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1.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 41(2): 304-308, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35130072

RESUMO

Shalon Irving's 2017 death brought national attention to maternal mortality among Black women in the US. This essay remembers her life and legacy.


Assuntos
Equidade em Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Mortalidade Materna
2.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 30: e65125, jan. -dez. 2022.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, MMyP | ID: biblio-1393345

RESUMO

Objetivo: sumarizar os principais fatores de risco relacionados ao near miss materno. Método: revisão integrativa da literatura. A busca foi efetuada em 21 de março de 2021, nas bases de dados: NationalLibrary of Medicine - Medline via PubMed; Current Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature; Science Direct,Elservier's Scopus, Web of Science e no portal da Biblioteca Virtual de Saúde. Os estudos foram avaliados com a Hierarchy of Evidence for Intervention Studies. Resultados: 12 artigos compuseram a revisão, todos de método quantitativo e idioma inglês. As evidências destacaram como risco para near miss materno: distúrbios hipertensivos, complicações hemorrágicas e a sepse puerperal. Demais achados relacionam-se à distância da moradia e dificuldade de acesso aos serviços de saúde além da baixa escolaridade. Conclusões: os fatores de risco para near miss materno se relacionam com pré-natal inadequado, decorrente de questões geográficas e falta de acesso aos serviços, questões econômicas, educacionais e sociais.


Assuntos
Near Miss , Complicações na Gravidez , Mortalidade Materna , Morbidade , Enfermagem
3.
Mo Med ; 119(5): 474-478, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36338005

RESUMO

The rate of maternal mortality in the United States (U.S.) is higher than any other industrialized nation, at 23.8 per 100,000 deliveries from 2000-2014. Although maternal mortality ratios decreased by 44% globally from 1990 to 2015, emerging evidence suggests that maternal mortality in the U.S. has been increasing.2-4 One study quotes 700 maternal deaths every year, with 50,000 "near misses."1 By one metric, Missouri ranks as the 44th-worst state for maternal mortality in the U.S.5.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Materna , Estados Unidos , Humanos , Missouri/epidemiologia
4.
BMJ Open Qual ; 11(4)2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36375860

RESUMO

Maternal morbidities and mortalities remain high globally, yet are preventable events. Maternal haemorrhage is a primary cause of both maternal morbidity and mortality. In this collaborative project, multipronged evidence-based interventions, inclusive of embedded morbidity surveillance trigger tools were implemented to increase maternal morbidity reporting and improve the safety culture, while structured morbidity and mortality reviews aided in the reduction maternal mortality.


Assuntos
Hospitais , Mortalidade Materna , Humanos , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Gestão da Segurança , Hemorragia
5.
BMJ Glob Health ; 7(11)2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36368768

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of COVID-19 and its impact varied between countries and regions. Pregnant women are at high risk of COVID-19 complications compared with non-pregnant women. The magnitude of variations, if any, in SARS-CoV-2 infection rates and its health outcomes among pregnant women by geographical regions and country's income level is not known. METHODS: We performed a random-effects meta-analysis as part of the ongoing PregCOV-19 living systematic review (December 2019 to April 2021). We included cohort studies on pregnant women with COVID-19 reporting maternal (mortality, intensive care admission and preterm birth) and offspring (mortality, stillbirth, neonatal intensive care admission) outcomes and grouped them by World Bank geographical region and income level. We reported results as proportions with 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: We included 311 studies (2 003 724 pregnant women, 57 countries). The rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnant women varied significantly by region (p<0.001) and income level (p<0.001), with the highest rates observed in Latin America and the Caribbean (19%, 95% CI 12% to 27%; 13 studies, 38 748 women) and lower-middle-income countries (13%, 95% CI 6% to 23%; 25 studies, 100 080 women). We found significant differences in maternal and offspring outcomes by region and income level. Lower-middle-income countries reported significantly higher rates of maternal mortality (0.68%, 95% CI 0.24% to 1.27%; 3 studies, 31 136 women), intensive care admission (4.53%, 95% CI 2.57% to 6.91%; 54 studies, 23 420 women) and stillbirths (1.09%, 95% CI 0.48% to 1.88%; 41 studies, 4724 women) than high-income countries. COVID-19 complications disproportionately affected South Asia, which had the highest maternal mortality rate (0.88%, 95% CI 0.16% to 1.95%; 17 studies, 2023 women); Latin America and the Caribbean had the highest stillbirth rates (1.97%, 95% CI 0.9% to 3.33%; 10 studies, 1750 women). CONCLUSION: The rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnant women vary globally, and its health outcomes mirror the COVID-19 burden and global maternal and offspring inequalities. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020178076.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Nascimento Prematuro , Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Feminino , Humanos , Natimorto/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Mortalidade Materna
6.
Womens Health (Lond) ; 18: 17455057221133830, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36325622

