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1.
Future Microbiol ; 16: 1289-1301, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34689597

RESUMO

COVID-19, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, has resulted in a massive global health crisis. Bioactive molecules extracted or synthesized using starting material obtained from marine species, including griffithsin, plitidepsin and fingolimod are in clinical trials to evaluate their anti-SARS-CoV-2 and anti-HIV efficacies. The current review highlights the anti-SARS-CoV-2 potential of marine-derived phytochemicals explored using in silico, in vitro and in vivo models. The current literature suggests that these molecules have the potential to bind with various key drug targets of SARS-CoV-2. In addition, many of these agents have anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory potentials and thus could play a role in the attenuation of COVID-19 complications. Overall, these agents may play a role in the management of COVID-19, but further preclinical and clinical studies are still required to establish their role in the mitigation of the current viral pandemic.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Oceanos e Mares , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios , Antivirais/química , Depsipeptídeos , Cloridrato de Fingolimode/química , Cloridrato de Fingolimode/farmacologia , Humanos , Lectinas , Biologia Marinha , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Peptídeos Cíclicos/química , Peptídeos Cíclicos/farmacologia , Ficocianina/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Lectinas de Plantas/química , Lectinas de Plantas/farmacologia , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Alga Marinha , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia
2.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 376(1837): 20200366, 2021 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34538136

RESUMO

Growing evidence suggests that biodiversity mediates parasite prevalence. We have compiled the first global database on occurrences and prevalence of marine parasitism throughout the Phanerozoic and assess the relationship with biodiversity to test if there is support for amplification or dilution of parasitism at the macroevolutionary scale. Median prevalence values by era are 5% for the Paleozoic, 4% for the Mesozoic, and a significant increase to 10% for the Cenozoic. We calculated period-level shareholder quorum sub-sampled (SQS) estimates of mean sampled diversity, three-timer (3T) origination rates, and 3T extinction rates for the most abundant host clades in the Paleobiology Database to compare to both occurrences of parasitism and the more informative parasite prevalence values. Generalized linear models (GLMs) of parasite occurrences and SQS diversity measures support both the amplification (all taxa pooled, crinoids and blastoids, and molluscs) and dilution hypotheses (arthropods, cnidarians, and bivalves). GLMs of prevalence and SQS diversity measures support the amplification hypothesis (all taxa pooled and molluscs). Though likely scale-dependent, parasitism has increased through the Phanerozoic and clear patterns primarily support the amplification of parasitism with biodiversity in the history of life. This article is part of the theme issue 'Infectious disease macroecology: parasite diversity and dynamics across the globe'.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Evolução Biológica , Invertebrados/parasitologia , Parasitos/fisiologia , Vertebrados/parasitologia , Animais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Fósseis , Biologia Marinha , Paleontologia
3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5226, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34471105

RESUMO

Marine phytoplankton and zooplankton form the basis of the ocean's food-web, yet the impacts of climate change on their biodiversity are poorly understood. Here, we use an ensemble of species distribution models for a total of 336 phytoplankton and 524 zooplankton species to determine their present and future habitat suitability patterns. For the end of this century, under a high emission scenario, we find an overall increase in plankton species richness driven by ocean warming, and a poleward shift of the species' distributions at a median speed of 35 km/decade. Phytoplankton species richness is projected to increase by more than 16% over most regions except for the Arctic Ocean. In contrast, zooplankton richness is projected to slightly decline in the tropics, but to increase strongly in temperate to subpolar latitudes. In these latitudes, nearly 40% of the phytoplankton and zooplankton assemblages are replaced by poleward shifting species. This implies that climate change threatens the contribution of plankton communities to plankton-mediated ecosystem services such as biological carbon sequestration.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Aquecimento Global , Biologia Marinha , Plâncton/classificação , Animais , Regiões Árticas , Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Cadeia Alimentar , Fitoplâncton , Temperatura , Zooplâncton
4.
Environ Res ; 201: 111612, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34197820

