Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.131
Filtrar
1.
BMJ ; 375: e066576, 2021 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34732464

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify all known ties between the medical product industry and the healthcare ecosystem. DESIGN: Scoping review. METHODS: From initial literature searches and expert input, a map was created to show the network of medical product industry ties across parties and activities in the healthcare ecosystem. Through a scoping review, the ties were then verified, cataloged, and characterized, with data abstracted on types of industry ties (financial, non-financial), applicable policies for conflict of interests, and publicly available data sources. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Presence and types of medical product industry ties to activities and parties, presence of policies for conflict of interests, and publicly available data. RESULTS: A map derived through synthesis of 538 articles from 37 countries shows an extensive network of medical product industry ties to activities and parties in the healthcare ecosystem. Key activities include research, healthcare education, guideline development, formulary selection, and clinical care. Parties include non-profit entities, the healthcare profession, the market supply chain, and government. The medical product industry has direct ties to all parties and some activities through multiple pathways; direct ties extend through interrelationships among parties and activities. The most frequently identified parties were within the healthcare profession, with individual professionals described in 422 (78%) of the included studies. More than half (303, 56%) of the publications documented medical product industry ties to research, with clinical care (156, 29%), health professional education (145, 27%), guideline development (33, 6%), and formulary selection (8, 1%) appearing less often. Policies for conflict of interests exist for some financial and a few non-financial ties; publicly available data sources seldom describe or quantify these ties. CONCLUSIONS: An extensive network of medical product industry ties to activities and parties exists in the healthcare ecosystem. Policies for conflict of interests and publicly available data are lacking, suggesting that enhanced oversight and transparency are needed to protect patient care from commercial influence and to ensure public trust.


Assuntos
Conflito de Interesses , Indústria Farmacêutica/ética , Setor de Assistência à Saúde/ética , Conflito de Interesses/economia , Indústria Farmacêutica/economia , Saúde Global , Setor de Assistência à Saúde/economia , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Mapas como Assunto
2.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0248646, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Geospatial datasets of population are becoming more common in models used for health policy. Publicly-available maps of human population make a consistent picture from inconsistent census data, and the techniques they use to impute data makes each population map unique. Each mapping model explains its methods, but it can be difficult to know which map is appropriate for which policy work. High quality census datasets, where available, are a unique opportunity to characterize maps by comparing them with truth. METHODS: We use census data from a bed-net mass-distribution campaign on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea, conducted by the Bioko Island Malaria Elimination Program as a gold standard to evaluate LandScan (LS), WorldPop Constrained (WP-C) and WorldPop Unconstrained (WP-U), Gridded Population of the World (GPW), and the High-Resolution Settlement Layer (HRSL). Each layer is compared to the gold-standard using statistical measures to evaluate distribution, error, and bias. We investigated how map choice affects burden estimates from a malaria prevalence model. RESULTS: Specific population layers were able to match the gold-standard distribution at different population densities. LandScan was able to most accurately capture highly urban distribution, HRSL and WP-C matched best at all other lower population densities. GPW and WP-U performed poorly everywhere. Correctly capturing empty pixels is key, and smaller pixel sizes (100 m vs 1 km) improve this. Normalizing areas based on known district populations increased performance. The use of differing population layers in a malaria model showed a disparity in results around transition points between endemicity levels. DISCUSSION: The metrics in this paper, some of them novel in this context, characterize how these population maps differ from the gold standard census and from each other. We show that the metrics help understand the performance of a population map within a malaria model. The closest match to the census data would combine LandScan within urban areas and the HRSL for rural areas. Researchers should prefer particular maps if health calculations have a strong dependency on knowing where people are not, or if it is important to categorize variation in density within a city.