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The high rate of maternal mortality among Black women in the United States continues to gain attention; yet research has not yet fully illuminated the precursors to these events, most impactful among them being "maternal near misses." A maternal near miss occurs when a woman nearly dies but survives a complication that occurred during pregnancy, childbirth, or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy. Researchers have focused on reviewing patient medical records after sentinel maternal events to help determine major contributors to them; however, qualitative studies with near-miss survivors, especially among Black women, may be a more useful approach. METHODS: Using a qualitative methodology, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 12 Black women to explore how they perceived the care provided to them during their near-miss experiences. Our study also employed a phenomenology framework to understand the lived experience of Black women who had a maternal near miss in the context of a hospital setting. RESULTS: We interviewed 12 women between October 2020 and March 2021. All participants had a maternal near miss between the years 2010 and 2020 and were aged between 19 and 41 years when they had their near-miss experience. These women identified communication, patient-provider relationship, skills/competency of staff, provider discrimination, systems issues, and emotional distress as major contributors to their experiences. CONCLUSION: Maternal near misses serve as a precursor to maternal mortality events. By listening to patients and their families recount their perspectives on what leads up to these near misses, we can unearth valuable lessons that can aid in the development of strategies and interventions to decrease the numbers of pregnancy-related deaths; especially among Black women who suffer disproportionately from maternal morbidity and mortality. Based on these findings, we recommend that hospitals and OB-GYN practices consider the unique predispositions of their Black patients; account for their own personal biases, revisit the near-miss experiences of past patients to keep patients central to care and build rapport between patients and hospital birthing support staff; and center discussions about improvements in care around racist structures and systems.


Assuntos
Near Miss , Complicações na Gravidez , Gravidez , Humanos , Feminino , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Mortalidade Materna , Parto Obstétrico , Hospitais
7.
Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am ; 49(4): 713-733, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36328676

RESUMO

Despite a 38% decrease in global maternal mortality during the last decade, rates remain unacceptably high with greater than 800 maternal deaths occurring each day. There exists significant regional variation among rates and causes of maternal mortality, and the vast majority occurs in low-income and middle-income countries. The leading causes of direct maternal mortality are hemorrhage, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, sepsis, complications of abortion, and thromboembolism. Eliminating preventable maternal mortality hinges on improving clinical management of these life-threatening obstetric conditions, as well as addressing the complex social and economic barriers that pregnant women face to access quality care.


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto , Complicações na Gravidez , Feminino , Gravidez , Humanos , Mortalidade Materna , Países em Desenvolvimento
8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18626, 2022 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36329149

RESUMO

To develop a new tool to assess the global quality of care for post-partum hemorrhage (PPH)-the leading preventable cause of maternal mortality worldwide-and to identify characteristics of maternity units associated with inadequate PPH management. This is a secondary analysis of the EPIMOMS population-based study conducted in 2012-2013 in 119 french maternity units (182,309 women who gave birth). We included women with severe PPH. We first developed a score to quantify the quality of care for PPH. Then, we identified characteristics of the maternity units associated with "inadequate care" defined by a score below the 25th percentile, with multi-level logistic regression adjusted for individual characteristics. The score combined 8 key components of care and took into account delivery mode and PPH cause. For PPH after vaginal delivery, the risk of inadequate care was increased in low versus high-volume maternity units (< 1000 deliveries/year: aOR-2.20 [1.12-4.32], [1000-2000 [deliveries/year: aOR-1.90 [1.02-3.56] compared to ≥ 3500 deliveries/year), in private versus public units (aOR-1.72 [1.00-2.97]), and in low versus high-level of care units (aOR-2.04 [1.24-3.35]). For PPH after cesarean, the only characteristic associated with an increased risk of inadequate care was the absence of 24/24-onsite anesthesiologist (aOR-4.34 [1.41-13.31]). These results indicate where opportunities for improvement are the greatest.


