Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 6.367
Filtrar
1.
Appl Ergon ; 98: 103556, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419785

RESUMO

The high prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs) has been a concern in the meat-processing industry, owing to the manual nature of the work and the high upper-limb and neck exposure to movements that can lead to WRMSD. The ability to perform an accurate and fast assessment of WRMSDs remains a challenge in industrial environments. Most assessment methodologies rely on standard survey-based methods, which are time- and labor-intensive. In this paper, we present an application of inertial measurement units (IMUs) to measure human activity, and the use of artificial intelligence and machine learning techniques to perform task classification and ergonomic assessments in workplace settings. We present the results obtained by using simple low-cost IMUs worn on slaughterhouse worker wrists to capture information on their movements. We describe the use of this information to detect the risk factors of the wrists/hands that can lead to WRMSDs. The results indicate that by using low-cost IMU-based sensors on the wrists of slaughterhouse workers, we can accurately classify the sharpness of the knife and predict the worker RULA score.


Assuntos
Matadouros , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas , Inteligência Artificial , Ergonomia , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/diagnóstico
2.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 4): 132401, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600930

RESUMO

The progressive increase of slaughterhouse waste production requires actions for both addressing an environmental issue and creating additional value within a biorefinery concept. In this regard, some of these animal by-products exhibit a significant content of fatty acids that could be efficiently converted into bioplastics such as polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) by adequately performing substrate screening with producing bacterial strains and applying affordable pretreatments. One of the main challenges also relies on the difficulty to emulsify these fat-rich substrates within culture broth and make the fatty acids accessible for the producing bacteria. In this work, the potential of two fat-rich animal by-products, grease trap waste (GTW) and tallow-based jelly (TBJ), as inexpensive carbon sources for microbial growth and PHA production was evaluated for the first time. Upon substrate screening, using different pseudomonadal strains (P. resinovorans, P. putida GPo1, P. putida KT2440) and pretreatment conditions (autoclave-based, thermally-treated or saponified substrates), the highest growth and mcl-PHA production performance was obtained for P. resinovorans, thus producing up to 47% w/w mcl-PHA simply using hygienized GTW. The novel bioprocess described in this study was successfully scaled up to 5 and 15 L, resulting in CDW concentrations of 5.9-12.8 g L-1, mcl-PHA contents of 33-62% w/w and PHA yields of 0.1-0.4 gPHA g-1fatty acids, greatly depending on the substrate dosing strategy used and depending on culture conditions. Moreover, process robustness was confirmed along Test Series by the roughly stable monomeric composition of the biopolymer produced, mainly formed by 3-hydroxyoctanoate and 3-hydroxydecanoate. The research here conducted is crucial for the cost-effectiveness of mcl-PHA production along this new slaughterhouse waste-based biorefinery concept.


Assuntos
Poli-Hidroxialcanoatos , Pseudomonas putida , Matadouros , Carbono , Ácidos Graxos
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 150000, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517324

RESUMO

Klebsiella spp. are ubiquitous bacteria capable of colonizing humans and animals, and sometimes leading to severe infections in both. Due to their high adaptability against environmental/synthetic conditions as well as their potential in aquiring antimicrobial/metal/biocide resistance determinants, Klebsiella spp. are recognized as an emerging threat to public health, worldwide. Currently, scarce information on the impact of livestock for the spread of pathogenic Klebsiella spp. is available. Thus, the phenotypic and genotypic properties of extended-spectrum ß-lactamase-producing, and colistin-resistant Klebsiella strains (n = 185) from process- and wastewater of two poultry and pig slaughterhouses as well as their receiving municipal wastewater treatment plants (mWWTPs) were studied to determine the diversity of isolates that might be introduced into the food-production chain or that are released into the environment by surviving the wastewater treatment. Selectively-isolated Klebsiella spp. from slaughterhouses including effluents and receiving waterbodies of mWWTPs were assigned to various lineages, including high-risk clones involved in human outbreaks, and exhibited highly heterogeneous antibiotic-resistance patterns. While isolates originating from poultry slaughterhouses showed the highest rate of colistin resistance (32.4%, 23/71), carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella spp. were only detected in mWWTP samples (n = 76). The highest diversity of resistance genes (n = 77) was detected in Klebsiella spp. from mWWTPs, followed by isolates from pig (n = 56) and poultry slaughterhouses (n = 52). Interestingly, no carbapenemase-encoding genes were detected and mobile colistin resistance genes were only obeserved in isolates from poultry and pig slaughterhouses. Our study provides in-depth information into the clonality of livestock-associated Klebsiella spp. and their determinants involved in antimicrobial resistance and virulence development. On the basis of their pathogenic potential and clinical importance there is a potential risk of colonization and/or infection of wildlife, livestock and humans exposed to contaminated food and/or surface waters.