RESUMO

In recent years, Wenzhou City located on the southeast coast of China has experienced the largest scale of land reclamation projects in China. However, the extent to which such projects still bring about the destruction of marine resources and the environment. So, in this study, a marine ecological development carrying capacity index model was established and analyzed the ecological carrying capacity index of the reclaimed sea area in Wenzhou with the detection and warning conditions to propose a marine ecological protection supervision mechanism. By the proposed mechanism, five primary-level indicators and 10 corresponding secondary-level indicators were established. The obtained results showed that the ecological carrying index of the reclaimed area in Wenzhou falls within the range, 2.35-5.45, which is indicative of small geographic differences. These results suggest that in future, a detection and early warning mechanism for the determination of the ecological carrying capacity of reclaimed sea areas should be established. Furthermore, the strict implementation of the reclamation project development evaluation management control system is recommended, and it is also necessary to reasonably adjust the planning and construction of the sea area.


Assuntos
Biologia Marinha , China
5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14610, 2021 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34272460

RESUMO

The resilience of coral reefs is dependent on the ability of corals to settle after disturbances. While crustose coralline algae (CCA) are considered important substrates for coral settlement, it remains unclear whether coral larvae respond to CCA metabolites and microbial cues when selecting sites for attachment and metamorphosis. This study tested the settlement preferences of an abundant coral species (Acropora cytherea) against six different CCA species from three habitats (exposed, subcryptic and cryptic), and compared these preferences with the metabolome and microbiome characterizing the CCA. While all CCA species induced settlement, only one species (Titanoderma prototypum) significantly promoted settlement on the CCA surface, rather than on nearby dead coral or plastic surfaces. This species had a very distinct bacterial community and metabolomic fingerprint. Furthermore, coral settlement rates and the CCA microbiome and metabolome were specific to the CCA preferred habitat, suggesting that microbes and/or chemicals serve as environmental indicators for coral larvae. Several amplicon sequence variants and two lipid classes-glycoglycerolipids and betaine lipids-present in T. prototypum were identified as potential omic cues influencing coral settlement. These results support that the distinct microbiome and metabolome of T. prototypum may promote the settlement and attachment of coral larvae.


Assuntos
Antozoários/fisiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Larva/fisiologia , Metaboloma , Microbiota , Rodófitas/microbiologia , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Recifes de Corais , DNA Bacteriano , Ecologia , Ecossistema , Biologia Marinha , Metamorfose Biológica , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Rodófitas/metabolismo
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15235, 2021 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34315916

RESUMO

Fish silage is a brown liquefied product achieved by the action of enzymes when finely grounded whole/parts of either single or mixed fish types are subjected to acidification. This study made a comparative assessment of biochemical and nutritive properties, especially the amino acid composition in supernatant phase of formic acid silages prepared from two fish types, Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta) and false travely (Lactarius lactarius) representing fat fish (FF, fat content > 5%) and lean fish (LF, fat content < 5%), respectively during 35 days of fermentation (DoF). Significantly higher content of total amino acid (TAA) and free amino acids (FAA) were recorded in FFS (TAA, 41.2 ± 0.03 mg/g; FAA, 31.3 ± 0.003 mg/g) compared to LFS (TAA, 35.8 ± 0.07 mg/g; FAA, 18.26 ± 0.003 mg/g; FAA, 31.3 ± 0.003 mg/g) (p < 0.05). At the end of 35 DoF, the concentrations of amino acids such as asparagine, histidine, isoleucine, valine, cysteine, serine, lysine and arginine were significantly higher in FFS as compared to LFS. The relative amino acid composition of FFS and LFS varied in accordance with DoF and the relationship was found to be highly significant (ANOVA, p < 0.00001). High concentrations of L-amino acids such as leucine, glutamic acid and arginine were recorded in both FFS and LFS. In conclusion, the analysis suggested that a fermentation period of 25-30 days showed a significant effect on the composition of amino acids in both types of ensilage compared to other fermentation periods (p < 0.05). Considering the role of amino acids in enhancing the plant growth and proliferation, the findings of the present study are quite useful.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/análise , Produtos Pesqueiros/análise , Biologia Marinha , Silagem/análise , Aminoácidos/farmacologia , Animais , Fermentação , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia
7.
Front Immunol ; 12: 688106, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34276677