Assuntos
Malária/epidemiologia , Densidade Demográfica , Guiné Equatorial/epidemiologia , Humanos , Mapas como Assunto , Plasmodium falciparum , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0247535, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33630905

RESUMO

Spatial datasets of building footprint polygons are becoming more widely available and accessible for many areas in the world. These datasets are important inputs for a range of different analyses, such as understanding the development of cities, identifying areas at risk of disasters, and mapping the distribution of populations. The growth of high spatial resolution imagery and computing power is enabling automated procedures to extract and map building footprints for whole countries. These advances are enabling coverage of building footprint datasets for low and middle income countries which might lack other data on urban land uses. While spatially detailed, many building footprints lack information on structure type, local zoning, or land use, limiting their application. However, morphology metrics can be used to describe characteristics of size, shape, spacing, orientation and patterns of the structures and extract additional information which can be correlated with different structure and settlement types or neighbourhoods. We introduce the foot package, a new set of open-source tools in a flexible R package for calculating morphology metrics for building footprints and summarising them in different spatial scales and spatial representations. In particular our tools can create gridded (or raster) representations of morphology summary metrics which have not been widely supported previously. We demonstrate the tools by creating gridded morphology metrics from all building footprints in England, Scotland and Wales, and then use those layers in an unsupervised cluster analysis to derive a pattern-based settlement typology. We compare our mapped settlement types with two existing settlement classifications. The results suggest that building patterns can help distinguish different urban and rural types. However, intra-urban differences were not well-predicted by building morphology alone. More broadly, though, this case study demonstrates the potential of mapping settlement patterns in the absence of a housing census or other urban planning data.


Assuntos
Planejamento de Cidades , Habitação , Software , Cidades , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Humanos , Mapas como Assunto , Reino Unido
5.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243328, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33290396

RESUMO

With the development of web maps, people are no longer satisfied with fixed and limited scale map services but want to obtain personalized and arbitrary scale map data. Continuous map generalization technology can be used to generate arbitrary scale map data. This paper proposes a morphing method for continuously generalizing linear map features using shape context matching and hierarchical interpolation (SCM-HI). More specifically, shape characteristics are quantitatively described by shape context on which shape similarity is measured based on a chi-square method; then, two levels of interpolation, skeleton and detail interpolations, are employed to generate the geometry of intermediate curves. The main contributions of our approach include (1) exploiting both the geometry and spatial structure of a vector curve in shape matching by using shape context, and (2) preserving both the main shape structure as-rigid-as-possible and local geometric details as gradual and smooth as possible for intermediate curves by hierarchical interpolation. Experiments show that our method generates plausible morphing effects and can thus serve as a robust approach for continuous generalization of linear map features.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Modelos Teóricos , Humanos , Mapas como Assunto
6.
Int J Equity Health ; 19(1): 204, 2020 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33176786

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Designing public health policies to target the needs of specific places requires highly granular data. When geographic health statistics from official sources are absent or lacking in spatial detail, Sanitary Vulnerability metrics derived from Census and other georeferenced public data can be used to identify areas in particular need of attention. With that aim, a Vulnerability Map was developed, identifying areas with a substantial deficit in its population health coverage. As a result a novel methodology for measuring Sanitary Vulnerability is presented, that can potentially be applied to different time periods or geographies. METHODS: Census, official listings of public health facilities and crowdsourced georeferenced data are used. The Vulnerability Index is built using dimensionality reduction techniques such as Autoencoders and Non-parametric PCA. MAIN RESULTS: The high resolution map shows the geographical distribution of a Sanitary Vulnerability Index, produced using official and crowdsourced open data sources, overcoming the lack of official sources on health indicators at the local level. CONCLUSIONS: The Sanitary Vulnerability Map's value as a tool for place specific policymaking was validated by using it to predict local health related metrics such as health coverage. Further lines of work contemplate using the Map to study the interaction between Sanitary Vulnerability and the prevalence of different diseases, and also applying its methodology in the context of other public services such as education, security, housing, etc.


Assuntos
Mapas como Assunto , Saneamento , Populações Vulneráveis , Argentina , Humanos , Formulação de Políticas , Política Pública
7.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0239828, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33253234

