: this is a participatory research based on Paulo Freire's methodological framework and developed from thematic investigation, coding, decoding, and critical unveiling. The information was produced and analyzed in four Culture Circles, with an average of five nurses and duration of two hours each, between April and June 2018. The investigation revealed four generating themes, unveiled during the meetings. In this study, the theme "best nursing practices that favor relations with NASF-AB" will be discussed. Results: nurses acknowledge communication as a tool that promotes best practices in nursing. It was possible to deepen the dialogue and knowledge about NASF-AB's work process and the role of nursing. Nurses act as a link between the support team and the Family Health team, a skill resulting from their training focused on management, having leadership and dialogue as resources for conflict resolution. Conclusion: the present study contributed to improve nurses' thinking and acting in relation to the proposed theme. The reflections made during Culture Circles boosted transformative attitudes in the practice settings. Nurse approximation with NASF-AB favors autonomy and collaborative practices (understood as best practices), encouraging interprofessional and solve-problem actions within Basic Care.


RESUMEN Objetivo: conocer y reflexionar sobre las mejores prácticas en enfermería y su interfaz con el Núcleo Extendido de Salud de la Familia y Atención Primaria (NASF-AB). Método: investigación participativa basada en el marco metodológico de Paulo Freire y desarrollada a partir de las etapas de investigación temática, codificación, decodificación y develación crítica. La información fue producida y analizada en cuatro Círculos de Cultura, con un promedio de cinco enfermeros y una duración de dos horas cada uno, entre abril y junio de 2018. La investigación reveló cuatro temas generadores, develados durante los encuentros. En este estudio se discutirá el tema: mejores prácticas de enfermería que favorecen las relaciones con la NASF-AB. Resultados: las enfermeras reconocen la comunicación como una herramienta que promueve las mejores prácticas en esta interfaz. Se logró profundizar el diálogo y el conocimiento sobre el tema, sobre el proceso de trabajo NASF-AB y el papel de la enfermería en este contexto. Se perciben a sí mismos como un vínculo entre el equipo de apoyo y el equipo de Salud de la Familia, habilidad resultante de su formación enfocada al ejercicio de la gestión y al liderazgo y al diálogo como recursos para la resolución de conflictos. Conclusión: el estudio contribuyó a la mejora del pensamiento y la actuación de los enfermeros en relación con el tema propuesto, ya que las reflexiones realizadas durante los Círculos Culturales estimularon actitudes transformadoras en los escenarios de práctica. Se observa que la aproximación de enfermeras con la NASF-AB favorece la autonomía y las prácticas colaborativas (entendidas como mejores prácticas), estimulando movimientos interprofesionales y resolutivos en el ámbito de la Atención Primaria.


RESUMO Objetivo: conhecer e refletir sobre as melhores práticas em enfermagem e sua interface com o Núcleo Ampliado de Saúde da Família e Atenção Básica. Método: pesquisa participante pautada no referencial metodológico de Paulo Freire e desenvolvida a partir das etapas de investigação temática, codificação, decodificação e desvelamento crítico. As informações foram produzidas e analisadas em quatro Círculos de Cultura, com média de cinco enfermeiras e duração de duas horas cada, entre abril e junho de 2018. A investigação revelou quatro temas geradores, desvelados durante os encontros. Neste estudo será discutido o tema: melhores práticas de enfermagem que favorecem as relações com o Núcleo Ampliado. Resultados: as enfermeiras reconhecem a comunicação como ferramenta que promove as melhores práticas nessa interface. Foi possível aprofundar o diálogo e o conhecimento sobre o tema, sobre o processo de trabalho do Núcleo e o papel da enfermagem nesse contexto. Elas se percebem como elo entre a equipe apoiadora a equipe de Saúde da Família, habilidade decorrente da sua formação voltada para o exercício da gestão e tendo a liderança e o diálogo como recursos para a resolução de conflitos. Conclusão: o estudo contribuiu para o aprimoramento do pensar e do agir das enfermeiras em relação ao tema proposto, pois as reflexões tecidas durante os Círculos impulsionaram atitudes transformadoras nos cenários de prática. Nota-se que a aproximação das enfermeiras com os Núcleos favorece a autonomia e as práticas colaborativas (compreendidas como melhores práticas), estimulando movimentos interprofissionais e resolutivos no âmbito da Atenção Primária.