Assuntos
Hemorragia Pós-Parto , Feminino , Gravidez , Humanos , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/terapia , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/etiologia , Parto Obstétrico/efeitos adversos , Parto , Mortalidade Materna , Modelos Logísticos , Fatores de Risco
9.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 279: 183-190, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36368299

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Admission to an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) in obstetrics is often used as a proxy for maternal near miss/severe maternal morbidity (MNM/SMM) events. Understanding incidence and management of pregnant or postpartum patients requiring critical care (CC) is thus important for continued improvement of maternity care. This study aims to describe provision of critical care in obstetrics in the Republic of Ireland. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The national clinical audit on critical care included 15 of 19 maternity units in Ireland (2014-2016). 960 pregnant or postpartum (within 42 days) individuals who required CC were included. Data were reported on all cases requiring level 2 or level 3 CC. We calculated basic descriptive statistics for diagnosis and process of care variables, and compared characteristics of women requiring level 2 care to those requiring level 3. Outcomes included diagnoses necessitating critical care; additional complications; level of care required; care process outcomes such as length of stay, consultation with non-obstetric specialties, location of maternal critical care, and neonatal care provision. RESULTS: Overall, the rate of critical care in obstetrics for these hospitals was 1 in 131 live births; 900 of the 960 cases required level 2 care only. Hypertensive disorders contributed to the need for critical care for 1 in 242; hemorrhage, 1 in 422; and infections, 1 in 926. A substantial minority (15.7%) had more than one diagnosis, accounting for 40% of level 3 care. Serious complications were rare (eg, hysterectomy, 1 in 3846). Parity, hospital size, and identification as high-risk antenatally (<50% cases) were associated with requiring level 3 care. Critical care was provided in multiple locations, including ICUs, HDUs, and operating theatres. Only 23.8% of patients received CC in an ICU, suggesting ICU admission is not an ideal method for identifying severe maternal morbidity. CONCLUSIONS: We reported rates of critical care admission and primary diagnoses within the range of other published estimates, but huge variability exists in the literature, and within our data. ICU admission in and of itself iss not a reliable proxy for having received level 2 or 3 obstetric critical care in Ireland.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Materna , Complicações na Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Feminino , Gravidez , Humanos , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/terapia , Irlanda/epidemiologia , Cuidados Críticos , Auditoria Clínica , Mortalidade Materna
10.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 2111, 2022 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36397031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since 2009, Morocco has been implementing the Maternal Death Surveillance System (MDSS). The results obtained indicate significant regional variations in terms of implementation stage, completeness of maternal death reporting, and information use for action. The objective of this research is to better understand the contextual factors involved in the implementation process and use of MDSS, with a focus on the facilitators and barriers, as experienced by stakeholders in health regions.  METHODS: Evaluation research was conducted in 2017 based on a descriptive qualitative study using semi-structured in-depth interviews, in four out of the twelve health regions of Morocco. A total of thirty-one in-depth interviews were held with members of regional committees of maternal death reviews (RC-MDR) and other key informant staff. Interviews focused on participants' views and their experiences with the MDSS since the introduction in 2009. We conducted thematic analysis relied on inductive and deductive approaches. Applying the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research guided data analysis and reporting findings.  FINDINGS: Engaging leadership at all health system levels, regular training of district and regional MDSS coordinators and supportive supervision at a national level were the most important MDSS implementation facilitators. Reported barriers were essentially related to the review system: Irregular review meetings, blame culture, high turn-over of RC-MDR members, lack of analytical capacity to inform the review process and formulate recommendations, finally limited accountability for recommendation follow-up. While financial incentives boosted MDSS adoption, they were nonetheless a substantial barrier to its sustainability. CONCLUSIONS: The MDSS is a complex process that requires taking numerous steps, including the commitment of multiple stakeholders with varying roles as well as information sharing across health system levels. Contextual factors that influence MDSS implementation at the sub-national level are to be considered. Horizontal and vertical communication about MDSS goals and feedback is crucial to strengthen stakeholders' commitment, hence improving quality and use of MDSS. Furthermore, health regions should place emphasis on making high-quality recommendations in partnerships between the regional management teams, RC-MDR members and external stakeholders.


