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1.
Life Sci Alliance ; 6(2)2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36623871

RESUMO

Autotaxin is primarily known for the formation of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) from lysophosphatidylcholine. LPA is an important signaling phospholipid that can bind to six G protein-coupled receptors (LPA1-6). The ATX-LPA signaling axis is a critical component in many physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Here, we describe a potent inhibition of Δ9-trans-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive compound of medicinal cannabis and related cannabinoids, on the catalysis of two isoforms of ATX with nanomolar apparent EC50 values. Furthermore, we decipher the binding interface of ATX to THC, and its derivative 9(R)-Δ6a,10a-THC (6a10aTHC), by X-ray crystallography. Cellular experiments confirm this inhibitory effect, revealing a significant reduction of internalized LPA1 in the presence of THC with simultaneous ATX and lysophosphatidylcholine stimulation. Our results establish a functional interaction of THC with autotaxin-LPA signaling and highlight novel aspects of medicinal cannabis therapy.


Assuntos
Dronabinol , Lisofosfatidilcolinas , Lisofosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Maconha Medicinal , Receptores de Ácidos Lisofosfatídicos/metabolismo , Dronabinol/antagonistas & inibidores
2.
BMC Prim Care ; 24(1): 17, 2023 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36650442

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: On 1 January 2018 a four-year test scheme concerning use of medicinal cannabis (MC) was enacted. It has recently been extended for four more years by the Danish Parliament permitting all Danish physicians to prescribe MC to their patients. Previous studies have shown that general practitioners (GPs) have varying prescription experience, little knowledge, and mixed attitudes about MC. However, the present evidence is still limited, and no studies exist about Danish GPs' prescription experience, knowledge, and attitudes towards MC. Therefore, our aim was to examine Danish GPs' prescription experience, knowledge, and attitudes towards MC. METHODS: A national online survey-based study addressing Danish GPs was performed from September 2018 to July 2019. We performed separate multivariable logistic regression analyses including GPs' prescription experience, knowledge, and attitudes towards MC as outcome variables. RESULTS: A total of 427 (38.4%) of 1112 GPs completed the questionnaire. Of these, 37 (8.7%) had experience in prescribing MC. The majority had little or no knowledge about MC (80.6%) as well as a negative view on prescription of MC (71.4%) to patients. Factors associated with prescribing MC to patients were: Single-handed practices (OR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.1;1.8) and perception of having quite some knowledge about MC (OR = 4.8, 95% CI 2.2;10.4). Factors associated with having quite some knowledge about MC were: having a positive attitude towards prescribing MC (OR = 5.2, 95% CI 1.9;14.0), being male (OR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.4;1.8), and being at least 60 years of age (OR = 2.8, 95% CI 1.3;6.0). Factors associated with having a positive attitude towards prescribing MC were: having quite some knowledge about MC (OR = 5.2, 95% CI 2.2;12.5) and GPs being male (OR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.1;1.9). CONCLUSION: In this first study on prescription experience, knowledge, and attitudes about MC among Danish GPs, conducted one year after the Danish test scheme was enacted, we find a very low proportion of prescribers, little knowledge, and an overall negative attitude towards MC. Among the prescribing GPs, four in ten have little to no knowledge and a negative attitude towards MC. We stress that prescribing patterns, knowledge, and attitudes may change throughout the remaining time of the test scheme.


Assuntos
Clínicos Gerais , Maconha Medicinal , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Maconha Medicinal/uso terapêutico , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários , Prescrições , Dinamarca/epidemiologia
3.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 23(1): 10, 2023 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36600251

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Privately-owned cannabis clinics have sprung up in many jurisdictions where medicinal cannabis has been legalised and provide an alternative pathway for patients who are unable or unwilling to access a prescription for cannabis-based medicinal products from their usual healthcare providers. AIMS: This study aimed to explore physicians' views on cannabis clinics, including their perceptions of the role cannabis clinics play in the wider health system. METHODS: A qualitative study using in-depth, semi-structured interviews with thirty-one physicians affiliated with private and community clinics in New Zealand (including cannabis clinicians, GPs, and specialist doctors). The interviews were conducted from July to December 2021. Data were transcribed and analysed using inductive thematic analysis. RESULTS: Cannabis clinicians positioned themselves as (1) "service providers", facilitating consumer access to cannabis prescriptions and products, and (2) "educators", providing advice to patients and the wider physician community. While general practitioners and specialists recognised the benefits of specialised cannabis clinics (i.e., knowledge of products and a non-judgmental environment), they questioned the limited evidence of clinical efficacy for cannabis, potential financial conflicts of interests of cannabis clinicians that may blur their clinical judgement, and the risk of compartmentalising patients' healthcare. CONCLUSIONS: Our paper raises a number of challenges with attempting to integrate cannabis clinics into the wider health system.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Clínicos Gerais , Maconha Medicinal , Humanos , Nova Zelândia , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Maconha Medicinal/uso terapêutico
4.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 243: 109760, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36638745