Assuntos
Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Prática de Saúde Pública , Enfermagem Baseada em Evidências , Integralidade em Saúde , Participação nas Decisões
14.
Am J Med Qual ; 35(6): 450-457, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32806935

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has forced the health care industry to develop dynamic protocols to maximize provider safety as aerosolizing procedures, specifically intubation, increase the risk of contracting SARS-CoV-2. The authors sought to create a quality improvement framework to ensure safe practices for intubating providers, and describe a multidisciplinary model developed at an academic tertiary care facility centered on rapid-cycle improvements and real-time gap analysis to track adherence to COVID-19 intubation safety protocols. The model included an Intubation Safety Checklist, a standardized documentation template for intubations, obtaining real-time feedback, and weekly multidisciplinary team meetings to review data and implement improvements. This study captured 68 intubations in suspected COVID-19 patients and demonstrated high personal protective equipment compliance at the institution, but also identified areas for process improvement. Overall, the authors posit that an interdisciplinary workgroup and the integration of standardized processes can be used to enhance intubation safety among providers during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Intubação Intratraqueal/normas , Participação nas Decisões/normas , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Melhoria de Qualidade/organização & administração , Manuseio das Vias Aéreas/normas , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Comportamento Cooperativo , Humanos , Pandemias , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , SARS-CoV-2
15.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 21(1): 78-83, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31327571

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to describe antibacterial use in long-term care facilities and to investigate the determinants of use. DESIGN: This study is a quality improvement study conducted from January 2011 to December 2016. SETTING: Long-term care facilities in the canton of Vaud, Western Switzerland, were investigated. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-three long-term care facilities were included in this study. INTERVENTION: The intervention included the publication of local guidelines on empirical antibacterial therapy and the implementation of physician-pharmacist-nurse quality circles. MEASURES: The main outcome was antibacterial use, expressed as defined daily doses (DDD) per 1000 beds per day. Statistical analyses were performed through a 1-level mixed model for repeated measurements. RESULTS: Antibacterial use decreased from 45.6 to 35.5 DDD per 1000 beds per day (-22%, P < .01) over the 6-year study period, which was mostly explained by reduced fluoroquinolone use (-59%, P < .001). A decrease in range of use among LTCFs was observed during the study period, and 27% of antibacterial use was related to the WATCH group (antibiotics with higher toxicity concerns and/or resistance potential) according to the AWaRe categorization of the WHO, decreasing from 17.3 DDD per 1000 beds per day to 9.5 (-45%) over the study period. The use of antibacterials from the RESERVE group ("last-resort" treatment options) was very low. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: A reduction in facility-level antibacterial use and in variability across LTCFs was observed over the study period. The dissemination of empirical antibacterial prescription guidelines and the implementation of physician-pharmacist-nurse quality circles in all LTCFs of the canton of Vaud likely contributed to this reduction. Antibacterials from the WATCH group still represented 27% of the total use, providing targets for future antibiotic stewardship activities.


Assuntos
Farmacêuticos , Médicos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Assistência de Longa Duração , Participação nas Decisões , Suíça
16.
Bioanalysis ; 11(22): 2075-2086, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31829740

RESUMO

Aim: Replicate sample testing has long been regarded as a necessity for bioanalytical laboratory testing, especially in the realm of ligand-binding assays (LBAs). In an era in which results were derived from crude test tube-based assays, the replication of results was warranted. Those assays were often imprecise and required multiple replicates to arrive at results that approached accuracy. However, given technological advancements and excellent accuracy and precision of many modern LBAs, the practice of replicate testing should be re-evaluated. Although most regulatory guidelines allow for singlet testing when sufficient robustness and precision are demonstrated during validation, duplicate testing is still common practice. Recently however, several articles have been published that support singlet analysis for LBAs performed on a platform with automated liquid handling. Results: Data from five pharmacokinetic assay validations and five clinical and preclinical studies originally run in duplicate were re-evaluated in singlet and found to be nearly identical to the original duplicate results. Conclusion: We confirm that well-developed LBAs produce comparable data whether evaluated in singlet or duplicate. Additionally, automation is not requisite for singlet testing.


