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5.
BMJ ; 375: n2288, 2021 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34615650

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe prominent authorship positions held by women and the overall percentage of women co-authoring manuscripts submitted during the covid-19 pandemic compared with the previous two years. DESIGN: Cross sectional study. SETTING: Nine specialist and two large general medical journals. POPULATION: Authors of research manuscripts submitted between 1 January 2018 and 31 May 2021. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcome: first author's gender. SECONDARY OUTCOMES: last and corresponding authors' gender; number (percentage) of women on authorship byline in "pre-pandemic" period (1 January 2018 to 31 December 2019) and in "covid-19" and "non-covid-19" manuscripts during pandemic. RESULTS: A total of 63 259 manuscripts were included. The number of female first, last, and corresponding authors respectively were 1313 (37.1%), 996 (27.9%), and 1119 (31.1%) for covid-19 manuscripts (lowest values in Jan-May 2020: 230 (29.4%), 165 (21.1%), and 185 (22.9%)), compared with 8583 (44.9%), 6118 (31.2%), and 7273 (37.3%) for pandemic non-covid-19 manuscripts and 12 724 (46.0%), 8923 (31.4%), and 10 981 (38.9%) for pre-pandemic manuscripts. The adjusted odds ratio of having a female first author in covid-19 manuscripts was <1.00 in all groups (P<0.001) compared with pre-pandemic (lowest in Jan-May 2020: 0.55, 98.75% confidence interval 0.43 to 0.70). The adjusted odds ratio of having a woman as last or corresponding author was significantly lower for covid-19 manuscripts in all time periods (except for the two most recent periods for last author) compared with pre-pandemic (lowest values in Jan-May 2020: 0.74 (0.57 to 0.97) for last and 0.61 (0.49 to 0.77) for corresponding author). The odds ratios for pandemic non-covid-19 manuscripts were not significantly different compared with pre-pandemic manuscripts. The median percentage of female authors on the byline was lower for covid-19 manuscripts (28.6% in Jan-May 2020) compared with pre-pandemic (36.4%) and non-covid-19 pandemic manuscripts (33.3% in Jan-May 2020). Gender disparities in all prominent authorship positions and the proportion of women authors on the byline narrowed in the most recent period (Feb-May 2021) compared with the early pandemic period (Jan-May 2020) and were very similar to values observed for pre-pandemic manuscripts. CONCLUSIONS: Women have been underrepresented as co-authors and in prominent authorship positions in covid-19 research, and this gender disparity needs to be corrected by those involved in academic promotion and awarding of research grants. Women attained some prominent authorship positions equally or more frequently than before the pandemic on non-covid-19 related manuscripts submitted at some time points during the pandemic.


Assuntos
Autoria , Bibliometria , Pesquisa Biomédica , COVID-19 , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Manuscritos Médicos como Assunto , Escrita Médica , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Enferm. intensiva (Ed. impr.) ; 32(1): 42-44, ene.-mar. 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-202299

RESUMO

Inspirados por esfuerzos más amplios para hacer más sólidas las conclusiones de la investigación científica, hemos recopilado una lista de algunos de los errores estadísticos más comunes que aparecen en la literatura científica. Los errores tienen su origen en diseños experimentales ineficaces, análisis inapropiados y/o razonamientos erróneos. Proporcionamos asesoramiento sobre la forma en que los autores, revisores y lectores pueden identificar y resolver estos errores y esperamos evitarlos en el futuro. Todos los errores pueden ser identificados en los distintos apartados de una publicación principalmente en material y métodos, resultados o conclusiones


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Relatório de Pesquisa/normas , Publicações/normas , Manuscritos Médicos como Assunto , Erro Experimental/classificação , Mal-Entendido Terapêutico , Revisão da Pesquisa por Pares/normas , Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Má Conduta Científica/classificação , Correlação de Dados , Tamanho da Amostra
12.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 264: 113254, 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32798616

