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1.
Plant Physiol ; 184(3): 1378-1388, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32843522

RESUMO

Stomata respond to changes in light environment through multiple mechanisms that jointly regulate the tradeoff between carbon assimilation and water loss. The stomatal response to blue light is highly sensitive, rapid, and not driven by photosynthesis. It is present in most vascular plant groups but is believed to have been lost in the ancestor of leptosporangiate ferns. Schizaeales and Salviniales are the only leptosporangiate orders that have not been tested for stomatal responses to a low fluence of blue light. We report that these stomatal responses are absent in Lygodium japonicum (Schizaeales). In contrast, we observed stomatal responses to a low fluence of blue light in Regnellidium diphyllum and Marsilea minuta (Marsileaceae, Salviniales). In R. diphyllum, blue light triggered stomatal oscillations. The oscillations were more sensitive to atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration than to humidity, suggesting that the blue light responses of Marsileaceae stomata differ from those of angiosperms. Our findings suggest that Marsileaceae have physiologically diverged from other leptosporangiate ferns, achieving unusually high photosynthetic capacities through amphibious lifestyles and numerous anatomical convergences with angiosperms. Blue light stomatal responses may have contributed to this divergence by enabling high rates of leaf gas exchange in Marsileaceae.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos/fisiologia , Evolução Biológica , Luz , Marsileaceae/fisiologia , Estômatos de Plantas/fisiologia
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31967965

RESUMO

Background Neuroinflammation is one of the main causes of neurodegenerative events. Phytoestrogen is a group compounds that have an estrogen-like structure or function. Phytoestrogen has a high potential to overcome neuroinflammation caused by estrogen deficiency in postmenopausal women. Marsilea crenata Presl. is a plant known to contain phytoestrogens. This research aimed to analyze the activity of an n-butanol fraction of M. crenata leaves in inhibiting the classical pathway activation of microglia HMC3 cell line to M1 polarity, which has proinflammatory characteristics. Methods Microglia HMC3 cell line was cultured in Eagle's minimum essential medium and induced with IFN-γ for 24 h to activate the cell to M1 polarity in 24-well microplates. The n-butanol fraction was added with various doses of 62.5, 125, and 250 ppm and genistein 50 µM as a positive control. The expression of major histocompatibility complex II (MHC II) as a marker was tested using a confocal laser scanning microscope. Results The result of MHC II measurement shows a significant difference in the MHC II expression in the microglia HMC3 cell line between the negative control and all treatment groups at p<0.05, indicating a non-monotonic dose-response profile. Conclusions The best dosage to inhibit MHC II expression was 250 ppm with the value of 200.983 AU. It is then concluded that n-butanol fraction of M. crenata leaves has antineuroinflammation activity due to its phytoestrogens.


Assuntos
1-Butanol/química , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/biossíntese , Marsileaceae/química , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Fitoestrógenos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/patologia , Microglia/metabolismo , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/patologia
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31981453

RESUMO

Background Phytoestrogens have a high potential to overcome the neuroinflammation caused by estrogen deficiency. Marsilea crenata Presl. is a plant known to contain phytoestrogens. This research aimed to report the activity of a 96% ethanol extract of M. crenata leaves in inducing activation of microglia HMC3 cell to M2 polarity, which has anti-inflammatory characteristics. Methods The study was done by culturing microglia HMC3 cell in 24-well microplate and inducing it with IFN-γ for 24 h to activate the cell to M1 polarity, which has proinflammatory characteristics. The 96% ethanol extract was added with various doses of 62.5, 125, and 250 ppm. Genistein, 50 µM, was used as a positive control. The analysis of the immunofluorescence of Arginase-1 (Arg1) and ERß as markers was done using a convocal laser scanning microscope. Results The result of Arg1 shows a significant difference in Arg1 expression in the microglia HMC3 cell line between the negative control and all treatment groups at p < 0.05, with the best result at 250 ppm, whereas for ERß, the results show, at doses of 125 and 250 ppm, that the 96% ethanol extract of M. crenata leaves decrease the activated ERß expression at p < 0.05, with the best result at 250 ppm. The Arg1 and activated ERß expression have a weak negative relationship with the Pearson correlation test. Conclusions The 96% ethanol extract of M. crenata leaves has an antineuroinflammation activity through the induction of Arg1 and activated ERß expression in microglia HMC3 cell, with the best dose at 250 ppm.