RESUMO

The scopes related to the interplay between stem cells and the immune system are broad and range from the basic understanding of organism's physiology and ecology to translational studies, further contributing to (eco)toxicology, biotechnology, and medicine as well as regulatory and ethical aspects. Stem cells originate immune cells through hematopoiesis, and the interplay between the two cell types is required in processes like regeneration. In addition, stem and immune cell anomalies directly affect the organism's functions, its ability to cope with environmental changes and, indirectly, its role in ecosystem services. However, stem cells and immune cells continue to be considered parts of two branches of biological research with few interconnections between them. This review aims to bridge these two seemingly disparate disciplines towards much more integrative and transformative approaches with examples deriving mainly from aquatic invertebrates. We discuss the current understanding of cross-disciplinary collaborative and emerging issues, raising novel hypotheses and comments. We also discuss the problems and perspectives of the two disciplines and how to integrate their conceptual frameworks to address basic equations in biology in a new, innovative way.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos/imunologia , Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Imunidade Inata , Células-Tronco/imunologia , Biologia de Sistemas , Alergia e Imunologia , Organismos Aquáticos/citologia , Organismos Aquáticos/genética , Organismos Aquáticos/metabolismo , Comunicação Celular , Genômica , Sistema Imunitário/citologia , Sistema Imunitário/metabolismo , Biologia Marinha , Transdução de Sinais , Células-Tronco/metabolismo
8.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070629

RESUMO

Densazalin, a polycyclic alkaloid, was isolated from the marine sponge Haliclona densaspicula collected in Korea. The complete structure of the compound was determined by spectroscopic methods, including 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance techniques, high-resolution mass spectrometry, and comparison of the calculated and measured electronic circular dichroism spectra. Densazalin possesses a unique 5,11-diazatricyclo[7.3.1.02,7]tridecan-2,4,6-triene moiety, which is connected by two linear carbon chains. This compound was derived from the biogenetic precursor bis-1,3-dialkylpyridnium. Densazalin exhibited cytotoxic activity on two human tumor cell lines (AGS and HepG2) in the Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) bioassay, with IC50 values ranging from 15.5 to 18.4 µM.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/isolamento & purificação , Biologia Marinha , Poríferos/química , Alcaloides/química , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Humanos , Análise Espectral/métodos
9.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 683, 2021 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34083709

RESUMO

In marine ecology, dietary interpretations of faunal assemblages often rely on nitrogen isotopes as the main or only applicable trophic level tracer. We investigate the geographic variability and trophic level isotopic discrimination factors of bone zinc 66Zn/64Zn ratios (δ66Zn value) and compared it to collagen nitrogen and carbon stable isotope (δ15N and δ13C) values. Focusing on ringed seals (Pusa hispida) and polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from multiple Arctic archaeological sites, we investigate trophic interactions between predator and prey over a broad geographic area. All proxies show variability among sites, influenced by the regional food web baselines. However, δ66Zn shows a significantly higher homogeneity among different sites. We observe a clear trophic spacing for δ15N and δ66Zn values in all locations, yet δ66Zn analysis allows a more direct dietary comparability between spatially and temporally distinct locations than what is possible by δ15N and δ13C analysis alone. When combining all three proxies, a more detailed and refined dietary analysis is possible.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Cadeia Alimentar , Focas Verdadeiras/metabolismo , Ursidae/metabolismo , Isótopos de Zinco/análise , Animais , Regiões Árticas , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Geografia , Biologia Marinha/métodos , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
10.
Mar Drugs ; 19(6)2021 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063741

