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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769598

RESUMO

We examined the role of depressive symptoms in the longitudinal trajectory of the number of tobacco products used across young adulthood, ages 18-30 years, and whether peer tobacco use exacerbated the effects of the depressive symptoms. Participants were 4534 initially 18-25-year-old young adults in the Marketing and Promotions Across Colleges in Texas project (Project M-PACT), which collected data across a 4.5-year period from 2014 to 2019. Growth curve modeling within an accelerated design was used to test study hypotheses. Elevated depressive symptoms were associated with a greater number of tobacco products used concurrently and at least six months later. The number of tobacco-using peers moderated the association between depressive symptoms and the number of tobacco products trajectory. Young adults with elevated depressive symptoms used a greater number of tobacco products but only when they had a greater number of tobacco-using peers. Findings indicate that not all young adults with depressive symptoms use tobacco. Having a greater number of tobacco-using peers may facilitate a context that both models and encourages tobacco use. Therefore, tobacco prevention programs should aim to include peer components, especially for young adults.


Assuntos
Depressão , Produtos do Tabaco , Adolescente , Adulto , Depressão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Marketing , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
2.
Wiad Lek ; 74(9 cz 1): 2192-2196, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34725299

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim: To identify the main fears of donation among young people in the city and ways to eliminate these phobias with the help of modern marketing tools. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: It was conducted the questionnaire among Sumy State University students on donation fears. The questionnaire included questions about experience of donation, reason for non donation and age. After that a focus group among students who feared donation was organized. Participants were shown a 360 degree video recorded in the blood center and discussed how to donate blood after watching the video. RESULTS: Results: The main phobias were fear of becoming infected during the procedure (37.7%), fear of the procedure itself due to ignorance and misunderstanding of what to expect (14.0%), and fear of the needle, blood, and the discomfort possibility during the procedure (10.0%); 26.7% indicated that they could not be donors due to poor health, and 11.6% due to personal laziness. It was developed a 360o video, which demonstrates the blood donation process, showing the next steps with the selected blood in facilities. Its continues for 20 minutes. This video was shown in the focus group for ten non-donors with some donation fear. 60% of them reported a change from blood to a positive, which may indicate this tool's effectiveness. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: Due a 360o video some non-donor people can ensure safety, sterility of the process, reduce the fear of donation and further increase the likelihood of becoming regular donors.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue , Medo , Adolescente , Humanos , Marketing , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2021: 1346994, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34721560

RESUMO

Marketing refers to the strategies a company undertakes to promote its brands to its potential audience. Advertising provides useful venues for marketing to promote a company's survives/goods to the audience. It has a positive impact on the sale of services or products. In this study, we consider a well-known online medium called Twitter (the fourth most popular social media platform used by marketers) to check its impact on sales. For this purpose, the simple linear regression modeling approach is implemented to test the significance and usefulness of Twitter advertising on sale. Statistical tests such as t-test and correlation test are adopted to test the hypothesis of the "impact of Twitter advertising on sales." Based on the findings of this study, it is observed that Twitter advertising has a positive impact on sales. Furthermore, a new statistical model called the exponential T-X exponentiated exponential is introduced. The proposed model is very interesting and possesses heavy-tailed characteristics which are useful in finance and other related sectors. Finally, the applicability of the new model is illustrated by considering the sales data.


Assuntos
Mídias Sociais , Comércio , Humanos , Marketing , Modelos Estatísticos , Análise de Regressão
4.
Zhongguo Yi Liao Qi Xie Za Zhi ; 45(5): 530-535, 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628766

RESUMO

There are five-year transitional period for manufacturers after the issue of regulation(EU) 2017/746 on in vitro diagnostic medical devices(IVDR) in May, 2017. The article introduces the background, major change, the impact of new regulation and the coping strategies of enterprises, the main preparation work should be taken etc, to provide reference or help for the domestic manufacturers when they prepare the CE marking according to IVDR.