Assuntos
Colistina , Klebsiella , Matadouros , Animais , Antibacterianos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Suínos , Águas Residuárias , beta-Lactamases
4.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(1): 113-120, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34060106

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Grazed grass is an important component of the majority of beef production systems used in temperate climates. Compared to concentrate-fed beef, 'grass-fed' beef can command a premium in some markets based on perceived differences in appearance and sensory characteristics. The influence of grazed grass per se, as well as the duration of grazing, on selected sensory characteristics of beef within a heifer production system was examined. RESULTS: In general, fat from grass-fed cattle was more yellow than fat from similar cattle fed concentrates, whereas muscle from grass-fed cattle was darker than muscle from cattle fed concentrates. At the same carcass weight, muscle from grass-fed cattle had a lower fat concentration than cattle fed concentrates. In the most extreme situation examined, whereby early-maturing heifers were fed concentrates ad libitum from weaning or grazed grass/conserved grass throughout life, until slaughtered at a similar carcass weight (260 kg) and differed in age by 5 months, beef was rated similarly for tenderness and a range of flavours by a trained sensory panel. CONCLUSION: Within the range of beef heifer production systems examined, the sensory characteristics of grass-fed beef do not differ greatly from concentrate-fed beef. © 2021 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Bovinos/metabolismo , Carne/análise , Músculo Esquelético/química , Poaceae/metabolismo , Matadouros , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Cor , Humanos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Paladar
5.
Water Sci Technol ; 84(9): 2242-2251, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810308

RESUMO

This study shows the effectiveness of the wastewater treatment from a municipal slaughterhouse that has undergone a previous biological treatment applying a sequence of stages, reaching a 75% of elimination of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) using sedimentation in combination with coagulation-flocculation, using 0.5 g/L FeCl3 which is one of the best known inorganic coagulants. Then, the elimination of COD was around 98% adding the Fenton process in which 1,000 mg/L H2O2 and FeSO4 were used. In addition to the COD, other water quality parameters were measured to evaluate the level of purification of the test samples, such as solids of different types, pH, DOC and so on. With the above process, it can be noted that the Fenton process produced a slight improvement in the effluent quality by using a solar concentrator in the now-called photo-Fenton process, reaching around 99% of COD removal (0.36 g/L), 91% of total suspended solids (0.32 g/L) and 89% of dissolved organic carbon (0.20 g/L). These results were the best achieved within a proposed treatment train for this type of complex wastewater. Moreover, this last part of the process adds an improvement by the usage of renewable energy sources such as sunlight.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Matadouros , Catálise , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Ferro , Oxirredução , Luz Solar , Águas Residuárias , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
6.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(5): 500, 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34613460

RESUMO

Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an emerging mosquito-borne zoonosis that threatens public health and animal agriculture in the endemic areas causing devastating epizootics characterized by abortion storms and high mortalities, especially in newborn animals. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence and investigate risk factors associated with exposure to the virus in camels slaughtered in Maiduguri abattoir, Borno State of Nigeria. Camels presented for slaughtered were sampled and data on age, sex, source or origin, utility, presence of post-mortem lesions, body weights and body condition score were collected. Blood samples were collected and sera were harvested and stored at - 20 °C until tested. The sera were tested using a commercial ELISA kit based on the manufacturer's instructions. The overall seroprevalence in the study was 20.7% (95% CI, 13.6-30.0). The analysis showed no significant differences between the presence of antibodies and variables that included the sex of camels (χ2 = 0.015, df = 1, p = 0.904) and the presence of post-mortem lesion on the carcass (χ2 = 0.009, df = 1, p = 0.925). There were significant differences between presence of antibodies and three variables that included the age (χ2 = 4.89, df = 1, p = 0.027), the source (χ2 = 7.077, df = 2, p = 0.029) and the main utility (χ2 = 8.057, df = 3, p = 0.045) of the camels. It was concluded that camels presented for slaughter at the Maiduguri abattoir have evidence of exposure to the RVF virus and maybe means of transmission of the virus. Regular monitoring and control of transboundary animal movements were recommended in the study area.