Assuntos
Bioensaio/métodos , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/metabolismo , Animais , Ligantes , Macaca fascicularis , Participação nas Decisões , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacocinética , Distribuição Tecidual
17.
Res Dev Disabil ; 94: 103477, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494354

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disability support organisations have embraced Active Support, but it has proved difficult to embed in services. AIMS: This study aimed to identify the factors associated with increases over time in the quality of Active Support. METHOD: Data were collected on the predicted variable of the quality of Active Support, and predictor variables of service user, staff and service characteristics, including practice leadership, and composition and size of services from 51 services in 8 organisations over 2-7 time points. Data were analysed using multi-level modelling. RESULTS: There was significant linear change in Active Support scores (group mean centered at the organisational level) over time. Individuals with lower support needs received better Active Support and those with higher support needs experienced greater increases over time. Stronger practice leadership and more staff with training in Active Support were significant predictors of the quality of Active Support. Larger services with seven or more individuals and where there was a very heterogeneous mix of individuals were associated with lower quality of support. CONCLUSIONS: Ensuring strong practice leadership, and staff training in Active Support that emphasises the principle of adapting support to each individual's level of ability and preferences are key to delivering high levels of Active Support.


Assuntos
Deficiência Intelectual , Participação nas Decisões/normas , Reabilitação Psiquiátrica , Sistemas de Apoio Psicossocial , Melhoria de Qualidade/organização & administração , Serviço Social , Desenvolvimento de Pessoal/normas , Engajamento no Trabalho , Adulto , Austrália , Participação da Comunidade/métodos , Pessoas com Deficiência/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/psicologia , Deficiência Intelectual/reabilitação , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reabilitação Psiquiátrica/métodos , Reabilitação Psiquiátrica/organização & administração , Reabilitação Psiquiátrica/normas , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Serviço Social/métodos , Serviço Social/organização & administração , Serviço Social/normas
18.
Scand J Prim Health Care ; 37(3): 302-311, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299865

RESUMO

Objective: To identify and describe the core characteristics and the spread of quality circles in primary healthcare in European countries. Design: An online survey was conducted among European Society for Quality and Safety in Family Practice (EQuiP) delegates. To allow comparison with earlier results, a similar survey as in a study from 2000 was used. Setting: Primary Health Care in European countries. Subjects: General practitioners, delegated experts of the European Society for Quality and Safety in Family Practice (EQuiP). Main outcome measures: (1) Attendance in quality circles (2) their objectives (3) methods of quality improvement quality circles use (4) facilitator's role and training (5) role of institutions (6) supporting material and data sources quality circles use. Results: 76% of the delegates responded, representing 24 of 25 countries. In 13 countries, more than 10% of general practitioners participated in quality circles, compared with eight countries in 2000. The focus of quality circles moved from continuous medical education to quality improvement. Currently, quality circles groups use case-based discussions, educational materials and local opinion leaders in addition to audit and feedback. Some national institutions provide training for facilitators and data support for quality circle groups. Conclusion: The use of quality circles has increased in European countries with a shift in focus from continuous medical education to quality improvement. Well-trained facilitators are important, as is the use of varying didactic methods and quality improvement tools. Qualitative inquiry is necessary to examine why QCs thrive or fail in different countries and systems. KEY POINTS Countries with already established quality circle movements increased their participation rate and extended their range of quality circle activities The focus of quality circles has moved from CME/CPD to quality improvement Well-trained facilitators are important, as is the use of varying didactic methods and quality improvement tools Institutions should provide supporting material and training for facilitators.