Assuntos
Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico , União Europeia , Marketing
5.
J Prev Med Public Health ; 54(5): 330-339, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34649395

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Tobacco control in Indonesia is very lenient compared to international standards. This study explored the perspectives of tobacco control stakeholders (TCSs) on the likelihood of advancing tobacco marketing regulation in Indonesia. METHODS: Data were collected from TCSs who were members of the Indonesia Tobacco Control Network group in a modified Delphi study. We collected the data in 2 waves using a questionnaire that comprised a set of closed and open-ended questions. For this paper, we analysed 2 of the 3 sections of the questionnaire: (1) tobacco advertising, promotions, and sponsorship (TAPS) bans, and (2) marketing and retailing regulations. We conducted a descriptive analysis of the scores using Stata/IC.13 and summarised the comments for each item. RESULTS: The TCSs viewed the measures/strategies across all aspects of TAPS and tobacco marketing regulation as highly desirable, but provided varied responses on their feasibility. They rated political feasibility lower than technical feasibility for most measures. Advancing TAPS measures and prohibition of selling to minors were considered more attainable by sub-national governments, while prohibition of tobacco corporate social responsibility was considered as the least feasible measure in the next 5 years. CONCLUSIONS: Despite little optimism for substantial national-level change, there is a positive expectation that sub-national governments will strengthen their tobacco control regulation. It is paramount that the government reduce tobacco industry leverage by implementing Article 5.3 of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Extending advocacy networks beyond tobacco control groups and framing tobacco control more effectively are necessary steps.


Assuntos
Indústria do Tabaco , Produtos do Tabaco , Técnica Delfos , Humanos , Indonésia , Marketing , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar , Tabaco
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639616

RESUMO

The impact of social media on the eagerness to undergo aesthetic breast surgery is unknown. We aimed to evaluate the association between Instagram engagement and the willingness to undergo breast augmentation. Women aged between 19-34 years old participated in an online survey. Of the 1560 respondents, 1226 (78.59%) met the inclusion criteria. BMI, bra type, bra cup size, education, and level of activity on Instagram increased the willingness to undergo breast augmentation (OR = 1.520, p = 0.020). Moreover, concurrent Snapchat use (OR = 1.348, p = 0.024) and the number of published posts on a respondent's Instagram accounts (reference, n > 26; 0 < n ≤ 26; OR = 0.708, p = 0.009; lack of posts (n = 0): OR = 0.702, p = 0.155) were significant drivers of the respondents' willingness. Fashion (OR = 0.730, p = 0.021), design/architecture (OR = 0.730, p = 0.022), and models (OR = 0.623, p = 0.004) were the searched content categories that increased the desire for breast augmentation. Positive and negative feeling scores that were triggered by Instagram content were correlated with BREAST-Q scores. We concluded that Instagram is a commonly used social network service among young women, and it may drive a desire for breast augmentation. Further analyses of Instagram preferences may help assess the willingness to undergo breast surgery, and in turn assist in tailoring marketing campaigns.


Assuntos
Mamoplastia , Mídias Sociais , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Marketing , Polônia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639646

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Policies that support healthier food environments, including healthy retail food availability and promotion, are an important strategy for obesity prevention. The aim of this systematic review was to examine the evidence for barriers and enablers to successful implementation of healthy food and drink policies, delivered at scale. METHODS: MEDLINE, SCOPUS and INFORMIT were searched to May 2019 for peer-reviewed studies. Google and Google Scholar were searched for grey literature. Studies of any design relating to a healthy food and drink policy delivered at scale (≥10 sites) in non-commercial food settings, for specific retail outlets (e.g., vending machines, cafes, cafeterias, school canteens), and that reported on implementation barriers and/or enablers were included. Studies in commercial food retail environments (e.g., supermarkets) were excluded. Studies were appraised for quality and key information was extracted and summarised. Extracted information on barriers and enablers was further grouped into overarching themes relating to perceptions of the policy itself, organisational and contextual factors influencing policy implementation, stakeholder responses to the implemented policy and perceived policy impacts. RESULTS: Of 19 studies, 16 related to policies implemented in schools, two in hospital/health facilities and one in a sport/recreation setting. Most studies were conducted in North America or Australia, and policy implementation occurred mainly at state/regional or federal levels. The most commonly cited barriers across overarching themes and intervention settings were: lack of stakeholder engagement or prioritisation of the policy (11 studies); resistance to change from school stakeholders or customers (8 studies); and concern over profitability, revenue and/or commercial viability (8 studies). Few studies reported on mitigation of barriers. Enablers most commonly raised were: stakeholder engagement, whole-school approach and/or prioritisation of the policy (9 studies); policy level or higher-level support in the form of information, guidance and/or training (5 studies); and leadership, school/policy champion, management commitment and/or organisational capacity (4 studies). CONCLUSIONS: Key considerations for policy implementation ranged from building stakeholder support, prioritising policy implementation within organisations, to implementing strategies that address financial concerns and implementation barriers.