Assuntos
Arginase/metabolismo , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Etanol/química , Marsileaceae/química , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Microglia/metabolismo , Fitoestrógenos/farmacologia
4.
J Cell Sci ; 132(4)2019 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30787112

RESUMO

The centriole organelle consists of microtubules (MTs) that exhibit a striking 9-fold radial symmetry. Centrioles play fundamental roles across eukaryotes, notably in cell signaling, motility and division. In this Cell Science at a Glance article and accompanying poster, we cover the cellular life cycle of this organelle - from assembly to disappearance - focusing on human centrioles. The journey begins at the end of mitosis when centriole pairs disengage and the newly formed centrioles mature to begin a new duplication cycle. Selection of a single site of procentriole emergence through focusing of polo-like kinase 4 (PLK4) and the resulting assembly of spindle assembly abnormal protein 6 (SAS-6) into a cartwheel element are evoked next. Subsequently, we cover the recruitment of peripheral components that include the pinhead structure, MTs and the MT-connecting A-C linker. The function of centrioles in recruiting pericentriolar material (PCM) and in forming the template of the axoneme are then introduced, followed by a mention of circumstances in which centrioles form de novo or are eliminated.


Assuntos
Centríolos/ultraestrutura , Microtúbulos/ultraestrutura , Biogênese de Organelas , Animais , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Centríolos/metabolismo , Embrião de Mamíferos , Células Eucarióticas/metabolismo , Células Eucarióticas/ultraestrutura , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Marsileaceae/genética , Marsileaceae/metabolismo , Marsileaceae/ultraestrutura , Camundongos , Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Mitose , Naegleria/genética , Naegleria/metabolismo , Naegleria/ultraestrutura , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
5.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(1): 265-272, 2019. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-990037

RESUMO

SUMMARY: Currently many people with epilepsy do not have seizure control even with the best available medications. Moreover various antiepileptics have adverse cognitive impact with other side effect. Thus, need for new antiepileptic drugs still remains challenge. However, many of the natural components have antiepileptic action and this fact remains scientifically unexplored. This study was designed to check the behavioral and neuro-pathological outcome of 1-Triacontanol cerotate (1TAC), isolated from Marsilea quadrifolia Linn. (MQ) on chronic Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) kindling model of epilepsy in rats. Two-month-old adult male Wistar rats (n=60) were randomly divided into six groups; Group I (Cage Control), II (Vehicle Control), III (Positive Control), IV (Standard drug treated), V (1TAC: 40 mg/kg) & VI (1TAC: 80 mg/kg). To induce kindling a 35 mg/kg dose of PTZ was injected i.p. in every 48 hrs for 30 days in Group III to VI. Spatial memory performance was tested using Morris water maze, following which brains were further processed for histopathological investigations. Interestingly, 1TAC was able to minimize the loss of pyramidal cells in hippocampal CA3 region. These cellular changes were behaviorally responded as improved special learning and memory, a better spatial navigation and object place configuration. The current study strongly implicates that 1TAC from MQ has potent neuroprotective role and augments special memory deficit in chronic epileptic rats. The isolated component which attenuates spatial memory performance could be beneficial outcome to retain cognitive blunting in chronic epilepsy.


RESUMEN: Actualmente, muchas personas con epilepsia no cuentan con un control adecuado de las convulsiones, incluso con los mejores medicamentos disponibles. Además, varios antiepilépticos tienen un impacto cognitivo adverso además de efectos secundarios. Por lo tanto, la necesidad de nuevos fármacos antiepilépticos sigue siendo un desafío. Sin embargo, muchos de los componentes naturales tienen acción antiepiléptica y este hecho permanece científicamente inexplorado. Este estudio se diseñó para verificar el resultado conductual y neuro-patológico del cerotato de 1-triacontanol (1TAC), aislado de Marsilea quadrifolia Linn. (MQ) en el modelo de epilepsia en ratas del pentilenetetrazol (PTZ) crónico (PTZ). Ratas Wistar adultas de dos meses de edad (n = 60) se dividieron aleatoriamente en seis grupos; Grupo I (Control de jaula), II (Control de vehículo), III (Control positivo), IV (Medicamento estándar de tratamiento), V (1TAC: 40 mg / kg) y VI (1TAC: 80 mg / kg). Para inducir la inflamación se inyectó una dosis de 35 mg / kg de PTZ i.p. en cada 48 horas durante 30 días en los grupos III a VI. El rendimiento de la memoria espacial se probó utilizando el laberinto de agua de Morris, después de lo cual se procesaron los cerebros para investigaciones histopatológicas. Curiosamente, 1TAC pudo minimizar la pérdida de células piramidales en la región CA3 del hipocampo. Estos cambios celulares respondieron de manera conductual como una mejora del aprendizaje especial y la memoria, una mejor navegación espacial y la configuración del lugar del objeto. El estudio actual implica fuertemente que 1TAC de MQ tiene un potente papel neuroprotector y mejora el déficit de memoria especial en ratas epilépticas crónicas. El componente aislado que atenúa el rendimiento de la memoria espacial podría ser un resultado beneficioso para retener la reducción cognitiva en la epilepsia crónica.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Marsileaceae/química , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Álcoois Graxos/administração & dosagem , Região CA3 Hipocampal/efeitos dos fármacos , Memória Espacial/efeitos dos fármacos , Pentilenotetrazol/efeitos adversos , Doença Crônica , Ratos Wistar , Células Piramidais , Epilepsia/induzido quimicamente , Ácidos Graxos , Álcoois Graxos/isolamento & purificação , Teste do Labirinto Aquático de Morris , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Bioresour Technol ; 255: 220-228, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29427873