Assuntos
Vírus da Febre do Vale do Rift , Matadouros , Animais , Camelus , Estudos Transversais , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
7.
Prev Vet Med ; 197: 105513, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34695650

RESUMO

Detection of on farm and transport animal welfare problems at slaughterhouse level is a key issue for the meat industry; however, usually, the assessments do not include basic aspects of animal health. For that reason, it is necessary to develop an assessment method that has an integrative scope and identifies the risk profiles in animals. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to detect cattle welfare indicators that can be implemented at the slaughterhouse level and to develop integrated risk profiles based on the animal's origin, pre-slaughter logistics, and animal-based indicators. We recorded the origin, commercial category, transportation details, and horn size of 1040 cattle upon arrival at the slaughterhouse. Cattle welfare was measured based on individual scores for vocalizations, stunning shots, carcass bruises, meat pH, severe hoof injuries, and organ condemnations. To characterize operational and logistic practices from the farm to the slaughterhouse, a two-step cluster analysis was applied to the aforementioned variables (production system, cattle type, horn size, journey distance, vehicle type), which identified four clusters: small feedlot and free-range profile (C1, n = 216, 20.8 %), feedlot profile (C2, n = 193, 18.6 %), culled dairy cows profile (C3, n = 262, 25.2 %), and free-range profile (C4, n = 369, 35.5 %). The animal's diet and environmental conditions might have influenced the development of hoof disorders in C1 animals (P = 0.023), the proportion of animals that were re-shot was highest in C2 animals (P = 0.033), and C3 and C4 animals were most likely to suffer injuries such as severe bruising (P = 0.001). In addition, the number of stunning shots, meat pH, carcass bruises, severe hoof injuries, and liver condemnations, explained a significant variation in the incidence of various health and welfare consequences based on an animal's origin, which confirmed their importance as 'welfare iceberg' indicators. The study provided detailed data that can be included into assessment methods for the welfare of slaughter cattle, which can be tailored to specific production systems.


Assuntos
Matadouros , Casco e Garras , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Bovinos , Fazendas , Feminino , Transportes
8.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641435

RESUMO

Sea bass (Lateolabrax japonicus) is known for its unique flavor and high nutritional value. In this study, the influence of slaughter methods on the volatile compounds (VOCs) in sea bass was investigated using electronic nose (E-nose) technology and gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry (GC-IMS). VOCs in raw and cooked sea bass resulting from different slaughter methods were effectively distinguished using both techniques. Aldehydes, ketones, and alcohols were associated with the basic flavor of sea bass, whereas esters, organic acids, and furans enriched the aroma. In raw sea bass, the fishy odor was the strongest in the HSD group (head shot control death), followed by that in the IFD (ice faint to death) and BDS (bloodletting to death) groups. The VOC content increased and stabilized after steaming, enhancing pleasant odors such as fatty and fruity aromas. In cooked sea bass, the content of diacetyl and ethanol was the highest in the EAD group (eugenol anesthesia to death), which may be a residue of eugenol, imparting a distinct irritating chemical odor. Furthermore, abundant (E)-2-octenal, 2-heptanone, benzaldehyde, and esters in the BDS group imparted a strong, pleasant aroma. The findings indicate that heart puncture and bloodletting is the preferred slaughter method to maintain sea bass quality, providing new insights into the volatile changes in sea bass induced by different slaughter methods.


Assuntos
Bass/metabolismo , Nariz Eletrônico/estatística & dados numéricos , Eutanásia Animal/métodos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Espectrometria de Mobilidade Iônica/métodos , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Matadouros/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais
9.
Prev Vet Med ; 196: 105477, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482152