RESUMO

The road network is the skeletal element of topographic maps at different scales. In general, urban roads are connected by road segments, thus forming a series of road meshes. Mesh elimination is a key step in evaluating the importance of roads during the road network data management and a prerequisite to the implementation of continuous multiscale spatial representation of road networks. The existing mesh-based method is an advanced road elimination method whereby meshes with the largest density are sequentially selected and road segments with the least importance in each mesh are eliminated. However, the road connectivity and integrity may be destroyed in specific areas by this method because some eliminated road segments could be located in the middle of road strokes. Therefore, this paper proposed an elimination method for isolated meshes in a road network considering stroke edge feature. First, small meshes were identified by using mesh density thresholds, which can be obtained by the sample data statistical algorithm. Thereafter, the small meshes related to the edge segments of road strokes were taken out and defined as stroke edge meshes, and the remaining small meshes were defined as stroke non-edge meshes. Second, by computing the mesh density of all stroke edge meshes, the mesh with the largest density was selected as the starting mesh, and the least important edge segment in the mesh was eliminated. The difference between the existing mesh-based method and the proposed method is that the starting mesh is a stroke edge mesh, not any given small mesh, and the eliminated segment is just only one of edge segments of strokes not chosen from among all segments. Third, mesh elimination was implemented by iteratively processing the stroke edge meshes with the largest mesh density until all of them were eliminated and their mesh density exceeded the threshold. The stroke non-edge meshes were directly preserved. Finally, a 1:10,000 topographic road map of an area in Jiangsu Province of China was used for validation. The experimental results show that for all stroke non-edge meshes and 23% of the stroke edge meshes, compared to the mesh-based method, the road stroke connectivity and integrity of road strokes were better preserved by the proposed method, and the remaining 77% of the elimination results for the stroke edge meshes were the same under the two methods.


Assuntos
Mapas como Assunto , Teste de Materiais/métodos , Telas Cirúrgicas , Algoritmos , China , Humanos , Próteses e Implantes
8.
Health Place ; 66: 102446, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045672

RESUMO

This paper explores neighbourhood-level correlates of the Covid-19 deaths in London during the initial rise and peak of the pandemic within the UK - the period March 1 to April 17, 2020. It asks whether the person-level predictors of Covid-19 that are identified in reports by Public Health England and by the Office of National Statistics also hold at a neighbourhood scale, remaining evident in the differences between neighbours. In examining this, the paper focuses on localised differences in the number of deaths, putting forward an innovative method of analysis that looks at the differences between places that share a border. Specifically, a difference across spatial boundaries method is employed to consider whether a higher number of deaths in one neighbourhood, when compared to its neighbours, is related to other differences between those contiguous locations. It is also used to map localised 'hot spots' and to look for spatial variation in the regression coefficients. The results are compared to those for a later period, April 18 - May 31. The findings show that despite some spatial diffusion of the disease, a greater number of deaths continues to be associated with Asian and Black ethnic groups, socio-economic disadvantage, very large households (likely indicative of residential overcrowding), and fewer from younger age groups. The analysis adds to the evidence showing that age, wealth/deprivation, and ethnicity are key risk factors associated with higher mortality rates from Covid-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/mortalidade , Geografia Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Londres/epidemiologia , Masculino , Mapas como Assunto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Análise Espacial , Adulto Jovem
9.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0241011, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33104729

RESUMO

Virtual reality (VR) is a potentially challenging social environment for effective communication and collaboration. Thus, we conducted a VR study to determine whether increased familiarity with a teammate would improve performance on a joint decision making task. Specifically, because attitude familiarity, or knowledge of another person's attitudes, has been correlated with better relationship functioning in the past, we anticipated that team performance would improve when teammates were first asked to discuss their task-relevant attitudes with one another. We also hypothesized that increased familiarity would be particularly useful in immersive VR, where typical social and other nonverbal cues were lacking. Twenty pairs recruited from a workplace environment were randomly assigned to either the Familiar or Control condition before completing a joint decision making task both in VR and on desktop monitors. The manipulation of attitude familiarity was successful: pairs in the Familiar condition were significantly more aware of their partners' unique task-relevant attitudes. Results found that in VR, Familiar pairs were more accurate at determining patterns to events. Additionally, for teams less experienced in VR, Familiar pairs were also more accurate at predicting future events. However, there was no meaningful statistical difference in pairs' ability to identify information. Familiar teams also took more time to answer questions, and we found no difference in self-reported communication quality. Overall, this was the first successful manipulation of attitude familiarity and results indicate that such an intervention may prove useful in a collaborative work environment, as Familiar teams demonstrated greater accuracy, especially in VR.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Realidade Virtual , Adolescente , Adulto , Atitude , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mapas como Assunto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Experimentação Humana não Terapêutica , Tempo de Reação , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Med Libr Assoc ; 108(4): 649-650, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33013226