Assuntos
Morte Materna , Feminino , Humanos , Marrocos , Mortalidade Materna , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Liderança
11.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 8027712, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36398069

RESUMO

Introduction: In recent times, Bangladesh has made significant improvements in various health outcomes, but not so much in maternal death. The current flat trend in reducing maternal mortality in Bangladesh has been mainly due to the lower coverage of maternal health care. To improve the coverage, it is essential to find biosocial factors related to adequate maternal health care. Therefore, this study is aimed at finding out the socioeconomic correlates of adequate maternal health care in Bangladesh. Methods: The study used data from the Bangladeshi demographic and health survey 2017-18. The total unweighted sample of 4012 women who reported pregnancy before three years of the survey was analyzed. A composite binary indicator of adequate maternal care has been constructed using the variables-access to maternal care service, four antenatal care visits, at least one visit with qualified providers, and institutional delivery. A binary logistic regression model was employed to find out the socioeconomic correlate of adequate maternal care. Results: Only 24.4% percent of sample women received adequate maternal care. The result of the logistic regression model shows that urban, Khulna, Rajshahi, and Rangpur were associated with an increase in the odds of having adequate maternal care. High education and health care decisions taken by the partner or husband were also associated with an increased odd of adequate maternal care. Islam and lower wealth status were associated with a lower probability of adequate maternal care. Conclusions: Policymakers and health administration should pay attention to the variation in the utilization of maternal health care across residence, region, religion, education, and wealth status to ensure safe motherhood.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Materna , Feminino , Gravidez , Humanos , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Mortalidade Materna , Escolaridade
12.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(11): e2242842, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36399343

RESUMO

Importance: Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is an uncommon pregnancy complication but is associated with high maternal mortality. Because of the rarity of AFE, associated risks factors and maternal outcomes have been relatively understudied. Objective: To examine the clinical, pregnancy, and delivery characteristics and the maternal outcomes related to AFE in a recent period in the US. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study examined hospital deliveries from January 1, 2016, to December 31, 2019, from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project's National Inpatient Sample. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was clinical, pregnancy, and delivery characteristics of AFE, assessed with a multivariable binary logistic regression model. The coprimary outcome was failure to rescue, defined as maternal mortality after AFE. Associations with other severe maternal morbidity indicators and failure to rescue per clinical and pregnancy characteristics were also assessed. Results: A total of 14 684 135 deliveries were examined, with AFE diagnosed in 880 women, corresponding to an incidence rate of 6.0 per 100 000 deliveries. The cohort-level median patient age was 29 years (IQR, 25-33 years). In a multivariable analysis, (1) patient factors of older age, Asian and Black race, Western US region, pregestational hypertension, asthma, illicit substance use, and grand multiparity; (2) pregnancy factors of placental accreta spectrum (PAS), placental abruption, uterine rupture, polyhydramnios, chorioamnionitis, preeclampsia, fetal growth restriction, and fetal demise; and (3) delivery factors of early gestational age, cervical ripening, cesarean delivery, operative delivery, and manual removal were associated with AFE. Among these characteristics, PAS had the largest association with AFE (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 10.01; 95% CI, 7.03-14.24). When stratified by the PAS subtypes, more severe forms of PAS had a greater association with AFE (aOR for increta and percreta, 17.35; 95% CI, 10.21-28.48; and aOR for accreta, 7.62; 95% CI, 4.83-12.01). Patients who had AFE were more likely to have coagulopathy (aOR, 24.68; 95% CI, 19.38-31.44), cardiac arrest (aOR, 24.56; 95% CI, 17.84-33.81), and adult respiratory distress syndrome (aOR, 10.72; 95% CI, 8.09-14.20). The failure-to-rescue rate after AFE was 17.0% overall. However, the failure-to-rescue rate exceeded 30% when AFE co-occurred with other severe maternal morbidity indicators: 45.8% for AFE, cardiac arrest, and coagulopathy; 43.2% for AFE, shock, and cardiac rhythm conversion; and 38.6% for AFE, cardiac arrest, coagulopathy, and shock. The failure-to-rescue rate after AFE also exceeded 30% when AFE occurred in the setting of placental pathology: 42.9% for AFE and PAS and 31.3% for AFE and placental abruption. Conclusions and Relevance: This contemporaneous, national-level analysis validated previously known risk factors for AFE and confirmed the dismal outcomes of pregnancy complicated by AFE. The association between PAS and AFE, which was not previously reported, warrants further investigation.