RESUMO

The present study concerns the liquefying potential of an unusual source of lignocellulosic biomass (Marsilea spp., water clover, an aquatic fern) during combinative pretreatment. The focus was on how the pretreatment affects the biodegradability, methane production, and profitability of thermochemical dispersion disintegration (TCDD) based on liquefaction and soluble lignin. The TCDD process was effective at 12,000 rpm and 11 min under the optimized thermochemical conditions (80 °C and pH 11). The results from biodegradability tests imply that 30% liquefaction was sufficient to achieve enhanced biodegradability of about 0.280 g-COD/g-COD. When biodegradability was >30% inhibition was observed (0.267 and 0.264 g-COD/g-COD at 35-40% liquefaction) due to higher soluble lignin release (4.53-4.95 g/L). Scalable studies revealed that achievement of 30% liquefaction was beneficial in terms of the energy and cost benefit ratios (0.956 and 1.02), when compared to other choices.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Lignina , Marsileaceae , Custos e Análise de Custo , Metano
7.
Environ Monit Assess ; 189(11): 550, 2017 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29018967

RESUMO

Dangers of arsenic contamination are well known in human civilization. The threat increases when arsenic is accumulated in food and livestock through irrigated crops or animal food. Hence, it is important to mitigate the effects of arsenic as much as possible. This paper discusses a process for reducing the level of arsenic in different parts of rice plants with an aquatic fern, Marsilea minuta L. A pot experiment was done to study the possibility of using Marsilea minuta as a phytoremediator of arsenic. Rice and Marsilea minuta were allowed to grow together in soils. As a control, Marsilea minuta was also cultured alone in the presence and absence of arsenic (applied at 1 mg/L as irrigation water). We did not find any significant change in the growth of rice due to the association of Marsilea minuta, though it showed a reduction of approximately 58.64% arsenic accumulation in the roots of rice grown with the association of fern compared to that grown without fern. We measured a bioaccumulation factor (BF) of > 5.34, indicating that Marsilea minuta could be a good phytoremediator of arsenic in rice fields.


Assuntos
Arsênio/análise , Biodegradação Ambiental , Gleiquênias/fisiologia , Marsileaceae/fisiologia , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Arsênio/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/química , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
8.
In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim ; 53(6): 483-493, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28342023

RESUMO

This study aims mainly to provide an insight and understanding of the effect of glucose utilization efficiency of biogenic gold nanoparticles (GNPs) synthesized through the mediation of Marsilea quadrifolia (M. quadrifolia) methanol extract on 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The biosynthesized GNPs were characterized by UV visible spectrophotometry and FTIR. Simultaneously, the nature, stability, and morphological characteristics were analyzed by XRD, TG-DTA, SEM-EDS, HRTEM, and SAED. The results of characterization studies were used to assess the properties of GNPs. The in vitro cytotoxicity screening indicates that 100 µM of biogenic GNPs were displayed 71.23 ± 1.56% of cellular viability in 3T3-L1 adipocyte cells. Subsequently, increased glucose utilization of biosynthesized GNPs based on a dose-dependent manner on 3T3-L1 has also been demonstrated. The effect of GNPs (30 µg) on glucose uptake was higher than that of insulin and metformin. Moreover, the observed results clearly highlight that the biogenic GNPs have higher efficiency of glucose utilization and cellular viability in 3T3-L1 adipocytes with lower toxicity.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucose/metabolismo , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Células 3T3-L1/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ouro/química , Marsileaceae/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/administração & dosagem , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/química
9.
BMC Cell Biol ; 17(1): 29, 2016 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27421907