RESUMO

Abattoir surveillance is an integral component of a bovine tuberculosis (bTB) eradication programme. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of bTB among culled adult dairy cows in Wuhan, China and to further assess two diagnostic procedures as an adjunct to the confirmation of M. bovis in animals with TB-like lesions. The study was conducted in an abattoir located in Wuhan, China over a period of 41 days from June to July 2019. A total of 171 culled adult dairy cows were sampled and inspected, and blood samples collected from 134 of these. The viscera and lymph nodes of the carcasses were visually inspected and palpated for TB-like lesions. A total of 28.1 % (48/171) of the carcasses had gross TB-like lesions. 89.6 % (43/48) of the animals with TB-like lesions were positive to a PCR procedure for bTB. The sensitivity and specificity for post-mortem examination for TB-like lesions using a Bayesian latent class analysis model was estimated to be 60.8 % and 86.6 %, respectively. A seroprevalence of 20.9 % (28/134) was recorded for antibody response to M. bovis antigens MPB70 and MPB83 based on an ELISA procedure. There was a low-moderate agreement between the ELISA and PCR results in the detection of bTB (Kappa = 0.46, 95 % CI: 0.24-0.67). The study confirms a high prevalence of bTB among culled adult dairy cows in the abattoir and highlights the need to implement surveillance for bTB based on post-mortem examination and ELISA and PCR methods in association with backward tracing of infected dairy herds.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium bovis , Tuberculose Bovina , Matadouros , Abate de Animais , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Bovinos , China/epidemiologia , Indústria de Laticínios , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Feminino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Prevalência , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Tuberculose Bovina/epidemiologia
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 944, 2021 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34511066

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite infecting warm-blooded animals. Infection in people can occur through ingestion of oocysts passed in the faeces of the definitive hosts; ingestion of bradyzoites in the tissue of infected intermediate hosts; or exposure to tachyzoites in raw milk and eggs. Slaughterhouse workers are considered a high-risk group for T. gondii exposure because of their contact with raw meat, although a positive relationship between handling raw meat and T. gondii seropositivity has not been demonstrated in all studies. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of antibodies to T. gondii in slaughterhouse workers in Kenya and identify risk factors associated with seropositivity. METHODS: A survey of slaughterhouse workers was conducted in 142 slaughter facilities in the study area. Information regarding demographics, contact with livestock, meat consumption, and practices in the slaughterhouse was collected using structured questionnaires. Commercial ELISAs were used to detect IgM and IgG antibodies against T. gondii and a multi-level logistic regression model was used to identify potential risk factors for seropositivity in slaughterhouse workers. RESULTS: The apparent prevalence of antibodies to T. gondii was 84.0% (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 81.2-86.5%) for IgG and 2.2% (95% CI 1.3-3.5%) for IgM antibodies. All IgM positive individuals were IgG positive. Risk factors for exposure to T. gondii were: increasing age (Odds Ratio (OR) 1.03; 95% CI 1.01-1.05); owning poultry (OR 2.00; 95% CI 1.11-3.62); and consuming animal blood (OR 1.92; 95% CI 1.21-3.03). CONCLUSIONS: The seroprevalence of antibodies to T. gondii was very high in this population and considerably higher than published values in the general population. Risk factors included age, owning poultry and drinking animal blood which were consistent with previous reports but none were specifically associated with working in the slaughterhouse. In this instance slaughterhouse workers may represent a useful sentinel for the general population where the level of exposure is also likely to be high and may signify an unidentified public health risk to vulnerable groups such as pregnant women. A detailed understanding of the epidemiology of infection is required, which should include an assessment of incidence, mortality, and burden since T. gondii infection is likely to have life-long sequelae.


Assuntos
Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose , Matadouros , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia
11.
Prev Vet Med ; 196: 105495, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34547663

RESUMO

Abattoir surveillance for Johne's disease monitoring in Australia has provided valuable feedback to producers about their flock's disease status since its commencement in 1999. The current surveillance system relies on the identification of gross lesions in sheep carcases at an abattoir, followed by sampling and histopathology testing. This manual inspection system has not been adapted to meet the changing disease situation, as infection prevalence levels have declined over time due to vaccination. This simulation study compares the current system with two alternative approaches utilising a validated quantitative (q)PCR method for the detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in tissues, with random systematic sampling either alone or in conjunction with sampling of a single carcass presenting gross lesions. Consigned sheep were randomly simulated as either infected or uninfected according to defined prevalence levels of infection, with varying histopathological lesion severity and the presence or absence of gross lesions. These sheep were then allocated into multiple 'lines' (group of sheep slaughtered together) within each consignment, with each line subjected to testing with the three sampling strategies for the estimation of line and flock (consignment) sensitivity. The line sensitivity described the proportion of infected lines that tested positive, whereas the flock sensitivity was the proportion of consignments from the simulated infected flocks that had one or more lines test positive for paratuberculosis infection. The tissue qPCR strategy with gross lesion detection achieved marginally higher line sensitivity than the current abattoir surveillance strategy. The simulation of unvaccinated infected flocks with low to moderate prevalence levels demonstrated similar flock sensitivity for all three sampling models. However, the current strategy had very low line sensitivity for the simulated vaccinated infected flocks when the infection prevalence level was <2%. There were substantial differences in flock sensitivity between the two tissue qPCR approaches and the current abattoir surveillance strategy for vaccinated infected flocks, whereas, only marginal differences in flock sensitivity were evident between the two tissue qPCR models. Our results demonstrate that the current strategy is not effective at identifying infected animals at very low infection prevalence levels. The tissue qPCR approach investigated in this study is better as it removes the reliance on meat inspectors to identify gross lesions and can also assist in identifying flocks that have subclinical infected sheep not displaying gross lesions. Therefore, the sheep industry may benefit from incorporating tissue qPCR for Johne's disease surveillance, however the logistics and costs of conducting this type of testing would need to be considered prior to implementing any changes.