RESUMO

The NMR-based configurational analysis of complex marine natural products is still not a routine task. Different NMR parameters are used for the assignment of the relative configuration: NOE/ROE, homo- and heteronuclear J couplings as well as anisotropic parameters. The combined distance geometry (DG) and distance bounds driven dynamics (DDD) method allows a model-free approach for the determination of the relative configuration that is invariant to the choice of an initial starting structure and does not rely on comparisons with (DFT) calculated structures. Here, we will discuss the configurational analysis of five complex marine natural products or synthetic derivatives thereof: the cis-palau'amine derivatives 1a and 1b, tetrabromostyloguanidine (1c), plakilactone H (2), and manzamine A (3). The certainty of configurational assignments is evaluated in view of the accuracy of the NOE/ROE data available. These case studies will show the prospective breadth of application of the DG/DDD method.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , 4-Butirolactona/análogos & derivados , 4-Butirolactona/química , Animais , Bufo marinus , Carbazóis/química , Guanidinas/química , Biologia Marinha , Conformação Molecular , Compostos de Espiro/química
11.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0245409, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161375

RESUMO

Animal culture and social bonds are relevant to wildlife conservation because they influence patterns of geography, behavior, and strategies of survival. Numerous examples of socially-driven habitat partitioning and ecological-niche specialization can be found among vertebrates, including toothed whales. But such social-ecological dynamics, described here as 'social niche partitioning', are not known among baleen whales, whose societies-particularly on foraging grounds-are largely perceived as unstructured and incidental to matters of habitat use and conservation. However, through 16 years of behavioral observations and photo-identifications of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) feeding within a fjord system in the Canadian Pacific (primarily within Gitga'at First Nation waters), we have documented long-term pair bonds (up to 12 years) as well as a complex societal structure, which corresponds closely to persistent patterns in feeding strategy, long-term site fidelity (extended occupancy and annual rate of return up to 75%), specific geographic preferences within the fjord system, and other forms of habitat use. Randomization tests of network congruency and clustering algorithms were used to test for overlap in patterns of social structure and habitat use, which confirmed the occurrence of social niche partitioning on the feeding grounds of this baleen whale species. In addition, we document the extensive practice of group bubble net feeding in Pacific Canada. This coordinated feeding behavior was found to strongly mediate the social structure and habitat use within this humpback whale society. Additionally, during our 2004-2019 study, we observed a shift in social network structure in 2010-2012, which corresponded with environmental and demographic shifts including a sudden decline in the population's calving rate. Our findings indicate that the social lives of humpback whales, and perhaps baleen whales generally, are more complex than previously supposed and should be a primary consideration in the assessment of potential impacts to important habitat.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Jubarte/psicologia , Animais , Canadá , Cetáceos/fisiologia , Cetáceos/psicologia , Ecossistema , Estuários , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Jubarte/fisiologia , Biologia Marinha/métodos , Oceano Pacífico , Distância Psicológica , Comportamento Social
12.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3060, 2021 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34031385

RESUMO

The pelagic brown macroalgae Sargassum spp. have grown for centuries in oligotrophic waters of the North Atlantic Ocean supported by natural nutrient sources, such as excretions from associated fishes and invertebrates, upwelling, and N2 fixation. Using a unique historical baseline, we show that since the 1980s the tissue %N of Sargassum spp. has increased by 35%, while %P has decreased by 44%, resulting in a 111% increase in the N:P ratio (13:1 to 28:1) and increased P limitation. The highest %N and δ15N values occurred in coastal waters influenced by N-rich terrestrial runoff, while lower C:N and C:P ratios occurred in winter and spring during peak river discharges. These findings suggest that increased N availability is supporting blooms of Sargassum and turning a critical nursery habitat into harmful algal blooms with catastrophic impacts on coastal ecosystems, economies, and human health.