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spermatogenesis in the semi-aquatic fern, Marsilea vestita, is a rapid, synchronous process that is initiated when dry microspores are placed in water. Development is post-transcriptionally driven and can be divided into two phases. The first phase consists of nine mitotic division cycles that produce 7 sterile cells and 32 spermatids. During the second phase, each spermatid differentiates into a corkscrew-shaped motile spermatozoid with ~140 cilia. RESULTS: Analysis of the transcriptome from the male gametophyte of Marsilea revealed that one kinesin-2 (MvKinesin-2) and two kinesin-9 s (MvKinesin-9A and MvKinesin-9B) are present during spermatid differentiation and ciliogenesis. RNAi knockdowns show that MvKinesin-2 is required for mitosis and cytokinesis in spermatogenous cells. Without MvKinesin-2, most spermatozoids contain two or more coiled microtubule ribbons with attached cilia and very large cell bodies. MvKinesin-9A is required for the correct placement of basal bodies along the organelle coil. Knockdowns of MvKinesin-9A have basal bodies and cilia that are irregularly positioned. Spermatozoid swimming behavior in MvKinesin-2 and -9A knockdowns is altered because of defects in axonemal placement or ciliogenesis. MvKinesin-2 knockdowns only quiver in place while MvKinesin-9A knockdowns swim erratically compared to controls. In contrast, spermatozoids produced after the silencing of MvKinesin-9B exhibit normal morphology and swimming behavior, though development is slower than normal for these gametes. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that MvKinesin-2 and MvKinesin-9A are required for ciliogenesis and motility in the Marsilea male gametophyte; however, these kinesins display atypical roles during these processes. MvKinesin-2 is required for cytokinesis, a role not typically associated with this protein, as well as for ciliogenesis during rapid development and MvKinesin-9A is needed for the correct orientation of basal bodies. Our results are the first to investigate the kinesin-linked mechanisms that regulate ciliogenesis in a land plant.


Assuntos
Cílios/metabolismo , Cinesina/metabolismo , Marsileaceae/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Pólen/metabolismo , Corpos Basais/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Inativação Gênica , Filogenia
10.
Cytoskeleton (Hoboken) ; 73(3): 145-59, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26887361

RESUMO

The male gametophyte of the semi-aquatic fern, Marsilea vestita, produces multiciliated spermatozoids in a rapid developmental sequence that is controlled post-transcriptionally when dry microspores are placed in water. Development can be divided into two phases, mitosis and differentiation. During the mitotic phase, a series of nine successive division cycles produce 7 sterile cells and 32 spermatids in 4.5-5 h. During the next 5-6 h, each spermatid differentiates into a corkscrew-shaped motile spermatozoid with ∼140 cilia. In order to study the mechanisms that regulate spermatogenesis, we used RNAseq to generate a reference transcriptome that allowed us to assess abundance of transcripts at different stages of development. Here, we characterize transcripts present in the kinesin motor family. Over 120 kinesin-like sequences were identified in our transcriptome that represent 56 unique kinesin transcripts. Members of the kinesin-2, -4, -5, -7, -8, -9, -12, -13, and -14 families, in addition to several plant specific and 'orphan' kinesins are present. Most (91%) of these kinesin transcripts change in abundance throughout gametophyte development, with 52% of kinesin mRNAs enriched during the mitotic phase and 39% enriched during differentiation. Functional analyses of six kinesins with different patterns of transcript abundance show that the temporal regulation of these transcripts during gametogenesis correlates directly with kinesin protein function.