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Real world patterns of cannabis use for health concerns are highly variable and rarely overseen by a physician. Pragmatic effectiveness studies with electronic daily diaries that capture person-specific patterns of cannabis use and health symptoms may help clarify risks and benefits. METHODS: As part of a larger, randomized trial (NCT03224468), adults (N = 181) seeking cannabis for insomnia, pain, or anxiety or depressive symptoms were randomized to obtain a medical cannabis card immediately (MCC) or a waitlist control (WLC) and completed 12-weeks of daily web-based surveys on cannabis use and sleep, pain, and depressive symptoms. RESULTS: Completion rates of daily surveys were moderate to high (median completed: 72 out of 90 days). Daily reports of cannabis use were consistent with monthly interview assessments and urinalysis. The MCC group increased cannabis use frequency in the 12 weeks following randomization, while WLC did not. Among the MCC group, self-reported sleep quality was significantly higher on cannabis use days, compared to nonuse days. The MCC group displayed long-term sleep improvements, consistent with increasing cannabis frequency. No improvements were found for pain or depressive symptoms. CONCLUSION: Cannabis use is associated with same day improvements in self-reported sleep quality, but not pain or depressive symptoms, although sleep improvements occurred in the context of increased frequency of cannabis use, raising the risk for cannabis use disorder. Daily web-based assessments of cannabis appear valid and feasible in adults seeking cannabis for health concerns, providing a flexible, complementary method for future real-world effectiveness studies with expanded and objective measures.


Assuntos
Maconha Medicinal , Qualidade do Sono , Adulto , Humanos , Maconha Medicinal/uso terapêutico
5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 6(1): e2249797, 2023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36607641

RESUMO

This cross-sectional study uses a survey to estimate use of cannabis and other pain treatments among adults with chronic pain in areas with medical cannabis programs in 36 US states and Washington, DC.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Dor Crônica , Alucinógenos , Maconha Medicinal , Adulto , Humanos , Maconha Medicinal/uso terapêutico , Dor Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Manejo da Dor , Agonistas de Receptores de Canabinoides
7.
Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 17(1): 85-98, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36562418

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Cannabis-based medicinal products (CBMPs) have shown promising preclinical activity in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, clinical trials have not demonstrated effects on inflammation. This study aims to analyze changes in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and adverse events in IBD patients prescribed CBMPs. METHODS: A case series from the UK Medical Cannabis Registry was performed. Primary outcomes included changes from baseline in the Short Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire (SIBDQ), Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7), Single-Item Sleep Quality Scale (SQS), and EQ-5D-5L Index score at 1 and 3 months. Statistical significance was defined using p < 0.050. RESULTS: Seventy-six patients with Crohn's disease (n = 51; 67.11%) and ulcerative colitis (n = 25; 32.89%) were included. The median baseline SIBDQ score improved at 1 and 3 months. EQ-5D-5L index values, GAD-7, and SQS also improved after 3 months (p < 0.050). Sixteen (21.05%) patients reported adverse events with the majority being classified as mild to moderate in severity. CONCLUSION: Patients treated with CBMPs for refractory symptoms of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis demonstrated a short-term improvement in IBD-specific and general HRQoL. Prior cannabis consumers reported greater improvement compared to cannabis-naïve individuals.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Colite Ulcerativa , Doença de Crohn , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Maconha Medicinal , Humanos , Doença de Crohn/diagnóstico , Doença de Crohn/tratamento farmacológico , Colite Ulcerativa/diagnóstico , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Maconha Medicinal/efeitos adversos , Qualidade de Vida , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Cannabis/efeitos adversos , Agonistas de Receptores de Canabinoides/uso terapêutico , Reino Unido
8.
Sleep ; 45(2)2022 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34546363