Assuntos
Política Nutricional , Instituições Acadêmicas , Alimentos , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Marketing
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639851

RESUMO

IQOS, the leading heated tobacco product globally, recently received 'reduced exposure' authorization from the US Food and Drug Administration. Independent research focusing on IQOS marketing and potential impact on consumers' perceptions and behavior, and ultimately public health, is critical. The literature to date has underscored several concerns. First, Philip Morris's (PM's) marketing distribution requires scrutiny, particularly given its innovative promotional strategies. For example, IQOS is distributed via unique points-of-sale (POS; e.g., specialty and pop-up stores, "corners" in convenience stores) and uses various other opportunities (e.g., social media, sponsored events, direct-to-consumer). Second, although PM claims that IQOS' target market is current combustible tobacco users and not young people, the literature indicates that in some populations, IQOS use is equally prominent among smokers and nonsmokers, and that specific subgroups (e.g., young adults, women) are targeted. Third, the impact of IQOS' use of ad content promoting IQOS health benefits must be studied (e.g., how consumers interpret modified exposure messages). In conclusion, surveillance of IQOS marketing, particularly following reduced exposure authorization, is critical for obtaining valuable data to estimate population impact, particularly among population subgroups (e.g., young adults), and inform future tobacco regulation. These considerations have implications beyond IQOS-to other products and companies.


Assuntos
Produtos do Tabaco , Adolescente , Humanos , Marketing , Tabaco , Uso de Tabaco , Estados Unidos , United States Food and Drug Administration , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(10): e28689, 2021 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34677136

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Worldwide obesity rates have prompted 16 countries to enact policies to reduce children's exposure to unhealthy food marketing, but few policies address online advertising practices or protect adolescents from being targeted. Given adolescents spend so much time online, it is critical to understand how persuasive Instagram food advertisements (ads) are compared with traditional food ads. To strengthen online food marketing policies, more evidence is needed on whether social media ads are more persuasive than other types of ads in shaping adolescents' preferences. OBJECTIVE: This study examined whether adolescents could identify food companies' Instagram posts as ads, and the extent to which Instagram versus traditional food ads shape adolescents' preferences. METHODS: In Part 1, participants aged 13-17 years (N=832) viewed 8 pairs of ads and were asked to identify which ads originated from Instagram. One ad in each pair was selected from traditional sources (eg, print; online banner ad), and the other ad was selected from Instagram, but we removed the Instagram frame-which includes the logo, comments, and "likes." In Part 2, participants were randomized to rate food ads that ostensibly originated from (1) Instagram (ie, we photoshopped the Instagram frame onto ads); or (2) traditional sources. Unbeknownst to participants, half of the ads in their condition originated from Instagram and half originated from traditional sources. RESULTS: In Part 1, adolescents performed worse than chance when asked to identify Instagram ads (P<.001). In Part 2, there were no differences on 4 of 5 outcomes in the "labeled ad condition." In the "unlabeled ad condition," however, they preferred Instagram ads to traditional ads on 3 of 5 outcomes (ie, trendiness, P=.001; artistic appeal, P=.001; likeability, P=.001). CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents incorrectly identified traditional ads as Instagram posts, suggesting the artistic appearance of social media ads may not be perceived as marketing. Further, the mere presence of Instagram features caused adolescents to rate food ads more positively than ads without Instagram features.


Assuntos
Preferências Alimentares , Mídias Sociais , Adolescente , Publicidade , Criança , Alimentos , Humanos , Marketing
10.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258004, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614015

RESUMO

Empirical evidence for Spanish Stock Market shows that labour events, like a firm level collective agreement, have informative content for the market due to the loss of wealth that it implies for the investor. Labour Reforms which Spain experienced between the years 2010 and 2012 have allowed the jeopardising of employment and the destruction of jobs, substituting one well paid by another of lower cost for the firm, the cost of dismissal, or the proposals of substituting payoffs by the so-called Austrian backpack, and the elimination of the distinction between temporary and permanent contracts. These Labour Reforms affect many of the accounting and financial variables, which are the subject of analysis and follow-up by investors and analysts, next to the idiosyncrasy of the Open Shop System that is followed in Spain, the present article means to explore the effect on Madrid Stock Market. Our results, applying analysis techniques with decision trees where we control the effect of the economic crisis on the market reaction, show that the Labour Reforms of 2010 to 2012 are incorporated as negative, or positive, information when the investor perceives a possible decrease, or increase, in its future cash flows.