Assuntos
Gametogênese Vegetal/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Cinesina/biossíntese , Marsileaceae/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/biossíntese , Pólen/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/fisiologia , Cinesina/genética , Marsileaceae/citologia , Marsileaceae/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Pólen/citologia
11.
Nat Prod Res ; 30(12): 1404-10, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26222269

RESUMO

Marsilea quadrifolia is an edible aquatic medicinal plant used as a traditional health food in Asia. Four new polyphenols including kaempferol 3-O-(2″-O-E-caffeoyl)-ß-d-glucopyranoside (1), kaempferol 3-O-(3″-O-E-caffeoyl)-α-l-arabinopyranoside (3), 4-methy-3'-hydroxypsilotinin (4) and (±)-(E)-4b-methoxy-3b,5b-dihydroxyscirpusin A (18) together with 14 known ones (2, 5-17) were isolated from the ethanol extract of M. quadrifolia. Structures of the new compounds were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses. In DPPH and oxygen radical absorbance capacity antioxidant assays, some compounds showed stronger antioxidant activities and quercetin (9) was the most potent antioxidant in both assays. In a restraint-induced oxidative stress model in mice, quercetin significantly attenuated the increase in plasma ALT and AST levels as well as liver MDA content of restrained mice. Liver SOD activity was also significantly increased by quercetin, indicating a significant in vivo antioxidant activity. As a rich source of polyphenols with strong antioxidant activities, M. quadrifolia may be developed to a product for relieving oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Marsileaceae/química , Polifenóis/isolamento & purificação , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Ásia , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Etanol/química , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Polifenóis/química , Quercetina/farmacologia
12.
Braz J Biol ; 75(2): 477-83, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26132035

RESUMO

Regnellidium diphyllum Lindm. is a heterosporous fern which grows in shallow waters and wetlands, and water pollution contributes to its vulnerability. Environmental lead contamination is mostly caused by industrial and agricultural residues as well as domestic sewage. Given its persistence in the environment, lead can cause important toxicity in living organisms. Megaspore germination and the initial growth of R. diphyllum sporophytes were assessed in Meyer's solution with lead nitrate (Pb(NO3)2) concentrations of 0 (control), 1, 5, 10 and 50 mg L(-1). The study was conducted in a growth chamber at 25 ± 1°C and a 12 hour photoperiod with a nominal irradiance of 100 µmol m(-2) s(-1), for 28 days. Lead concentration in sporophytes was assessed using atomic absorption spectrometry. In the absence of lead, 74% of spores germinated, while significantly lower germination percentages were observed in Pb(NO3)2 concentrations of 1, 10 and 50 mg L(-1). The presence of lead did not significantly influence root growth. At 28 days, primary leaf development was significantly lower in Pb(NO3)2 concentrations of 5 mg L(-1) and higher in relation to the control. The length of secondary leaves did not significantly differ between sporophytes exposed to different concentrations of lead and those of the control at 28 days. Sporophytes exposed to 10 and 50 mg L(-1) Pb(NO3)2 accumulated 1129 mg kg(-1) and 5145 mg kg(-1) of Pb, respectively. The presence of high levels of lead in R. diphyllum sporophytes did not prevent initial development. Future studies should investigate the ability of the species to accumulate and tolerate high levels of lead in advanced stages of its development and in environmental conditions.


Assuntos
Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Chumbo/toxicidade , Marsileaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Esporos/efeitos dos fármacos , Marsileaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Espectrofotometria Atômica , Esporos/crescimento & desenvolvimento
13.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 172: 80-4, 2015 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26117530

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Marsilea quadrifolia Linn. (MQ) has been used for insomnia and epileptic disorders in traditional Indian medicine. The present study is to isolate the active component responsible for antiepileptic property of MQ by evaluating its ability to minimize the reactive oxidative damage in brain due to chronic epilepsy in rat. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 1-Triacontanol cerotate (1TAC) was isolated after chromatography on a silica gel from dried petroleum ether fraction of methanolic extract of MQ. Acute oral toxicity studies of 1TAC were carried out and efficacy of 1TAC on malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) production in different brain areas of chronic pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced epileptic rats were evaluated. RESULTS: Our results showed that PTZ-kindled chronic epileptic rats had an increase MDA and decreased GSH concentration in the frontal cortex as well as hippocampus, compared to the normal control. MDA and GSH concentrations in those brain areas were normalized after treatment with sodium valproate (SV) in 200 mg kg(-1)bw; as well as 1TAC in 40 and 80 mg kg(-1)bw doses. CONCLUSION: Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is known to worsen epileptogenesis. The isolated component 1TAC which reduced the reactive oxidative damage in hippocampus and frontal cortex of PTZ kindled rats could be responsible for antiepileptic property of MQ. Its action is found to be dose dependent, with 80 mg kg(-1)bw showing even better efficacy than 200 mg kg(-1)bw of SV.