Assuntos
Descolamento Prematuro da Placenta , Embolia Amniótica , Parada Cardíaca , Humanos , Adulto , Feminino , Gravidez , Embolia Amniótica/epidemiologia , Embolia Amniótica/diagnóstico , Embolia Amniótica/etiologia , Mortalidade Materna , Estudos Retrospectivos , Placenta , Paridade
13.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 2097, 2022 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36384521

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Racial inequities in maternal mortality in the U.S. continue to be stark. METHODS: The 2015-2018, 4-year total population, county-level, pregnancy-related mortality ratio (PRM; deaths per 100,000 live births; National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), restricted use mortality file) was linked with the Public Health Exposome (PHE). Using data reduction techniques, 1591 variables were extracted from over 62,000 variables for use in this analysis, providing information on the relationships between PRM and the social, health and health care, natural, and built environments. Graph theoretical algorithms and Bayesian analysis were applied to PHE/PRM linked data to identify latent networks. RESULTS: PHE variables most strongly correlated with total population PRM were years of potential life lost and overall life expectancy. Population-level indicators of PRM were overall poverty, smoking, lack of exercise, heat, and lack of adequate access to food. CONCLUSIONS: In this high-dimensional analysis, overall life expectancy, poverty indicators, and health behaviors were found to be the strongest predictors of pregnancy-related mortality. This provides strong evidence that maternal death is part of a broader constellation of both similar and unique health behaviors, social determinants and environmental exposures as other causes of death.


Assuntos
Expossoma , Saúde Pública , Gravidez , Feminino , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Teorema de Bayes , Mortalidade Materna , Expectativa de Vida
14.
BMJ ; 379: e070621, 2022 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36384872

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare maternal mortality in eight countries with enhanced surveillance systems. DESIGN: Descriptive multicountry population based study. SETTING: Eight countries with permanent surveillance systems using enhanced methods to identify, document, and review maternal deaths. The most recent available aggregated maternal mortality data were collected for three year periods for France, Italy, and the UK and for five year periods for Denmark, Finland, the Netherlands, Norway, and Slovakia. POPULATION: 297 835 live births in Denmark (2013-17), 301 169 in Finland (2008-12), 2 435 583 in France (2013-15), 1 281 986 in Italy (2013-15), 856 572 in the Netherlands (2014-18), 292 315 in Norway (2014-18), 283 930 in Slovakia (2014-18), and 2 261 090 in the UK (2016-18). OUTCOME MEASURES: Maternal mortality ratios from enhanced systems were calculated and compared with those obtained from each country's office of vital statistics. Age specific maternal mortality ratios; maternal mortality ratios according to women's origin, citizenship, or ethnicity; and cause specific maternal mortality ratios were also calculated. RESULTS: Methods for identifying and classifying maternal deaths up to 42 days were very similar across countries (except for the Netherlands). Maternal mortality ratios up to 42 days after end of pregnancy varied by a multiplicative factor of four from 2.7 and 3.4 per 100 000 live births in Norway and Denmark to 9.6 in the UK and 10.9 in Slovakia. Vital statistics offices underestimated maternal mortality by 36% or more everywhere but Denmark. Age specific maternal mortality ratios were higher for the youngest and oldest mothers (pooled relative risk 2.17 (95% confidence interval 1.38 to 3.34) for women aged <20 years, 2.10 (1.54 to 2.86) for those aged 35-39, and 3.95 (3.01 to 5.19) for those aged ≥40, compared with women aged 20-29 years). Except in Norway, maternal mortality ratios were ≥50% higher in women born abroad or of minoritised ethnicity, defined variously in different countries. Cardiovascular diseases and suicides were leading causes of maternal deaths in each country. Some other conditions were also major contributors to maternal mortality in only one or two countries: venous thromboembolism in the UK and the Netherlands, hypertensive disorders in the Netherlands, amniotic fluid embolism in France, haemorrhage in Italy, and stroke in Slovakia. Only two countries, France and the UK, had enhanced methods for studying late maternal deaths, those occurring between 43 and 365 days after the end of pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: Variations in maternal mortality ratios exist between high income European countries with enhanced surveillance systems. In-depth analyses of differences in the quality of care and health system performance at national levels are needed to reduce maternal mortality further by learning from best practices and each other. Cardiovascular diseases and mental health in women during and after pregnancy must be prioritised in all countries.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Morte Materna , Suicídio , Gravidez , Humanos , Feminino , Mortalidade Materna , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia
16.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19669, 2022 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36385256