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: We conducted a systematic review to explore the effectiveness of medical cannabis for impaired sleep. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, and PsychINFO to January 2021 for randomized trials of medical cannabis or cannabinoids for impaired sleep vs. any non-cannabis control. When possible, we pooled effect estimates for all patient-important sleep-related outcomes and used the GRADE approach to appraise the certainty of evidence. RESULTS: Thirty-nine trials (5100 patients) were eligible for review, of which 38 evaluated oral cannabinoids and 1 administered inhaled cannabis. The median follow-up was 35 days, and most trials (33 of 39) enrolled patients living with chronic cancer or noncancer chronic pain. Among patients with chronic pain, moderate certainty evidence found that medical cannabis probably results in a small improvement in sleep quality versus placebo (modeled risk difference [RD] for achieving the minimally important difference [MID], 8% [95% CI, 3 to 12]). Moderate to high certainty evidence shows that medical cannabis vs. placebo results in a small improvement in sleep disturbance for chronic non-cancer pain (modeled RD for achieving the MID, 19% [95% CI, 11 to 28]) and a very small improvement in sleep disturbance for chronic cancer pain (weighted mean difference of -0.19 cm [95%CI, -0.36 to -0.03 cm]; interaction p = .03). Moderate to high certainty evidence shows medical cannabis, versus placebo, results in a substantial increase in the risk of dizziness (RD 29% [95%CI, 16 to 50], for trials with ≥3 months follow-up), and a small increase in the risk of somnolence, dry mouth, fatigue, and nausea (RDs ranged from 6% to 10%). CONCLUSION: Medical cannabis and cannabinoids may improve impaired sleep among people living with chronic pain, but the magnitude of benefit is likely small.


Assuntos
Canabinoides , Dor Crônica , Maconha Medicinal , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Canabinoides/efeitos adversos , Dor Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Maconha Medicinal/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Sono
9.
BMC Prim Care ; 23(1): 330, 2022 12 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36529730

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medicinal cannabis (MC) products have been available on prescription in Australia for around six years. General practitioners (GPs) are at the forefront of MC prescribing and recent years have seen substantial increases in prescription numbers. This study examined the current knowledge, experiences, and attitudes of Australian GPs around MC. We also compared our findings to those of an earlier 2017 investigation. METHOD: We conducted a cross-sectional study using a 42-item on-line questionnaire adapted from our earlier 2017 survey. The current survey was completed by GPs attending an on-line, multi-topic educational seminar. Australian GPs (n = 505) completed the survey between November 2021 and February 2022. Data were synthesised using descriptive statistics. MC 'prescribers' and 'non-prescribers' responses were compared using Pearson's χ2 tests. RESULTS: While most GPs (85.3%) had received patient enquiries about MC during the last three months, only half (52.3%) felt comfortable discussing MC with patients. Around one fifth (21.8%) had prescribed a MC product. GPs strongly supported MC prescribing for palliative care, cancer pain, chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, and epilepsy, more so than in our 2017 survey. Prescribing for mental health conditions (e.g., depression, anxiety) and insomnia received less support. Opioids, benzodiazepines, and chemotherapy drugs were rated as more hazardous than MC. GPs correctly endorsed concerns around Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-related driving impairment and drug-seeking behaviour. However, additional concerns endorsed around cannabidiol causing addiction and driving impairment do not agree with current evidence. Consistent with this, many GPs (66.9%) felt they had inadequate knowledge of MC. CONCLUSION: Acceptance of MC as a treatment option has increased among Australian GPs since 2017. However, there is a clear need for improved training and education of GPs around cannabis-based medicines to provide increased numbers of skilled prescribers in the community.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Clínicos Gerais , Maconha Medicinal , Humanos , Maconha Medicinal/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(24)2022 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36555842