Assuntos
Epilepsia Generalizada/tratamento farmacológico , Álcoois Graxos/isolamento & purificação , Álcoois Graxos/uso terapêutico , Lobo Frontal/metabolismo , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Marsileaceae/química , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Doença Crônica , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Epilepsia Generalizada/induzido quimicamente , Álcoois Graxos/efeitos adversos , Álcoois Graxos/farmacologia , Lobo Frontal/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutationa/metabolismo , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Pentilenotetrazol , Ratos , Ácido Valproico/uso terapêutico
14.
Braz. j. biol ; 75(2): 477-483, 05/2015. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-749690

RESUMO

Regnellidium diphyllum Lindm. is a heterosporous fern which grows in shallow waters and wetlands, and water pollution contributes to its vulnerability. Environmental lead contamination is mostly caused by industrial and agricultural residues as well as domestic sewage. Given its persistence in the environment, lead can cause important toxicity in living organisms. Megaspore germination and the initial growth of R. diphyllum sporophytes were assessed in Meyer's solution with lead nitrate (Pb(NO3)2) concentrations of 0 (control), 1, 5, 10 and 50 mg L–1. The study was conducted in a growth chamber at 25±1°C and a 12 hour photoperiod with a nominal irradiance of 100 μmol m–2 s–1, for 28 days. Lead concentration in sporophytes was assessed using atomic absorption spectrometry. In the absence of lead, 74% of spores germinated, while significantly lower germination percentages were observed in Pb(NO3)2 concentrations of 1, 10 and 50 mg L–1. The presence of lead did not significantly influence root growth. At 28 days, primary leaf development was significantly lower in Pb(NO3)2 concentrations of 5 mg L–1 and higher in relation to the control. The length of secondary leaves did not significantly differ between sporophytes exposed to different concentrations of lead and those of the control at 28 days. Sporophytes exposed to 10 and 50 mg L–1 Pb(NO3)2 accumulated 1129 mg kg–1 and 5145 mg kg–1 of Pb, respectively. The presence of high levels of lead in R. diphyllum sporophytes did not prevent initial development. Future studies should investigate the ability of the species to accumulate and tolerate high levels of lead in advanced stages of its development and in environmental conditions.


Regnellidium diphyllum Lindm. é uma samambaia heterosporada que se desenvolve em águas rasas ou em solos úmidos, sendo que a poluição da água contribui para sua vulnerabilidade. A contaminação ambiental por chumbo ocorre principalmente por resíduos industriais e agrícolas, bem como por efluentes domésticos. Devido à sua persistência no ambiente, esse metal pode apresentar importante toxicidade aos organismos vivos. A germinação de megásporos e o desenvolvimento inicial de esporófitos de R. diphyllum foram avaliados em solução de Meyer com concentrações de 0 (controle), 1, 5, 10 e 50 mg L–1 de nitrato de chumbo (Pb(NO3)2). O estudo foi conduzido em câmara de germinação a 25±1 °C e fotoperíodo de 12 horas sob irradiância nominal de 100 μmol m–2 s–1, por 28 dias. A concentração de chumbo em esporófitos foi analisada por espectrometria de absorção atômica. Na ausência de chumbo, 74% dos esporos germinaram, enquanto que porcentagens de germinação significantemente menores foram observadas nas concentrações de 1, 10 e 50 mg L–1 de Pb(NO3)2. A presença de chumbo não influenciou significativamente o crescimento das raízes. O desenvolvimento das folhas primárias foi significativamente menor em relação ao controle a partir de 5 mg L–1 de Pb(NO3)2 aos 28 dias. O comprimento das folhas secundárias não diferiu significativamente entre esporófitos expostos às diferentes concentrações de chumbo e aqueles do controle, aos 28 dias. Esporófitos expostos a 10 e 50 mg L–1 de Pb(NO3)2 acumularam 1129 mg kg–1 e 5145 mg kg–1 de Pb, respectivamente. A presença de altas concentrações de chumbo nos esporófitos de R. diphyllum não impediu seu desenvolvimento inicial. Estudos futuros deverão investigar a capacidade de a espécie acumular e tolerar altas concentrações de chumbo em estádios avançados de desenvolvimento e também em condições ambientais.