Assuntos
Paratuberculose , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Doenças dos Ovinos , Matadouros , Animais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Paratuberculose/diagnóstico , Paratuberculose/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia
12.
J Vet Med Sci ; 83(11): 1730-1734, 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34544937

RESUMO

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) combined with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) is commonly used for genotyping bovine leukemia virus (BLV) in slaughterhouses. However, unclassified BLV genotypes have been sporadically reported. To assess the current status of BLV genetic characterization in cattle, PCR-RFLP was performed on blood samples of 170 cattle (84 Japanese Black, 60 Japanese Black x Holstein, and 26 Holstein) from 17 farms (5 prefectures) at a slaughterhouse in Aichi Prefecture in 2019. A total of 65 samples (38.2%) were BLV positive, and genotype 1 was the most predominant (56/65 samples), followed by genotypes 3 (6 samples) and 5 (1 sample), and two unclassified samples. No relationship between the genotypes and breeds was observed. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that unclassified BLV genotypes clustered with genotype 1 sequences were, therefore, not new genotypes.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Leucose Enzoótica Bovina , Vírus da Leucemia Bovina , Matadouros , Animais , Bovinos , Leucose Enzoótica Bovina/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Japão/epidemiologia , Vírus da Leucemia Bovina/genética , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34574535

RESUMO

Antimicrobial resistance is presently one of the most public health critical concerns. The frequent and often incorrect use of antibiotics in animal husbandry has led to the spread of antimicrobial resistance in this setting. Wastewater from slaughterhouses can be contaminated with multidrug-resistant bacteria, representing a possible cross-contamination route. We evaluated the presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in wastewater samples from slaughterhouses located in an Italian region. Specifically, 18 slaughterhouses were included in the study. Of the tested samples, 40 bacterial strains were chosen, identified, and tested for antibiotic susceptibility. Pseudomonas spp., Proteus spp., Enterobacter spp., Aeromonas spp., and Citrobacter spp. were the most detected genera. The most resistant strains were on average those belonging to Enterobacter spp. The highest resistance rate was recorded for macrolides. Among ß-lactams, penicillins and cephalosporins were by far the molecules towards which the highest resistance was detected. A very interesting finding is the difference found in strains detected in wastewater from poultry slaughterhouses, in which higher levels for almost all the considered drugs were detected compared to those from ungulates slaughterhouses. Our results indicate wastewater from slaughterhouses as a potential vehicle of resistant bacteria and highlight the importance of correct management of these kinds of waters.


Assuntos
Matadouros , Aeromonas , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Esgotos , Sicília
14.
Waste Manag ; 133: 119-126, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391987

RESUMO

The effect of fat saponification and the inclusion or exclusion of blood in slaughterhouse mixtures were assessed in terms of anaerobic digestion performance. Mixtures of animal by-products (ABP) were collected for 1 year, whereby following the daily activity and waste generation at a slaughterhouse facility, seasonal fluctuations were found. The blood content of ABP mixtures was variable, affecting both the methane yield and the production rate (287.8-320.5 NLCH4 kgCOD-1 and 80.3-94.7 and NLCH4 kgCOD-1 d-1, respectively). The saponification of fatty ABP materials was studied to assess the methane production rate, singularly or combined, with and without the addition of blood. Data showed that saponification significantly reduced the lag phase, from 2.2 to 1.5 days in winter mixtures and from 1.5 to 0.9 days in summer mixtures (all with blood), and from 0.3 to 0.1 days in summer mixtures without blood. Finally, the percentage of energy demand at the slaughterhouse potentially covered by net biogas energy was estimated, finding that the facility could be 100% energy self-sufficient in winter, whereas this would be reduced to 85% in the summer due to different methane yields of ABP mixtures based on season.