Assuntos
Nitrogênio/análise , Nutrientes , Sargassum/química , Água do Mar/química , Animais , Oceano Atlântico , Biomassa , Ecossistema , Peixes , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Biologia Marinha , Rios , Sargassum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Alga Marinha
13.
Integr Comp Biol ; 61(3): 1078-1088, 2021 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34043781

RESUMO

Climate and ocean literacy are two of the most important challenges facing society today. However, many students lack exposure to these topics upon entering college. As a result, these students must rely on learning climate literacy and ocean conservation through experiences outside of those provided in the traditional undergraduate classroom. To fill this gap, we initiated a marine science professional development program to expose undergraduate students to ocean literacy principles and climate change concepts through marine ecology research and educational outreach. This study evaluates the effects of our undergraduate experiential learning for individuals involved in our research team, our educational outreach team, or both. Clemson University alumni that participated in our program were surveyed to determine educational and professional gains in three areas related to: (1) knowledge; (2) careers; and (3) attitudes. Multiple linear and logistic regressions were used to understand the relationships between gains and program type, mentor experience, and duration of program enrollment. In addition, we evaluated demographic covariates including age, ideology, and gender. Our study found that perceived knowledge of marine science and science communication skills increased with positive mentor experience. Alumni that rated their experience with their mentors highly also indicated that the program was important to their careers after graduation. Students who participated in any program for a prolonged period were more likely to indicate that marine science was important to their careers. These students were also more likely to continue their education. Additionally, we saw that a sense of belonging and identity in science, as well as the understanding of climate change threat on the marine environment, all increased with longer program involvement, more than the type of experience (research versus outreach). Overall, we found that both the research and outreach programs offered opportunities for advancements in knowledge, careers, and attitudes. These results provide evidence that experiential learning has the potential to increase student engagement and understanding of climate change and ocean literacy communication as well as a sense of belonging in science-oriented fields.


Assuntos
Biologia Marinha/educação , Estudantes , Universidades , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Masculino , Grupos Minoritários , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas , Adulto Jovem
14.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251164, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33984001

RESUMO

Ostracoda (bivalved Crustacea) comprise a significant part of the benthic meiofauna in the Pacific-Arctic region, including more than 50 species, many with identifiable ecological tolerances. These species hold potential as useful indicators of past and future ecosystem changes. In this study, we examined benthic ostracodes from nearly 300 surface sediment samples, >34,000 specimens, from three regions-the northern Bering, Chukchi and Beaufort Seas-to establish species' ecology and distribution. Samples were collected during various sampling programs from 1970 through 2018 on the continental shelves at 20 to ~100m water depth. Ordination analyses using species' relative frequencies identified six species, Normanicythere leioderma, Sarsicytheridea bradii, Paracyprideis pseudopunctillata, Semicytherura complanata, Schizocythere ikeyai, and Munseyella mananensis, as having diagnostic habitat ranges in bottom water temperatures, salinities, sediment substrates and/or food sources. Species relative abundances and distributions can be used to infer past bottom environmental conditions in sediment archives for paleo-reconstructions and to characterize potential changes in Pacific-Arctic ecosystems in future sampling studies. Statistical analyses further showed ostracode assemblages grouped by the summer water masses influencing the area. Offshore-to-nearshore transects of samples across different water masses showed that complex water mass characteristics, such as bottom temperature, productivity, as well as sediment texture, influenced the relative frequencies of ostracode species over small spatial scales. On the larger biogeographic scale, synoptic ordination analyses showed dominant species-N. leioderma (Bering Sea), P. pseudopunctillata (offshore Chukchi and Beaufort Seas), and S. bradii (all regions)-remained fairly constant over recent decades. However, during 2013-2018, northern Pacific species M. mananensis and S. ikeyai increased in abundance by small but significant proportions in the Chukchi Sea region compared to earlier years. It is yet unclear if these assemblage changes signify a meiofaunal response to changing water mass properties and if this trend will continue in the future. Our new ecological data on ostracode species and biogeography suggest these hypotheses can be tested with future benthic monitoring efforts.