Assuntos
Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Chumbo/toxicidade , Marsileaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Esporos/efeitos dos fármacos , Marsileaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Espectrofotometria Atômica , Esporos/crescimento & desenvolvimento
15.
Methods Cell Biol ; 127: 403-44, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25837402

RESUMO

Marsilea vestita is a semiaquatic fern that produces its spores (meiotic products) as it undergoes a process of natural desiccation. During the period of desiccation, the spores mature, and produce large quantities of pre-mRNA, which is partially processed and stored in nuclear speckles and can remain stable during a period of extended quiescence in the dry spore. Rehydration of the spores initiates a highly coordinated developmental program, featuring nine successive mitotic division cycles that occur at precise times and in precise planes within the spore wall to produce 39 cells, 32 of which are spermatids. The spermatids then undergo de novo basal body formation, the assembly of a massive cytoskeleton, nuclear and cell elongation, and finally ciliogenesis, before being released from the spore wall. The entire developmental program requires only 11 h to reach completion, and is synchronous in a population of spores rehydrated at the same time. Rapid development in this endosporic gametophyte is controlled posttranscriptionally, where stored pre-mRNAs, many of which are intron-retaining transcripts, are unmasked, processed, and translated under tight spatial and temporal control. Here, we describe posttranscriptional mechanisms that exert temporal and spatial control over this developmental program, which culminates in the production of ∼140 ciliary axonemes in each spermatozoid.


Assuntos
Cílios/genética , Marsileaceae/citologia , Pólen/citologia , Espermidina/metabolismo , Esporos/citologia , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Cílios/metabolismo , Desidratação , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Marsileaceae/genética , Marsileaceae/metabolismo , Morfogênese/genética , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/biossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Poliadenilação/genética , Interferência de RNA , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA de Plantas/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno , Reprodução/fisiologia , Esporângios/fisiologia , Transcriptoma/genética
16.
J Chem Phys ; 141(12): 124906, 2014 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25273473

RESUMO

The phase behaviors and membrane properties of small unilamellar vesicles have been explored at different temperatures by dissipative particle dynamics simulations. The vesicles spontaneously formed by model lipids exhibit pre-transition from gel to ripple phase and main transition from ripple to liquid phase. The vesicle shape exhibits the faceted feature at low temperature, becomes more sphere-like with increasing temperature, but loses its sphericity at high temperature. As the temperature rises, the vesicle size grows but the membrane thickness declines. The main transition (Tm) can be identified by the inflection point. The membrane structural characteristics are analyzed. The inner and outer leaflets are asymmetric. The length of the lipid tail and area density of the lipid head in both leaflets decrease with increasing temperature. However, the mean lipid volume grows at low temperature but declines at high temperature. The membrane mechanical properties are also investigated. The water permeability grows exponentially with increasing T but the membrane tension peaks at Tm. Both the bending and stretching moduli have their minima near Tm. Those results are consistent with the experimental observations, indicating that the main signatures associated with phase transition are clearly observed in small unilamellar vesicles.


Assuntos
Lipossomos/química , Temperatura , Simulação por Computador , Elasticidade , Géis/química , Bicamadas Lipídicas/química , Marsileaceae , Permeabilidade , Transição de Fase
17.
Brain Inj ; 27(13-14): 1707-14, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24215095

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the anti-epileptic effects of methanolic extract of Marsilea quadrifolia Linn. (MQ) in maximal electroshock (MES) and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced rat models of epilepsy. METHOD: A total of 84 adult male Wistar rats were used. An acute oral toxicity study was conducted on 36 rats and the remaining were used for other experiments. Each model had 24 rats which were allotted into four groups (n = 6). Group I (Control) received 1% carboxymethyl cellulose solution, Group II (Positive control) received phenytoin 300 mg kg(-1) b.w. in the MES model; sodium valproate 200 mg kg(-1) b.w. in the PTZ model, Group III (MQ) received 400 mg kg(-1) b.w. MQ extract and Group IV (MQ) received 600 mg kg(-1) b.w. MQ extract. Hind limb extension (HLE) time and recovery time were noted in the MES model. Latency for myoclonic jerk, seizures and EEG was recorded in the PTZ model. RESULTS: When compared to control, the phenytoin received group did not show HLE. In MQ pre-treated groups only 50% of rats showed HLE. Sodium valproate and various doses of MQ significantly increased the latency for onset of clonus and seizures. PTZ-induced EEG alterations were significantly attenuated by MQ administration and this was comparable to that of the sodium valproate effect. CONCLUSION: Marsilea quadrifolia Linn. showed significant anti-epileptic efficacy against various epilepsy models.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Marsileaceae , Fitoterapia/métodos , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Convulsivantes , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Eletrochoque , Epilepsia/induzido quimicamente , Epilepsia/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Marsileaceae/química , Pentilenotetrazol , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Convulsões/induzido quimicamente , Convulsões/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Ácido Valproico
18.
Am J Bot ; 100(8): 1532-43, 2013 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23857737