RESUMO

OpenStreetMap (OSM) mapathons can offer a learner-centered means for critical data literacy and visual literacy instruction. Mapathons are coordinated humanitarian mapping events in which participants use geographic information system (GIS) data and satellite imagery to create open-source maps for humanitarian support. Visual mapping is an effective learning activity because it encourages students to use big data to create a deliverable-an open-source map-that allows instructors to engage learners in data literacy and visual literacy at the highest cognitive level.


Assuntos
Alfabetização , Mapas como Assunto , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Estudantes
11.
Health Place ; 66: 102450, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010661

RESUMO

Complexities of virus genotypes and the stochastic contacts in human society create a big challenge for estimating the potential risks of exposure to a widely spreading virus such as COVID-19. To increase public awareness of exposure risks in daily activities, we propose a birthday-paradox-based probability model to implement in a web-based system, named COSRE (community social risk estimator) and make in-time community exposure risk estimation during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. We define exposure risk to mean the probability of people meeting potential cases in public places such as grocery stores, gyms, libraries, restaurants, coffee shops, offices, etc. Our model has three inputs: the real-time number of active and asymptomatic cases, the population in local communities, and the customer counts in the room. With COSRE, possible impacts of the pandemic can be explored through spatiotemporal analysis, e.g., a variable number of people may be projected into public places through time to assess changes of risk as the pandemic unfolds. The system has potential to advance understanding of the true exposure risks in various communities. It introduces an objective element to plan, prepare and respond during a pandemic. Spatial analysis tools are used to draw county-level exposure risks of the United States from April 1 to July 15, 2020. The correlation experiment with the new cases in the next two weeks shows that the risk estimation model offers promise in assisting people to be more precise about their personal safety and control of daily routine and social interaction. It can inform business and municipal COVID-19 policy to accelerate recovery.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Algoritmos , Humanos , Internet , Mapas como Assunto , Pandemias , Probabilidade , Logradouros Públicos , Análise Espacial , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
12.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0235780, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886925

RESUMO

Prominent regional differentiations of highway landslide disasters (HLDs) bring great difficulties in highway planning, designing and disaster mitigation, therefore, a comprehensive understanding of HLDs from the spatial perspective is a basis for reducing damages. Statistical prediction methods and machine learning methods have some defects in landslide susceptibility mapping (LSM), meanwhile, hybrid methods have been developed by combining the statistical prediction methods with machine learning methods in recent years, and some of them were reported to perform better than conventional methods. In view of this, the principal component analysis (PCA) method was used to extract the susceptibility evaluation indexes of HLDs; the particle swarm optimization-support vector machine (PSO-SVM) model and genetic algorithm-support vector machine (GA-SVM) model were implemented to the susceptibility mapping and zoning of HLDs in China. The research results show that the accumulative contribution rate of the four principal components is 92.050%; evaluation results of the PSO-SVM model are better than those of the GA-SVM model; micro dangerous areas, moderate dangerous areas, severe dangerous areas and extreme dangerous areas account for 24.24%, 19.49%, 36.53% and 19.74% of the total areas of China; among the 1543 disaster points in the HLDs inventory, there are 134, 182, 421 and 806 located in the above areas respectively.


Assuntos
Deslizamentos de Terra , Algoritmos , China , Planejamento de Cidades , Mapeamento Geográfico , Mapas como Assunto , Análise de Componente Principal , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte , Transportes
14.
Appl Ergon ; 88: 103177, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678784

RESUMO

We developed a new kit to assemble three-dimensional (3D) tactile maps for orientation and mobility (O&M) training provided to persons with visual impairments. This study evaluated the effects of verbal explanations combined with 3D tactile map kits in improving understanding, recall, and walking along an unfamiliar route in comparison with the effects of only verbal explanation. The 3D tactile maps provided participants having severe visual impairments and little experience with tactile maps with a better understanding and recall of the environmental information concerning the route and landmarks. Participants who used the 3D tactile maps could find specific landmarks set as tasks more accurately and arrive at the destination alone getting lost less frequently. Tactile maps composed of 3D points, lines, and areal parts are useful as a support aid for O&M training because they have high tactile readability and can provide the environmental information that individuals with visual impairment require.