RESUMO

Dysmenorrhoea effects up to 90% of women of reproductive age, with medical management options including over-the-counter analgesia or hormonal contraception. There has been a recent surge in medicinal cannabis research and its analgesic properties. This paper aims to critically investigate the current research of medicinal cannabis for pain relief and to discuss its potential application to treat dysmenorrhoea. Relevant keywords, including medicinal cannabis, pain, cannabinoids, tetrahydrocannabinol, dysmenorrhoea, and clinical trial, have been searched in the PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library (Wiley) databases and a clinical trial website (clinicaltrials.gov). To identify the relevant studies for this paper, 84 papers were reviewed and 20 were discarded as irrelevant. This review critically evaluated cannabis-based medicines and their mechanism and properties in relation to pain relief. It also tabulated all clinical trials carried out investigating medicinal cannabis for pain relief and highlighted the side effects. In addition, the safety and toxicology of medicinal cannabis and barriers to use are highlighted. Two-thirds of the clinical trials summarised confirmed positive analgesic outcomes, with major side effects reported as nausea, drowsiness, and dry mouth. In conclusion, medicinal cannabis has promising applications in the management of dysmenorrhoea. The global medical cannabis market size was valued at USD 11.0 billion in 2021 and is expected to expand at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 21.06% from 2022 to 2030. This will encourage academic as well as the pharmaceutical and medical device industries to study the application of medical cannabis in unmet clinical disorders.


Assuntos
Canabinoides , Cannabis , Maconha Medicinal , Feminino , Humanos , Dismenorreia/tratamento farmacológico , Maconha Medicinal/efeitos adversos , Canabinoides/uso terapêutico , Dronabinol/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico
12.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 83(6): 829-838, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36484580

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Rapid shifts toward cannabis liberalization in the United States have created immense policy variability that is challenging to measure. We developed composite measures to characterize the restrictiveness of U.S. state cannabis policy environments. METHOD: Nine panelists, consisting of four research team members and five expert policy consultants, nominated distinct cannabis policies pertaining to cannabis prohibition, medicalization, and legalization for recreational use. For each of the 17 nominated policies, panelists developed implementation ratings and rated each policy's relative efficacy for reducing excessive cannabis use by adults, youth use, and impaired driving. Cannabis Policy Scale scores were then calculated for each state-year for all 50 states from 1999 to 2019 by weighting policies by their efficacy and implementation ratings, and then summing over policies. RESULTS: Median Cannabis Policy Scale scores remained stable until 2008, when they started declining (representing policy liberalization), with steeper declines after 2012. In 2019, state Cannabis Policy Scale scores targeting excessive use among the general population ranged from 29.6 to 66.7 for recreational cannabis legalization states, and from 72.4 to 93.4 for medical cannabis legalization states. Cannabis Policy Scale scores using youth-specific and driving-specific efficacy ratings showed similar trends. CONCLUSIONS: The Cannabis Policy Scale reflects trends toward liberalization of cannabis policy in many U.S. states. Even within crude policy phenotypes (e.g., medical cannabis programs), Cannabis Policy Scale scores varied considerably between states and over time. The Cannabis Policy Scale is a new measure that can add nuance to cannabis policy research and help assess cannabis policy-outcome relationships.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Cannabis , Maconha Medicinal , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Legislação de Medicamentos , Política Pública
13.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 83(6): 802-811, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36484577

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Social factors play an important role in young adults' substance use behaviors, but little is known about how egocentric social network factors are related to young adults' cannabis use. Young adults also report medicinal and recreational uses of cannabis, which may alter the strength of these relationships. Therefore, medical cannabis patient status and medicinal/recreational orientation toward cannabis were examined as moderators of these relationships. METHOD: Young adult medical cannabis patients (n = 182) and nonpatient users (n = 157) were surveyed in Los Angeles in 2015-2016 about their cannabis use, orientation (medicinal and/or recreational), and egocentric networks (cannabis use network size, social support network size, descriptive and injunctive norms). Regression models examined associations between network characteristics and past-90-day use and problematic use, and tested interactions between network characteristics and both patient status and cannabis use orientation. RESULTS: Only descriptive norms (adjusted incidence rate ratio [aIRR] = 1.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.06, 1.33]) were associated with more frequent use, but not problematic use. Descriptive norms interacted with cannabis use orientation: descriptive norms were positively associated with cannabis use days among medicinally oriented users (aIRR = 1.22, 95% CI [1.02, 1.46]). However, this relationship was stronger for recreationally oriented users (aIRR = 1.62, 95% CI [1.31, 2.01]). No interactions were found predicting problematic use. CONCLUSIONS: Descriptive cannabis use norms among one's personal network members are an important variable predicting young adults' cannabis use, but not problematic use. Perceived descriptive norms may be a stronger motivator to use for recreational users than medicinal users.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Alucinógenos , Maconha Medicinal , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Maconha Medicinal/uso terapêutico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Rede Social
14.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 83(6): 893-900, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36484587