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Research on the folk categorization of nature in preliterate societies in Europe is complicated due to the fragmentation of the information available and is rarely undertaken. Yet the data is valuable and may provide, in certain circumstances, important insights, if not into novel medicines, then into the historical logic of selection and memorisation of plants useful from a medicinal perspective. AIMS OF THE STUDY: We aim to understand the ethnobotany of a preliterate society by analysing the emic (derived from people) perspective on nature-related culture of one of Europe's smaller nations, whose written language and culture was shaped in the 18th-19th centuries by other, larger nations of Europe, and thus from the etic (academic) perspective. We attempt to identify how folk categorization is reflected in the relationships between plant names and uses and to map the structure of those relationships. DATA AND METHODS: We base our analysis on one of the oldest ethnobotanical manuscripts and herbaria of the Baltic governorates, compiled in 1831 by an amateur botanist, Baltic German Pastor Johann Heinrich Rosenplänter (1782-1846), which was derived from conversations with his parishioners from the tiny Pärnu parish. The historical dataset was critically analysed from an ethnobotanical perspective in light of recent identifications of the herbarium specimens. RESULTS: Although the Rosenplänter collection is fragmentary, the logic of plant categorization by non-literate peasants at that time is clearly seen in the data. Plants preserved in the herbarium were predominantly used for ethno-medicinal, food or ethno-veterinary purposes, such as treating chronic skin and joint diseases as well as severe acute diseases in humans and animals. Among 129 folk taxa analysed, more than one third had apparent purpose-related plant names providing clear links to their use, whereas a few multifunctional plants had several names reflecting diverse uses. For example, Hypericum spp., which was used in three different ways, had three semantically distinct names. However, among the plants that Rosenplänter collected, there were also some that were simply named and described by people but lacked any usability data (e.g., Trollius europaeus), meaning that use as such was not the primary criterion for recognising a plant. The web-like structure of preliterate thinking in plant-related knowledge reveals a deep relationship with the environment and the interpretation of new elements through familiar natural objects. CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrate that historical ethnobotanical data, if thoughtfully analysed, can be used not only for comparative purposes, but also for understanding the logic of preliterate thinking. We encourage future in-depth studies of historical ethnobotanical data in Europe in order to understand the relationship between nature and culture of native European populations.


Assuntos
Etnobotânica/história , Etnofarmacologia/história , Manuscritos Médicos como Assunto/história , Medicina Tradicional/história , Plantas Medicinais , Países Bálticos/etnologia , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , Humanos
14.
J Med Biogr ; 29(1): 29-34, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30334679

RESUMO

The golden age of Islamic medicine (800 to 1300 CE) is a notable period in medical history. Medical education in this period of time was significant and systematic in Islamic territory. In the early Golden Age of Islamic Medicine, Abu Zayd Hunain ibn Ishaq al-'Ibadi, an exceptional scholar and translator, emerged. He was known as Johannitius in medieval Europe. Al-Masa'il fi al-tibb lil-Mutallimin (Questions on Medicine for Students) was written by Hunain ibn Ishaq. This book remains a definitive text on Islamic medicine and has been printed and published widely in Europe. Al-Masa'il fi al-tibb is written in the style of questions and answers which is distinct from the conventional writing style of medical books on Islamic medicine. The current article reviews Al-Masa'il fi al-tibb and its distinguishing style, the question and answer format. Today, the question-and-answer method is a popular method of medical education, and clinical teachers tend to use it in medical education because of the advantages it offers. The use of this method in Al-Masa'il fi al-tibb for education and examination of medical students by Hunain ibn Ishaq reflects a great improvisation in medical education and introduces him as the leading developer of the question-and-answer method in Islamic medical education.


Assuntos
Manuscritos Médicos como Assunto/história , Medicina Arábica/história , Médicos/história , História Medieval , Iraque , Mesopotâmia
15.
J Med Biogr ; 29(3): 135-142, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801027

RESUMO

John Hatton, LSA MRCS FRCS MD (1817-1871), was apprenticed from 1833 to Joseph Jordan, MRCS FRCS (1787-1873), a well-known Manchester surgeon. Jordan, who had been teaching anatomy since 1814, closed his Mount Street Medical School in 1834 and was elected as surgeon to the Manchester Royal Infirmary in 1835. He continued to lecture on surgery and surgical pathology at the Infirmary, and sometimes at the Pine Street Medical School run by Thomas Turner, LSA FRCS (1793-1873). During 1837-38 Hatton transcribed and illustrated these lectures in a bound manuscript and also added notes and drawings in his personal copy of The Dublin Dissector. He gained his Licentiate of the Society of Apothecaries (LSA) in 1836 and Membership of the Royal College of Surgeons (MRCS) in 1839 and set up in Manchester as surgeon from around 1840. This paper is based on three previously unrelated documents in the University of Manchester Archives: a handwritten catalogue of specimens in Jordan's Anatomy Museum, Hatton's annotated copy of The Dublin Dissector and his manuscript record of Jordan's lectures. These documents provide a valuable insight into medical education during the 1830s.