Assuntos
Matadouros , Biocombustíveis , Anaerobiose , Animais , Biocombustíveis/análise , Reatores Biológicos , Metano/análise
15.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 278, 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34407823

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Abattoir data are under-used for surveillance. Nationwide surveillance could benefit from using data on meat inspection findings, but several limitations need to be overcome. At the producer level, interpretation of meat inspection findings is a notable opportunity for surveillance with relevance to animal health and welfare. In this study, we propose that discovery and monitoring of relational patterns between condemnation conditions co-present in broiler batches at meat inspection can provide valuable information for surveillance of farmed animal health and welfare. RESULTS: Great Britain (GB)-based integrator meat inspection records for 14,045 broiler batches slaughtered in nine, four monthly intervals were assessed for the presence of surveillance indicators relevant to broiler health and welfare. K-means and correlation-based hierarchical clustering, and association rules analyses were performed to identify relational patterns in the data. Incidence of condemnation showed seasonal and temporal variation, which was detected by association rules analysis. Syndrome-related and non-specific relational patterns were detected in some months of meat inspection records. A potentially syndromic cluster was identified in May 2016 consisting of infection-related conditions: pericarditis, perihepatitis, peritonitis, and abnormal colour. Non-specific trends were identified in some months as an unusual combination of condemnation reasons in broiler batches. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the detection of relational patterns in meat inspection records could provide producer-level surveillance indicators with relevance to broiler chicken health and welfare.


Assuntos
Matadouros/normas , Bem-Estar do Animal , Inspeção de Alimentos/normas , Carne/normas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Registros/veterinária , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Galinhas , Estudos Longitudinais , Reino Unido
16.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 105(3): 788-793, 2021 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339383

RESUMO

Vietnam is a rabies-endemic country where eating dog meat is customary. However, the risks of rabies transmission to dog slaughtering and processing workers have not been identified. This study aimed to determine the rabies neutralizing antibody (NTA) and risk factors in dog slaughterers to propose appropriate intervention methods for this occupational group. In 2016, a cross-sectional study on NTA against rabies virus and related factors was conducted among 406 professional dog slaughterers in Vietnam. The participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire, and their sera were tested for rabies NTA by a rapid focus fluorescence inhibition test. Statistical algorithms were used to analyze the data. The results showed that most of the professional dog butchers (344/406 subjects, 84.7%) had no rabies NTA. Interestingly, 7.8% (29/373) had NTA without a rabies vaccination history. Over 5 years of experience as a dog butcher was positively associated with the presence of NTA in unvaccinated individuals (OR = 6.16, P = 0.001). The NTA in vaccinated butchers was present in higher titer and for longer persistence to those of other previously reported professionals, which is possibly as a result of multiple exposures to low levels of rabies virus antigens during dog slaughtering. Our study demonstrated that professional dog butchers in Vietnam are at a high risk of rabies virus infection, apart from those with common bite experiences. In countries where dog meat consumption is customary, rabies control and prevention activities should focus on safety during dog trading and slaughtering.


Assuntos
Matadouros , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Exposição Ocupacional , Vírus da Raiva/imunologia , Raiva/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas , Cães , Feminino , Luvas Protetoras , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/epidemiologia , Raiva/imunologia , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Antirrábicas/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Vietnã/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Environ Manage ; 296: 113214, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252851