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the relationship, in adults 50 years and older, between self-reported past-month marijuana use and difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions (SDCRMD) because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition, using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). METHOD: We relied on a sample of 294,000 adults (53.4% female), 50 years and older, from 21 U.S. states and two territories over 4 years (2016-2019). We conducted descriptive analyses to examine the prevalence of past-month marijuana use and SDCRMD and used multivariate logistic regression to examine the association between marijuana use and SDCRMD, controlling for demographic and health-related variables. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of SDCRMD was 11.0%, 95% confidence interval (CI) [10.6%, 11.5%], and the prevalence of self-reported past-month marijuana use was 7.1%, 95% CI [6.7%, 7.5%]. Of those reporting past-month marijuana use, 19.9%, 95% CI [17.8%, 22.1%] reported SDCRMD. Past-month marijuana users were 1.5, 95% CI [1.1, 2.1] times more likely to report SDCRMD than nonusers. Prevalence of past-month marijuana use was higher in states with legalization of both medical and recreational marijuana; however, prevalence of SDCRMD was not. CONCLUSIONS: We found a strong, positive, and statistically significant relationship between past-month marijuana use and SDCRMD. This finding serves as an important first step in identifying the relationship between older adults' self-reported marijuana use and their difficulty concentrating, remembering, and decision-making because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition; however, additional research is needed.


Assuntos
Fumar Maconha , Uso da Maconha , Maconha Medicinal , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Feminino , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Idoso , Masculino , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Autorrelato , Fumar Maconha/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Sistema de Vigilância de Fator de Risco Comportamental
15.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(11): e35974, 2022 11 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36383417

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medicinal cannabis is increasingly being used for a variety of physical and mental health conditions. Social media and web-based health platforms provide valuable, real-time, and cost-effective surveillance resources for gleaning insights regarding individuals who use cannabis for medicinal purposes. This is particularly important considering that the evidence for the optimal use of medicinal cannabis is still emerging. Despite the web-based marketing of medicinal cannabis to consumers, currently, there is no robust regulatory framework to measure clinical health benefits or individual experiences of adverse events. In a previous study, we conducted a systematic scoping review of studies that contained themes of the medicinal use of cannabis and used data from social media and search engine results. This study analyzed the methodological approaches and limitations of these studies. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine research approaches and study methodologies that use web-based user-generated text to study the use of cannabis as a medicine. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science, and Embase databases for primary studies in the English language from January 1974 to April 2022. Studies were included if they aimed to understand web-based user-generated text related to health conditions where cannabis is used as a medicine or where health was mentioned in general cannabis-related conversations. RESULTS: We included 42 articles in this review. In these articles, Twitter was used 3 times more than other computer-generated sources, including Reddit, web-based forums, GoFundMe, YouTube, and Google Trends. Analytical methods included sentiment assessment, thematic analysis (manual and automatic), social network analysis, and geographic analysis. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to review techniques used by research on consumer-generated text for understanding cannabis as a medicine. It is increasingly evident that consumer-generated data offer opportunities for a greater understanding of individual behavior and population health outcomes. However, research using these data has some limitations that include difficulties in establishing sample representativeness and a lack of methodological best practices. To address these limitations, deidentified annotated data sources should be made publicly available, researchers should determine the origins of posts (organizations, bots, power users, or ordinary individuals), and powerful analytical techniques should be used.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Maconha Medicinal , Medicina , Transtornos Mentais , Mídias Sociais , Humanos , Maconha Medicinal/uso terapêutico
17.
Nurse Pract ; 47(12): 16-25, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36399143

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: NPs are likely to encounter patients using cannabis with therapeutic intent, with or without legal authorization. During the clinical history and assessment process, NPs need to engage in frank discussion about cannabis therapeutics, including the risks and benefits, evidence for use, dosing considerations, potential drug interactions, and harm reduction.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Maconha Medicinal , Humanos , Maconha Medicinal/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos
18.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0272241, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36399463