Assuntos
Medicina de Família e Comunidade , Participação nas Decisões , Médicos de Atenção Primária , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Melhoria de Qualidade , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Organizações , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Z Evid Fortbild Qual Gesundhwes ; 137-138: 9-19, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30262390

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are only limited possibilities for doctors in outpatient services to establish quality management that is based on data-driven feedback regarding the quality of health care. However, transparency about one's own activities is a prerequisite for refining this quality. The aim of this project was to make the quality of care for patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) more transparent, use this as a basis to initiate improvement processes, and explore the framework conditions and factors promoting or inhibiting the intended improvement of health care quality. METHOD: 48 general practitioners (GPs) in 32 GP practices from a Bavarian doctors' network (Qualität und Effizienz, QuE) participated in the project. On the basis of claims data from the AOK-Bayern (a statutory health insurance in Bavaria), data from disease management programs (DMP) and medically documented data, 11 quality indicators for patients with CHD were calculated. The indicator scores were individually presented in feedback reports for each doctor's practice. These were the basis for two quality circles. The indicators were measured again after 12 months, and changes against the baseline measurement were registered. GPs from Bavaria formed the control group. Focus groups with the quality circle moderators and two participant surveys were used to identify promoting and inhibiting factors. RESULTS: The baseline values showed a good level of care. Potential for improvement became apparent for pharmacotherapy with beta blockers and statins. After conducting the quality circles four of the eleven indicators showed an increase as intended ("beta blockers for CHD and cardiac insufficiency", "beta blockers after myocardial infarction", "statins", "successful blood pressure control"). For three of these indicators the increase rates were higher than those in the Bavarian control group. One indicator ("statins") was striking because of the wide variation of practice values suggesting differences in care within the network. The majority of participating doctors regarded the database as valid. Quality circles were highly appreciated as an opportunity for professional exchange among colleagues. The data-based feedback reports helped to make deficits in health care transparent and to identify actions that need to be taken. Barriers to implementing quality improvement measures in clinical practice became apparent. DISCUSSION: Reflecting quality indicators in quality circles can effectively trigger quality improvement processes. Barriers would appear to exist, in particular, to the implementation of measures into daily practice routine. Additional organizational support offered by higher-level quality management structures, IT solutions for patient-related data processing as well as a system of financial compensation, which rewards professional concern for quality, may help to overcome the existing barriers.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias , Participação nas Decisões , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Atenção à Saúde , Alemanha , Humanos , Melhoria de Qualidade
20.
J Int Med Res ; 46(6): 2338-2345, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29633650

RESUMO

Objective The agranulocytosis-associated perianal infection (PI) rate ranges from 60% to 100% among patients with hematopoietic malignancies. In this study, we assessed the efficacy of a quality control circle (QCC) to minimize the PI rate. Methods Among 274 patients with severe immunodeficiency (agranulocytosis of ≥2 weeks) in our bone marrow transplantation center, the PI rate was 17.20%. A QCC was established following the 10 steps of the plan-do-check-act (PDCA) model; this was scientifically supported by culturing the bacterial colony from patients' perianal skin to determine the sanitization effect and interval time. Because a warm aqueous solution of potassium permanganate is recommended for sanitization, the bacterial colony culture was also used to determine the proper drug concentration, water temperature, and soaking time. All procedures were standardized. Patients, hospital staff, and medical students were enrolled into the QCC team based on the patient-hospital-student (PHS) win-win concept. Results After establishment of the PDCA model, the PI rate among 253 patients decreased from 17.20% to 5.93% and remained at 5.25% during the following year. The medical expenses and length of hospital stay consequently decreased. Conclusion The QCC and PHS win-win concept can reduce the PI rate and promote medical quality.


Assuntos
Agranulocitose/etiologia , Doenças do Ânus/prevenção & controle , Infecções Bacterianas/prevenção & controle , Transplante de Medula Óssea/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Hematológicas/terapia , Participação nas Decisões/organização & administração , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/normas , Doenças do Ânus/etiologia , Doenças do Ânus/microbiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/etiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Transplante de Medula Óssea/métodos , Hospitais , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Pacientes , Estudantes de Medicina
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...