Assuntos
Mapas como Assunto , Orientação/fisiologia , Equipamentos de Autoajuda , Auxiliares Sensoriais , Percepção do Tato/fisiologia , Transtornos da Visão/reabilitação , Adulto , Planejamento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Navegação Espacial/fisiologia , Aprendizagem Verbal/fisiologia , Caminhada/psicologia
15.
J Aging Phys Act ; 29(1): 63-70, 2020 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702666

RESUMO

Impaired mobility occurs in up to half of community-dwelling older adults and is associated with poor health outcomes and high health care costs. Although the built environment impacts mobility, most studies of older adults lack information about environmental-level factors. In-person observational audits can be utilized but cannot assess the historical environment. We applied a 78-item checklist to archived Google Street View imagery to assess historical residence access and neighborhood characteristics. Interrater reliability between two raters was tested on 50 addresses using prevalence-adjusted and bias-adjusted kappa (PABAK). The mean PABAK for all items was .75, with 81% of the items having substantial (PABAK ≥ .61) or almost perfect (PABAK ≥ .81) agreement. Environmental assessment using archived virtual imagery has excellent reliability for factors related to residence access and many neighborhood characteristics. Archived imagery can assess past neighborhood characteristics, facilitating the use of historical environment data within existing cohorts.


Assuntos
Ambiente Construído , Mapas como Assunto , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Planejamento Ambiental , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
16.
Educ. med. (Ed. impr.) ; 21(3): 193-197, mayo-jun. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-195107

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: La cantidad de información que resulta en el aula invertida, como resultado de sus componentes «fuera del aula» (virtual) y «en el aula», es elevada. Esta cantidad de información puede representar mayor carga cognitiva para el estudiante, generando confusión y dificultad para la asimilación del contenido. El objetivo de este estudio es evaluar el efecto del uso de mapas conceptuales para la síntesis de información y manejo de la carga cognitiva en el aula invertida. Materiales: Durante 2017, se utilizaron mapas conceptuales para la síntesis de información en un aula invertida convencional en cirugía. Los mapas se elaboraron bajo una metodología estandarizada a través del software CMap Tools. El efecto pre- y postintervención, relacionado con la utilidad y satisfacción percibida por los estudiantes, fue evaluado mediante el Concept Mapping Questionnaire. RESULTADOS: Un total de 158 estudiantes (pretest) y de 155 estudiantes (postest) fueron incluidos en el análisis. Se encontraron efectos positivos de la intervención sobre la interacción (comunicación, cooperación, participación), aprendizaje independiente y conexión de conceptos, de acuerdo con las percepciones estudiantiles. La confiabilidad del instrumento fue adecuada. CONCLUSIÓN: Los mapas conceptuales son una estrategia útil para la síntesis de información en el aula invertida según las percepciones estudiantiles. Se requieren nuevos estudios que evalúen, funcional y experimentalmente, la efectividad neurocognitiva de los mapas conceptuales, así como sus efectos sobre el aprendizaje a largo plazo


INTRODUCTION: The amount of information during the inverted classroom, as a result of its virtual and face-to-face components, is high. Ultimately, it is expected a greater cognitive load leading to confusion and lack of understanding of the main concepts to the students. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of conceptual maps, aimed to synthesize the information and deal with the cognitive load in the inverted classroom. Materials: We developed conceptual maps for the synthesis of information in a conventional inverted classroom in surgery during 2017. We constructed the maps using standardized methodologies. We used the CMap Tools software. We evaluated the pre- and post-intervention effects, related with the utility and satisfaction perceived by the students, by the Concept Mapping Questionnaire. RESULTS: A total of 158 students (pre-test) and 155 students (post-test) were included in the analysis. We found positive effects on interaction (communication, cooperation, and participation), independent learning and connection of concepts, according to student perceptions. The reliability of the instrument was adequate. CONCLUSION: Concept maps are a useful strategy for the synthesis of information in the inverted classroom according to student perceptions. Further studies are required that evaluate, functionally and experimentally, the neuro-cognitive effectiveness of conceptual maps, as well as their effects on long-term learning