Assuntos
Crustáceos , Biomarcadores Ambientais/fisiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Animais , Regiões Árticas/epidemiologia , Ecossistema , Biologia Marinha/métodos , Oceanos e Mares/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Água do Mar/análise , Frutos do Mar , Temperatura
15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 8351, 2021 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33863944

RESUMO

Ascidians (Phylum Chordata, Class Ascidiacea) are a large group of invertebrates which occupy a central role in the ecology of marine benthic communities. Many ascidian species have become successfully introduced around the world via anthropogenic vectors. The botryllid ascidians (Order Stolidobranchia, Family Styelidae) are a group of 53 colonial species, several of which are widespread throughout temperate or tropical and subtropical waters. However, the systematics and biology of this group of ascidians is not well-understood. To provide a systematic framework for this group, we have constructed a well-resolved phylogenomic tree using 200 novel loci and 55 specimens. A Principal Components Analysis of all species described in the literature using 31 taxonomic characteristics revealed that some species occupy a unique morphological space and can be easily identified using characteristics of adult colonies. For other species, additional information such as larval or life history characteristics may be required for taxonomic discrimination. Molecular barcodes are critical for guiding the delineation of morphologically similar species in this group.


Assuntos
Filogenia , Urocordados/anatomia & histologia , Urocordados/genética , Animais , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Biologia Marinha , Especificidade da Espécie , Clima Tropical , Urocordados/classificação , Urocordados/fisiologia
16.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 309, 2021 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33686149

RESUMO

The hypothesis of the Great Evolutionary Faunas is a foundational concept of macroevolutionary research postulating that three global mega-assemblages have dominated Phanerozoic oceans following abrupt biotic transitions. Empirical estimates of this large-scale pattern depend on several methodological decisions and are based on approaches unable to capture multiscale dynamics of the underlying Earth-Life System. Combining a multilayer network representation of fossil data with a multilevel clustering that eliminates the subjectivity inherent to distance-based approaches, we demonstrate that Phanerozoic oceans sequentially harbored four global benthic mega-assemblages. Shifts in dominance patterns among these global marine mega-assemblages were abrupt (end-Cambrian 494 Ma; end-Permian 252 Ma) or protracted (mid-Cretaceous 129 Ma), and represent the three major biotic transitions in Earth's history. Our findings suggest that gradual ecological changes associated with the Mesozoic Marine Revolution triggered a protracted biotic transition comparable in magnitude to the end-Permian transition initiated by the most severe biotic crisis of the past 500 million years. Overall, our study supports the notion that both long-term ecological changes and major geological events have played crucial roles in shaping the mega-assemblages that dominated Phanerozoic oceans.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Biota , Fósseis , Extinção Biológica , Biologia Marinha , Oceanos e Mares , Paleontologia
17.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247570, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33684116

RESUMO

On-site surveys involving face-to-face interviews are implemented globally across many scientific disciplines. Incorporating new technologies into such surveys by using electronic devices is becoming more common and is widely viewed to be more cost-effective and accurate. However, Electronic Data Capture methods (EDC) when compared to traditional Paper-based Data Capture (PDC) are often implemented without proper evaluation of any changes in efficiency, especially from surveys in coastal and marine environments. A roving creel survey of recreational shore-based fishers in Western Australia in 2019 enabled a direct comparison between the two methods. Randomisation strategies were employed to ensure biases in using each technique were minimised. A total of 1,068 interviews with recreational fishers were undertaken with a total error rate of 5.1% (CI95%: 4.8-5.3%) for PDC and 3.1% (CI95%: 2.9-3.3%) for EDC. These results confirmed that EDC can reduce errors whilst increasing efficiency and decreasing cost, although some aspects of this platform could be improved with some streamlining. This study demonstrates how EDC can be successfully implemented in coastal and marine environments without compromising the randomised, stratified nature of a survey and highlights the cost-effectiveness of this method. Such findings can be widely applied to any discipline which uses face-to-face interviews for data collection.