Assuntos
Educação Médica/história , Cirurgia Geral/história , Manuscritos Médicos como Assunto/história , Patologia/história , Cirurgiões/história , Inglaterra , História do Século XIX
16.
Asclepio ; 72(2): 0-0, jul.-dic. 2020.
Artigo em Catalão | IBECS | ID: ibc-199282

RESUMO

Aquest article és una primera presentació dels resultats obtinguts en el procés de revisió dels manuscrits de l'obra mèdica d'Arnau de Vilanova en el marc del desenvolupament de la base de dades Arnau BD dedicada a recopilar els còdexs del corpus atribuït a aquest metge medieval. La nostra revisió ha permès no tan sols reunir en un sol recurs els testimonis coneguts prèviament dels escrits mèdics d'Arnau sinó també descobrir 36 manuscrits amb un o més textos seus que havien passat desapercebuts en els estudis arnaldians anteriors


No disponible


This article is a first presentation of the results obtained by reviewing the manuscripts of Arnau de Vilanova's medical works in the development of the Arnau BD database, in which the codices of the corpus attributed to this medieval physician are collected. Our review has allowed not only to gather the previously known witnesses of Arnau's medical writings in a single resource, but also to discover 36 manuscripts containing one or more of his texts that had gone unnoticed in the prior scholarship on this author


Assuntos
Humanos , História Medieval , Manuscritos Médicos como Assunto/história , História da Medicina , Espanha
17.
Chirurgia (Bucur) ; 115(5): 554-562, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33138892

RESUMO

One of the main goals of clinicians is to constantly improve the healthcare by spreading their expertise and by introducing innovations in medical science. Therefore, publishing is of utmost importance. Moreover, publishing helps authors in developing their academic carrier. Learning how to properly write and submit a manuscript should be a goal for all medical students, residents, clinicians and researchers. Everyone, from students to senior physicians and surgeons, advance in their carrier by publishing papers and by getting their work cited by others. The aim of this paper, published in three parts, is to enable the readers to write and publish their work effectively; the current part is addressing the actual writing workflow of a clinical paper and its submission process to a journal.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Educação Médica , Editoração , Comunicação Acadêmica/normas , Redação , Pesquisa Biomédica/normas , Educação Médica/métodos , Educação Médica/organização & administração , Educação Médica/normas , Humanos , Manuscritos Médicos como Assunto
20.
Circ Heart Fail ; 13(8): e006605, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32757645

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gender disparities in authorship of heart failure (HF) guideline citations and clinical trials have not been examined. METHODS: We identified authors of publications referenced in Class I Recommendations in United States (n=173) and European (n=100) HF guidelines and of publications of all HF trials with >400 participants (n=118) published between 2001 and 2016. Authors' genders were determined, and changes in authorship patterns over time were evaluated with linear regression and nonparametric testing. RESULTS: The median proportion of women authors per publication was 20% (interquartile range [IQR], 8%-33%) in United States guidelines, 14% (IQR, 2%-20%) in European guidelines, and 11% (IQR, 4%-20%) in HF trials. The proportion of women authors increased modestly over time in United States and European guidelines' references (ß=0.005 and 0.003, respectively, from 1986 to 2016; P<0.001) but not in HF trials (12.5% [IQR, 0%-20%] in 2001-2004 to 8.9% [IQR, 0%-20%] in 2013-2016; P>0.50). Overall proportions of women as first or last authors in HF trials (16%) did not change significantly over time (P=0.60). North American HF trials had the highest likelihood of having a woman as first or senior author (24%). HF trials with a woman first or senior author were associated with a higher proportion of enrolled female participants (39% versus 26%, P=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In HF practice guidelines and trials, few women are authors of pivotal publications. Higher number of women authors is associated with higher enrollment of women in HF trials. Barriers to authorship and representation of women in HF guidelines and HF trial leadership need to be addressed.


Assuntos
Autoria , Cardiologia , Manuscritos Médicos como Assunto , Editoração/estatística & dados numéricos , Mulheres , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Estados Unidos
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