RESUMO

PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Conserving endangered plants is a complex task, and practitioners must often use a "triage" approach, addressing only immediate needs. Ecologists can improve this process by conducting sound science upon which to base management. Marsilea villosa is an endangered, endemic Hawaiian fern with seven remaining populations in ephemerally flooding drylands. Among its uncommon traits are long-lived sporocarps, requiring flood and drought to complete its sexual life cycle, and extensive vegetative growth. METHODS: We conducted a 3-yr ecological field study, measuring percent cover of M. villosa and associated species, flooding depth, and canopy cover, to identify ecological factors with the greatest impact on M. villosa growth. KEY RESULTS: Maximum flooding depth and canopy cover had strong positive relationships with M. villosa growth, and all plots with >50% threshold of either variable reached 100% cover of M. villosa by the end of the study. Interaction effects explained nuances of these relationships, including synergy between the two variables. Percent cover of nonnative functional groups (graminoids and nongraminoids) each had negative relationships with M. villosa growth, but interactions showed that nongraminoid cover was driven by particular species, and that time since flooding had greater influence on M. villosa growth than graminoid cover. CONCLUSIONS: We recommend planting reintroduced populations in flood-prone areas with moderate shade, experimental outplanting of native plants with M. villosa, and management of graminoids as a functional group, while nongraminoid management should be species-specific. These practices will promote self-sustaining populations and reduce the need for labor-intensive management.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Marsileaceae/fisiologia , Biomassa , Secas , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Inundações , Hawaii , Marsileaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Modelos Biológicos , Especificidade da Espécie
19.
Genome Biol Evol ; 5(7): 1403-7, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23821521

RESUMO

Previous studies have shown that core leptosporangiates, the most species-rich group of extant ferns (monilophytes), have a distinct plastid genome (plastome) organization pattern from basal fern lineages. However, the details of genome structure transformation from ancestral ferns to core leptosporangiates remain unclear because of limited plastome data available. Here, we have determined the complete chloroplast genome sequences of Lygodium japonicum (Lygodiaceae), a member of schizaeoid ferns (Schizaeales), and Marsilea crenata (Marsileaceae), a representative of heterosporous ferns (Salviniales). The two species represent the sister and the basal lineages of core leptosporangiates, respectively, for which the plastome sequences are currently unavailable. Comparative genomic analysis of all sequenced fern plastomes reveals that the gene order of L. japonicum plastome occupies an intermediate position between that of basal ferns and core leptosporangiates. The two exons of the fern ndhB gene have a unique pattern of intragenic copy number variances. Specifically, the substitution rate heterogeneity between the two exons is congruent with their copy number changes, confirming the constraint role that inverted repeats may play on the substitution rate of chloroplast gene sequences.


Assuntos
Gleiquênias/genética , Genes de Plantas , Genoma de Cloroplastos , Marsileaceae/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Evolução Molecular , Ordem dos Genes , Sequências Repetidas Invertidas , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência
20.
Dev Cell ; 24(5): 517-29, 2013 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23434411

RESUMO

The utilization of stored RNA is a driving force in rapid development. Here, we show that retention and subsequent removal of introns from pre-mRNAs regulate temporal patterns of translation during rapid and posttranscriptionally controlled spermatogenesis of the fern Marsilea vestita. Analysis of RNAseq-derived transcriptomes revealed a large subset of intron-retaining transcripts (IRTs) that encode proteins essential for gamete development. Genomic and IRT sequence comparisons show that other introns have been previously removed from the IRT pre-mRNAs. Fully spliced isoforms appear at distinct times during development in a spliceosome-dependent and transcription-independent manner. RNA interference knockdowns of 17/17 IRTs produced anomalies after the time points when those transcripts would normally be spliced. Intron retention is a functional mechanism for forestalling precocious translation of transcripts in the male gametophyte of M. vestita. These results have broad implications for plant gene regulation, where intron retention is widespread.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Íntrons/genética , Marsileaceae/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Pólen/genética , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Espermatogênese/fisiologia , Western Blotting , Diferenciação Celular , Imunofluorescência , Marsileaceae/citologia , Interferência de RNA , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa
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