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Oral medicinal cannabis (MC) has been increasingly prescribed for a wide range of clinical conditions since 2016. Despite an exponential rise in prescriptions and publications, high quality clinical efficacy and safety studies are lacking. The outcomes of a large Australian clinical electronic registry cohort are presented. METHODS: A prospective cannabis-naïve patient cohort prescribed oral MC participated in an ongoing longitudinal registry at a network of specialised clinics. Patient MC dose, safety and validated outcome data were collected regularly over two years and analysed. RESULTS: 3,961 patients (mean age 56.07 years [SD 19.08], 51.0% female) with multimorbidity (mean diagnoses 5.14 [SD 4.08]) and polypharmacy (mean 6.26 medications [SD 4.61]) were included in this analysis. Clinical indications were for: chronic pain (71.9%), psychiatric (15.4%), neurological (2.1%), and other diagnoses (10.7%). Median total oral daily dose was 10mg for Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and 22.5mg for cannabidiol (CBD). A stable dose was observed for over two years. 37.3% experienced treatment related adverse events. These were graded mild (67%), moderate (31%), severe (<2%, n = 23) and two (0.1%) serious adverse events. Statistically significant improvements at a p value of <0.001 across all outcomes were sustained for over two years, including: clinical global impression (CGI-E, +39%: CGI-I, +52%; p<0.001), pain interference and severity (BPI, 26.1% and 22.2%; p<0.001), mental health (DASS-21, depression 24.5%, anxiety 25.5%, stress 27.7%; p<0.001), insomnia (ISI, 35.0%; p<0.001), and health status (RAND SF36: physical function, 34.4%: emotional well-being, 37.3%; p<0.001). Mean number of concomitant medications did not significantly change over 2 years (p = 0.481). CONCLUSIONS: Oral MC was demonstrated to be safe and well-tolerated for a sustained period in a large complex cohort of cannabis-naïve, multimorbid patients with polypharmacy. There was significant improvement (p<0.001) across all measured clinical outcomes over two years. Results are subject to limitations of Real World Data (RWD) for causation and generalisability. Future high quality randomised controlled trials are awaited.


Assuntos
Canabidiol , Cannabis , Maconha Medicinal , Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Masculino , Maconha Medicinal/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Austrália/epidemiologia , Canabidiol/uso terapêutico , Sistema de Registros
19.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(11): e2240526, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36342719

RESUMO

This cross-sectional study analyzes the prevalence of cannabis use by US adults during the COVID-19 pandemic within different legal frameworks and evaluates differences in associated behaviors.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Cannabis , Alucinógenos , Maconha Medicinal , Adulto , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Maconha Medicinal/uso terapêutico
20.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277355, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36367871

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patient interest in the use of cannabis-based medicines (CBMs) has increased in Australia. While recent policy and legislative changes have enabled health practitioners to prescribe CBMs for their patients, many patients still struggle to access CBMs. This paper employed a thematic analysis to submissions made to a 2019 Australian government inquiry into current barriers of patient access to medical cannabis. METHODS: We identified 121 submissions from patients or family members (n = 63), government bodies (n = 5), non-government organisations (i.e., professional health bodies, charities, consumer organisations or advocacy groups; n = 25), medical cannabis and pharmaceutical industry (n = 16), and individual health professionals, academics, or research centres (n = 12). Data were coded using NVivo 12 software and thematically analysed. The findings were presented narratively using a modified Levesque's patient-centred access to care framework which includes: i) appropriateness; ii) availability and geographic accessibility; iii) acceptability; and iv) affordability. RESULTS: Submissions from government agencies and professional health bodies consistently supported maintaining the current regulatory frameworks and access pathways, whereas an overwhelming majority of patients, advocacy groups and the medical cannabis industry described the current regulatory and access models as 'not fit for purpose'. These differing views seem to arise from divergent persepctives on (i) what and how much evidence is needed for policy and practice, and (ii) how patients should be given access to medical cannabis products amidst empirical uncertainty. Notwithstanding these differences, there were commonalities among some stakeholders regarding the various supply, regulatory, legislative, financial, and dispensing challenges that hindered timely access to CBMs. CONCLUSIONS: Progress in addressing the fundamental barriers that determine if and how a patient accesses and uses CBMs needs i) a 'system-level' reform that gives due consideration to the geographic disparity in access to prescribers and medical cannabis, and ii) reframing societal and health professional's views of CBMs by decoupling recreational vs medical cannabis.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Maconha Medicinal , Humanos , Maconha Medicinal/uso terapêutico , Austrália , Família , Indústria Farmacêutica
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