Assuntos
Investimentos em Saúde/economia , Marketing/economia , Emprego/economia , Humanos , Salários e Benefícios/economia , Espanha
11.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(12): 12427-12442, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593227

RESUMO

Conscious consumerism is growing, along with consumer demand for socially conscious dairy products or dairy alternatives. To successfully position dairy products (especially conventional dairy) in this changing marketplace, dairy producers and processors must understand how to strategically use both on- and off-package messaging aligned with consumer perceptions. However, consumer perception of attributes such as sustainable, natural, and healthy is complex, and varies between product categories as well as among products within a category. The objective of this study was to characterize consumer definitions of the terms "sustainable," "natural," and "healthy" as they pertain to dried dairy ingredients. To meet this objective, we conducted an online survey with 3 maximum difference scaling exercises to determine the importance of 63 label claims to consumer definitions of the terms sustainable, natural, and healthy. The role of priming with dried ingredient processing information on consumer perception of these terms was also explored. Within the dried dairy ingredients category, there is extensive cognitive overlap between the terms sustainable, natural, and healthy. Priming did not affect consumer definitions of any of these terms. Certification-related claims were considered among the least important claims for consumer definitions of sustainable, natural, and healthy, whereas claims that were simple to read and visualize were considered among the most important. Claims related to animal welfare and happiness or simple, minimal ingredients and processing were considered by consumers to be important for all 3 terms. For each of these terms, there was a cluster of consumers who defined the term primarily by simple ingredients and minimal processing, and another cluster who defined the term primarily by happy cows and conscious farming practices. The terms sustainable and healthy each had a third, unique consumer cluster. This third definition cluster defined sustainability primarily by environmental effects, whereas this cluster defined healthy primarily in fitness and nutrition terms. Age and to a lesser extent, gender, affected importance placed on these 3 terms and also affected definition of the term. Understanding these consumer definitions provides insight on how to formulate marketing and educational messaging to speak to each consumer segment.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Animais , Bovinos , Laticínios , Feminino , Marketing , Percepção
12.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(12): 12216-12235, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593234

RESUMO

Combined results from 2 survey studies were used to obtain information useful for the industries and retailers involved in the milk production and selling chain in North Italy. The first survey identified different clusters of fluid milk purchasers by examining their preferences and attitudes toward 12 intrinsic-extrinsic and credence milk attributes, by applying best-worst scaling methodology, whereas the second survey characterized the fatty acid (FA) profiles of commercial milk sold by large-scale retailers to verify the correspondence between the actual FA profile and the direct and indirect claims on the labels. To summarize information about the FA profile of milk, which may be considered an advanced attribute of milk quality, the milk FA index (MFAI) was calculated for each milk sample. A total of 130 milk samples (around 85% of the labels in northern Italy) and a total of 502 participants who answered a face-to-face questionnaire were considered in the 2 surveys. The milk samples were 13.1% organic, 9.2% certified as being of mountain origin, and over 50% noncertified but linked to cow grazing or to a mountain environment on their labels. The FA profiles showed a wide range of variation, with saturated FA ranging from 63.4 to 71.8, and polyunsaturated FA from 2.76 to 5.85. The FA profile and MFAI index of certified milk (organic or mountain-derived) were significantly different from the profiles of noncertified milk, whereas no correspondence was observed between the retail price and milk quality. When ranked on the basis of MFAI, which proved to be a good discriminating tool, the certified milks presented a bimodal distribution, indicating that certification does not always guarantee a real difference. The consumers chose milk considering the origin of the product, brand, expiration date, and process certification as the most important attributes, whereas they rated price and organic certification as the least important attributes. The study showed that about 20% of the consumers had a high propensity to buy milk on the basis of its quality. However, this attribute is often incorrectly indicated or not indicated at all on the milk label, with misleading images or claims that do not correspond to the actual FA quality of the milk. Having a clear index that offers information about the FA profile could thus be an interesting tool to improve the awareness of buyers and to valorize and differentiate milk products.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos , Leite , Animais , Bovinos , Comportamento do Consumidor , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados , Feminino , Marketing
14.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(10): e2128615, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34618037