Assuntos
Pesqueiros , Entrevistas como Assunto/métodos , Biologia Marinha , Inquéritos e Questionários , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos , Austrália , Análise Custo-Benefício , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Peixes , Humanos , Distribuição Aleatória , Recreação , Austrália Ocidental
18.
Protist ; 172(1): 125792, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33607482

RESUMO

The history of protistology and the introduction of modern methods of unicell observations is described in a large maritime laboratory over a period of forty years by the initiator of this new team. The development of this team and the doctoral theses developed there are described as well as the major discoveries made. The Arago Laboratory, which was then in 1960 a field laboratory mainly devoted to the collection of biological material, becomes a research laboratory specializing in the study of the major fundamental problems which govern life: the organization and expression of the genome, mitotic processes and their nuclear and cytoplasmic components, cell cycle and its regulation as well as molecular phylogeny. The biological models chosen were essentially the dinoflagellate protists in their great variety: autotrophs, heterotrophs, myxotrophs and able of proliferating at sea, thus disrupting their cell cycle. Coupled with the techniques of biochemistry and molecular biology which it was in its infancy, the most advanced observation methods used electron and confocal microscopy often after use of ultra-cold cryopreparations, necessary to preserve the antigenic sites and allow the highlighting new proteins. The dinoflagellate model was then abandoned in favor of unicellular micro-eukaryotes allowing the development of environmental genomics.


Assuntos
Biologia Celular , Eucariotos , Biologia Marinha , Biologia Celular/história , Eucariotos/classificação , Eucariotos/genética , Eucariotos/isolamento & purificação , França , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Laboratórios , Biologia Marinha/história
19.
Mar Drugs ; 19(2)2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573152

RESUMO

Survivin is a 16.5 KDa protein whose functions include promoting cellular mitosis, angiogenesis, and senescence as well as inhibiting apoptosis. Higher survivin expression is found in cancer tissues than normal tissues, and this expression correlates with disease progression and aggressiveness. Survivin has been validated as a clinical target for cancer. Small molecules are important antagonists of survivin levels in cancer cells. A structurally diverse library of genetically encoded small molecules (natural products) derived from marine plants, invertebrates, and microbes was screened for their ability to reduce expression levels of survivin in the DLD-1 colon adenocarcinoma and the A549 nonsmall cell lung carcinoma cell lines. This led to the identification of this novel activity for the known compounds eryloside E, ilicicolin H, tanzawaic acid A, and p-hydroxyphenopyrrozin. Both eryloside E and ilicicolin H showed the ability to reduce survivin expression in the low micromolar range against both cell lines.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/farmacologia , Naftalenos/farmacologia , Survivina/antagonistas & inibidores , Células A549 , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Biologia Marinha
20.
Mar Drugs ; 19(2)2021 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530360

RESUMO

Biotechnology is an essential tool for the sustainable exploitation of marine resources, although the full development of their potential is complicated by a series of cognitive and technological limitations. Thanks to an innovative systematic approach that combines the meta-analysis of 620 articles produced worldwide with 29 high TRL (Technology Readiness Level) European funded projects, the study provides an assessment of the growth prospects of blue biotechnologies, with a focus on pharmaceutical and food applications, and the most promising technologies to overcome the main challenges in the commercialization of marine products. The results show a positive development trend, with publications more than doubled from 2010 (36) to 2019 (70). Biochemical and molecular characterization, with 150 studies, is the most widely used technology. However, the emerging technologies in basic research are omics technologies, pharmacological analysis and bioinformatics, which have doubled the number of publications in the last five years. On the other hand, technologies for optimizing the conditions of cultivation, harvesting and extraction are central to most business models with immediate commercial exploitation (65% of high-TRL selected projects), especially in food and nutraceutical applications. This research offers a starting point for future research to overcome all those obstacles that restrict the marketing of products derived from organisms.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia/métodos , Indústria Farmacêutica/métodos , Tecnologia de Alimentos/métodos , Biologia Marinha/métodos , Marketing/métodos , Animais , Biotecnologia/tendências , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Biologia Computacional/tendências , Indústria Farmacêutica/tendências , Tecnologia de Alimentos/tendências , Humanos , Biologia Marinha/tendências , Marketing/tendências , Preparações Farmacêuticas/análise , Preparações Farmacêuticas/química
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