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Ensino , Aprendizagem , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação Médica/métodos , Formação de Conceito , Mapas como Assunto , Treinamento por Simulação/métodos , Treinamento por Simulação/normas , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Cogn Res Princ Implic ; 5(1): 13, 2020 03 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32198712

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards inspectors are faced with the difficult task of learning the layout of complex nuclear facilities while being escorted through the facilities. This study addresses a gap in the literature regarding how to best support the development of inspectors' spatial knowledge, given the constraint that they cannot bring digital devices into most nuclear facilities. We tested whether viewing a map before learning a guided route or carrying a map along the route enabled better spatial learning than having no exposure to a map. Moreover, we tested the impact of carrying maps with different levels of detail (simple 2D, simple 3D, or complex 2D maps) on spatial learning outcomes, as well as interactions between map type and individual differences in sense of direction. RESULTS: The results showed nearly opposite patterns of performance for participants with good and poor sense of direction scores. Participants with a good sense of direction showed higher levels of spatial knowledge when studying or carrying simple maps, whether 2D or 3D, but they did not benefit from using a complex map. Participants with a poor sense of direction showed lower levels of spatial knowledge when using a simple map relative to using no map or a complex map, suggesting that they did not attempt to use the complex map. For both groups of participants, referring to a simple map while learning a route decreased their awareness of their environment, as measured by response times on a memory test that included incidentally learned items.


Assuntos
Conscientização/fisiologia , Mapas como Assunto , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Aprendizagem Espacial/fisiologia , Navegação Espacial/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
19.
Singapore Med J ; 61(2): 60-62, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32152638

RESUMO

Early cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and defibrillation prior to the arrival of emergency medical services can improve survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) with good neurological outcome. However, the rate of local bystander CPR is only 24.3% and bystander defibrillation 2.1%. In 2015, the R-AEDI (Registry for AED Integration) initiative was started to improve OHCA survival rates. R-AEDI alerts volunteers to nearby OHCA cases via the myResponder mobile application. In 2015-2017, 7,682 AEDs were mapped and made accessible via this app. Comprehensive site inspections also resulted in fewer non-functional AEDs, as AED owners were educated on the importance of the maintenance of pads and batteries. The AED heat map allows us to identify areas that are lacking in or require improved public access AED coverage. The online AED registry found in the myResponder app is useful to locate AEDs rapidly during OHCAs. More community education would improve the rate of bystander defibrillation.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Desfibriladores , Socorristas , Aplicativos Móveis , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Mapas como Assunto , Sistema de Registros , Singapura
20.
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 12(1): e1-e9, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32129652

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maps are important tools in healthcare delivery. In Community-Oriented Primary Care (COPC), they are expected to be used to plan services and resources for defined geographical areas, delineate team practice areas, allocate healthcare workers to households and support service delivery and performance management. AIM: This is a study of the use and value of maps and mapmaking in the delivery of healthcare services through Ward-Based Outreach Teams (WBOTs). SETTING: This study was conducted between 2014 and 2016 in Mamelodi (South Africa), an urban settlement selected to begin the City of Tshwane's WBOT implementation programme in 2013. METHODS: This study is based on three qualitative participatory mapmaking projects with WBOT healthcare professionals and workers. Data generated through mapmaking, focused group discussions, individual semi-structured interviews, reflective writing and feedback workshops were analysed thematically. RESULTS: Through mapmaking and discussions about the maps, healthcare providers took ownership of the maps they were creating or viewing, added their own information onto the maps, voiced issues about their practice, generated new knowledge and shared ideas and solutions for challenges. These processes expanded the use and value of maps beyond assisting participants to gain insights into the context, people and organisations of their places of work. CONCLUSION: Maps become creative learning tools that can be used in emergent ways to solve healthcare service and other problems when they are actively generated and engaged through facilitated discussion and reflection. This allows WBOTs to see maps as dynamic canvasses that they can use to improve service delivery.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde/organização & administração , Planejamento em Saúde , Mapas como Assunto , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Retroalimentação , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Técnicas de Planejamento , África do Sul , Redação
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...