RESUMO

Importance: The number of clinics marketing stem cell products for joint diseases, chronic pain, and most recently, COVID-19, has increased despite warnings from the US Food and Drug Administration that stem cell products for these and other indications have not been proven safe or effective. Objective: To examine bacterial infections in 20 patients who received umbilical cord blood-derived products marketed as stem cell treatment. Design, Setting, and Participants: This case series is a national public health investigation including case-finding, medical record review and abstraction, and laboratory investigation, including sterility testing of products and whole-genome sequencing of patient and product isolates. Participants included patients who developed bacterial infections following administration of umbilical cord blood-derived products marketed as stem cell treatment during August 2017 to September 2018. Data analysis was performed from March 2019 to September 2021. Exposures: Umbilical cord blood-derived products marketed as stem cell treatment. Main Outcomes and Measures: Data were collected on patient infections and exposures. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention performed sterility testing on undistributed and distributed vials of product marketed as stem cell treatment and performed whole-genome sequencing to compare patient and product bacterial isolates. Results: Culture-confirmed bacterial infections were identified in 20 patients (median [range] age, 63 [2-89] years; 13 male patients [65%]) from 8 US states who sought stem cell treatment for conditions including pain, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and injury; all but 1 required hospitalization. The most frequently isolated bacteria from patients with infections were common enteric species, including Escherichia coli (14 patients) and Enterobacter cloacae (7 patients). Of unopened, undistributed products sampled for testing, 65% (22 of 34 vials) were contaminated with at least 1 of 16 bacterial species, mostly enteric. A patient isolate from Arizona matched isolates obtained from products administered to patients in Florida, and patient isolates from Texas matched undistributed product sent from the company in California. Conclusions and Relevance: Unapproved stem cell products can expose patients to serious risks without proven benefit. Sequencing results suggest a common source of extensive contamination, likely occurring during the processing of cord blood into product. Patients and health care practitioners who are considering the use of unapproved products marketed as stem cell treatment should be aware of their unproven benefits and potential risks, including serious infections.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/etiologia , Segurança do Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Transplante de Células-Tronco de Sangue do Cordão Umbilical/efeitos adversos , Surtos de Doenças , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/prevenção & controle , Segurança do Sangue/normas , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Transplante de Células-Tronco de Sangue do Cordão Umbilical/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Marketing , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , United States Food and Drug Administration , Adulto Jovem
15.
Public Health ; 198: 263-269, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492506

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To identify general characteristics, the use of persuasive techniques, and the nutritional quality of Mexican digital marketing of food and beverages/brand with the greatest number of followers and views (Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube) with specific appeal to children/adolescents. STUDY DESIGN: Cross sectional, quantitative, exploratory, and descriptive study. METHODS: Multistep process to select a sample of 46 products with a Mexican website and major audiences on social networks. The energy and nutrient content of the foods and beverages were analyzed with the Pan American Health Organization Nutrient Profile Model. RESULTS: Cola and soft drinks, sweetened juices were the products with the greatest number of followers on Facebook and Twitter (13,321,274 and 1,020,504). Companies used diverse persuasive techniques combining promotional characters (79.1%), incentives (65.1%), and digital techniques (78.3%). Products with excess critical nutrients were most frequently advertised regardless of the type of social network and the marketing techniques used. CONCLUSION: Digital Marketing represents a major threat for children and adolescents in Mexico, and probably all over the world, because of its persuasive techniques, and it shall be regulated.


Assuntos
Publicidade , Marketing , Adolescente , Bebidas , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Alimentos , Humanos , Valor Nutritivo
16.
Int J Public Health ; 66: 1604027, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475810

RESUMO

Objective: Limited research has examined feminine marketing appeals on cigarette packs in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs). We reviewed a systematically collected sample of cigarette packs sold across 14 LMICs in 2013 (Wave 1) and 2015-2017 (Wave 2). Methods: Packs in Wave 1 (n = 3,240) and Wave 2 (n = 2,336) were coded for feminine imagery and descriptors (flowers, fashion, women/girls, color "pink"). We examined trends in feminine appeals over time, including co-occurrence with other pack features (slim or lipstick shape, flavor, reduced harm, and reduced odor claims). Results: The proportion of unique feminine cigarette packs significantly decreased from 8.6% (n = 278) in Wave 1 to 5.9% (n = 137) in Wave 2 (p < 0.001). Among all feminine packs, flower-and fashion-related features were most common; a substantial proportion also used flavor and reduced odor appeals. Conclusion: While there was a notable presence of feminine packs, the decline observed may reflect global trends toward marketing gender-neutral cigarettes to women and a general contempt for using traditional femininity to market products directly to women. Plain packaging standards may reduce the influence of branding on smoking among women.