RESUMO

The production of inputs for animal feed using slaughterhouse byproducts is a predominant waste valorization route of the meat industry. This practice generates complex effluents containing high concentrations of organic matter and nutrients. The partial nitrification process followed by the Anammox process (PN/A) has been shown to be a viable technology for nitrogen removal from wastewaters with high concentrations of ammonia and low COD/N ratios, as found in Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) effluent from animal feed inputs industries. However, its application has not been assessed for slaughterhouse byproducts processing wastewaters. This work aimed at evaluating the influence of the nitrogen loading rate (NLR) on the removal of total nitrogen (TN) of a PN/A process treating real animal feed industry wastewater. The NLR in the Anammox reactor varied from 1.3 to 6.3 g N L-1.d-1, with a constant COD/N ratio of 0.5 ± 0.1 mg COD.mg N-1. An average removal efficiency of TN of 84.2 ± 9.8% was observed throughout 440 days of operation. Microbiological analyses of the granular Anammox sludge performed before and after the operation revealed an increase in the population of heterotrophic denitrifying bacteria, while the relative abundance of Anammox species decreased. It was demonstrated that although both microbial groups can coexist synergistically, the presence of organic matter contributed to the growth of heterotrophic denitrifying species and impaired the growth of Anammox bacteria, without affecting system performance.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Nitrificação , Matadouros , Reatores Biológicos , Desnitrificação , Nitrogênio , Oxirredução , Esgotos , Águas Residuárias
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 794: 148754, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225137

RESUMO

Slaughterhouse residues are greatly available and can pose a threat to the environment if not disposed of correctly. Such by-products can be proficiently processed into polyhydroxyalkanoates by accurately selected and developed bacterial strains. Cupriavidus necator DSM 545, one of the most efficient polyhydroxyalkanoates-producing strain, cannot grow well on fatty substrates. In this work, a recombinant lipolytic C. necator microbe was developed for the efficient conversion of slaughtering by-products into polyhydroxyalkanoates. Two lipase sequences, lipC and lipH of Pseudomonas stutzeri BT3, were effectively expressed in C. necator DSM 545. The engineered strain C. necator DSM 545 JR11, selected for the outstanding extracellular lipolytic activity, produced high levels of polyhydroxyalkanoates (nearly 65% of cell dry mass) from udder, jowl and membrane caul fat. This research is crucial to the cost-effective one-step processing of slaughterhouse waste into polyhydroxyalkanoates with useful applications in several industrial and medical sectors.


Assuntos
Cupriavidus necator , Poli-Hidroxialcanoatos , Matadouros , Animais , Cupriavidus necator/genética
19.
J Food Sci ; 86(8): 3598-3610, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34287883

RESUMO

The environment in poultry abattoirs is the primary potential source of bacterial contamination and cross-contamination of broiler carcasses. In this context, we explored the influence of chilling water and contact surfaces on the microbial diversity of broiler carcasses in warm and cold seasons. High-throughput sequencing was used to target the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Proteobacteria was the main phylum detected in broiler carcasses and on contact surfaces, whereas Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes had high abundances of the prechilling water in both seasons. At the genus level, Psychrobacter and Acinetobacter were much more abundant on broiler carcasses in the warm season, while Flavobacterium and Psychrobacter dominated in the cold season. LEfSe analysis showed that the chilling tank was a key location where carcass contamination occurred. Therefore, the risk of carcass contamination can be reduced by improving sanitary conditions during processing, installing longer chilling tanks, or increasing the water exchange rate in chilling tanks. The results of this study may be useful for better slaughterhouse environmental hygiene management in different seasons. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This study will help poultry processing managers better understand the impact of different seasons on the environmental microbiota in the environment and their abundance in poultry processing plants, thus allowing them to adopt proper disinfection strategies for different seasons and environments, further improving the safety and shelf life of products.


Assuntos
Matadouros , Galinhas , Animais , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Carne , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
20.
Meat Sci ; 182: 108622, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34265543

RESUMO

In risk-based meat safety assurance system, the use of interventions is intended to accomplish the meat safety targets on chilled carcasses, particularly in situations when an abattoir is unable to sufficiently reduce risks arising from specific farms/animal batches by using process hygiene alone. Furthermore, interventions are considered whenever food safety authorities identify meat production processes associated with high risks for consumers. This paper overviews the role of beef interventions in a risk-based, meat safety assurance system. Cattle hide interventions (chemical hide washes and microbial immobilisation treatment with shellac) and beef carcass interventions (pasteurisation treatments with hot water and/or steam and organic (lactic) acid washes), show consistent reduction effects of aerobic bacteria and faecal indicators and reduced prevalences of naturally present VTEC and Salmonella. The review also identified interventions where there was a lack of data and further research was needed, and other contextual factors to inform the risk management decisions for further development of risk-based meat safety assurance system.


Assuntos
Matadouros , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Carne Vermelha/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bovinos , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...