Assuntos
Feminilidade , Marketing , Embalagem de Produtos , Produtos do Tabaco , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , Marketing/métodos , Embalagem de Produtos/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578992

RESUMO

Foods with voluntary nutritional additions are a fast-growing sector of the global food industry. In Canada, while the addition of nutrients to foods has been regulated through fortification regulations, parallel policies which aim to encourage product innovation have also allowed for the voluntary addition of nutrients and other novel ingredients to 'supplemented' and 'functional' foods. Concerns have been raised that the consumption of these products may have negative repercussions on population health, such as high nutrient intakes inappropriate for certain population subgroups (e.g., children) and the shifting of dietary patterns to include more unhealthy foods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, nutritional quality, and marketing characteristics of foods with added nutrients in the Canadian market. We found many nutritionally-enhanced foods contained high levels of nutrients beyond recommended intakes, despite these nutrients having no evidence of inadequacy in the Canadian population. Additionally, a large proportion of foods with added nutrients had poor nutrient profiles (were deemed 'less healthy' than their non-enhanced counterparts) and carried heavy marketing on their labels, regardless of their nutritional quality. Taken together these findings raise concerns about foods with voluntary nutrient additions and suggest the need to further investigate consumer attitudes and decision-making towards these foods.


Assuntos
Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Alimentos Fortificados/estatística & dados numéricos , Alimento Funcional/estatística & dados numéricos , Marketing/estatística & dados numéricos , Nutrientes/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Canadá , Criança , Dieta/tendências , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ingestão de Alimentos , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Indústria Alimentícia/legislação & jurisprudência , Indústria Alimentícia/tendências , Ingredientes de Alimentos/análise , Ingredientes de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Alimentos Fortificados/análise , Alimento Funcional/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Política Nutricional , Valor Nutritivo , Prevalência
19.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256999, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492066

RESUMO

A novel way of integrating the genetic algorithm (GA) and the analytic network process (ANP) is presented in this paper in order to develop a new warehouse assessment scheme, which is developed through various stages. First, we define the main criteria that influence a warehouse performance. The proposed algorithm that integrates the GA with the ANP is then utilized to determine the relative importance values of the defined criteria and sub-criteria by considering the interrelationships among them, and assign strength values for such interrelationships. Such an algorithm is also employed to linguistically present the relative importance and the strength of the interrelationships in a way that can circumvent the use of pairwise comparisons. Finally, the audit checklist that consists of questions related to the criteria is integrated with the proposed algorithm for the development of the warehouse assessment scheme. Validated on 45 warehouses, the proposed scheme has been shown to be able to identify the warehouse competitive advantages and the areas where more improvements can be achieved.


Assuntos
Internacionalidade , Marketing/economia , Segurança/economia , Algoritmos , Tomada de Decisões , Lógica Fuzzy , Humanos
20.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257086, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516562

RESUMO

Patent valuation is required to revitalize patent transactions, but calculating a reasonable value that consumers and suppliers could satisfy is difficult. When machine learning is used, a quantitative evaluation based on a large volume of data is possible, and evaluation can be conducted quickly and inexpensively, contributing to the activation of patent transactions. However, due to patent characteristics, securing the necessary training data is challenging because most patents are traded privately to prevent technical information leaks. In this study, the derived marketable value of a patent through event study is used for patent value evaluation, matching it with the semantic information from the patent calculated using latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA)-based topic modeling. In addition, an ensemble learning methodology that combines the predicted values of multiple predictive models was used to determine the prediction stability. Base learners with high predictive power for each fold were different, but the ensemble model that was trained on the base learners' predicted values exceeded the predictive power of the individual models. The Wilcoxon rank-sum test indicated that the superiority of the accuracy of the ensemble model was statistically significant at the 95% significance level.


Assuntos
Eletricidade , Aprendizado de Máquina/economia , Marketing/economia , Patentes como Assunto , Algoritmos , Mineração de Dados , Humanos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Análise de Regressão , Estados Unidos
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