RESUMO

Recently, the World Health Organization reported that 20% of all global maternal deaths happened in Nigeria between 2005 and 2015. In developing countries, these maternal deaths are mainly from air pollution. Due to poor facilities and documentation, the extent of danger is not known. This research seeks to estimate the available pollutants and its direct and indirect impact on maternal mortality. Ten (10) years (2010-2019) datasets of black carbon, sulfur dioxide, dust, carbon monoxide, organic carbon particulates, sea-salts, and sulphate particulates were obtained from the second modern-era retrospective analysis for research and applications (MERRA-2). The dataset was obtained for the six geopolitical zones of Nigeria and analyzed using statistical tool, models, spatial interpolation, and risk analysis. The volumetric and radioecological risk was also analyzed. It was observed the dust content had minute volume of heavy metal and/or radionuclide particles that may be unharmful in the short term but lethal in the long term. The risk quotient and total dose rate per organism are given as 0.00000396 and 0.0000396 µGy h-1. The result in this manuscript corroborates existing data on maternal mortality in Nigeria. It is recommended that the safety of pregnant woman depends on significant efforts of authorities to enact and enforce environmental laws to mitigate air pollution.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Morte Materna , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Mortalidade Materna , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Poeira
17.
Ethn Dis ; 32(4): 293-304, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36388861

RESUMO

Background: Rates of severe maternal morbidity and maternal mortality (SMM/MM) in the United States are rising. Disparities in SMM/MM persist by race, ethnicity and geography, and could partially be attributed to social determinants of health. Purpose: Utilizing data from the largest, statewide referral hospital in Alabama, we investigated the relationship between residence in disadvantaged neighborhoods and SMM/MM. Methods: Data on all pregnancies between 2010 and 2020 were included; SMM/MM cases were identified using CDC definitions. Area deprivation index (ADI) available at the census-block group was geographically linked to individual records and categorized using quintile cutoffs; higher ADI score indicated higher socioeconomic disadvantage. Generalized estimating equation models were used to adjust for spatial autocorrelation and ORs were computed to evaluate the relationship between ADI and SMM/MM, adjusted for covariates including age, race, insurance, residence in medically underserved areas/population (MUAP), and urban/rural residence. Results: Overall, 32,909 live-birth deliveries were identified, with a prevalence of 9.8% deliveries with SMM/MM with blood transfusion and 5.3% without blood transfusion, respectively. Increased levels of ADI were associated with increased odds of SMM/MM. Compared to women in the lowest quintile, the adjusted OR for SMM/MM among women in highest quintile was 1.78 (95%CI, 1.22-2.59, P=.0027); increasing age, non-Hispanic Black, government insurance and residence in MUAP were also significantly associated with increased odds of SMM/MM. Conclusion: Our results suggest that residence within disadvantaged neighborhoods may contribute to SMM/MM even after adjusting for patient-level factors. Measures such as ADI can help identify the most vulnerable populations and provide points to intervene.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Materna , Características de Residência , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Morbidade , Fatores Socioeconômicos
19.
JAMA ; 328(19): 1893-1895, 2022 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36301578

RESUMO

This Medical News article discusses a new report from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on maternal deaths during and up to a year after pregnancy, racial disparities, and new models of care aimed at reducing maternal mortality.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Materna , Complicações na Gravidez , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Causas de Morte
20.
Soc Sci Med ; 313: 115426, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36242801

RESUMO

Low-income countries with intransigent maternal mortality rates often follow WHO guidelines that prioritize access to skilled, or professionalized, prenatal and birthing care. Yet the impact of these initiatives in areas still suffering high maternal mortality is opaque. Despite heavy and long investments, the professionalization of midwifery in Pakistan is incomplete, and declines in maternal mortality have plateaued. Traditional midwives have lost status, but they continue to see clients and have influence in their rural communities. We conducted a rapid ethnography among traditional midwives (Dais) and trained Lady Health Workers (LHWs) in two communities of Attock, Pakistan from May to July of 2020. Our findings underscore the importance of long-term presence and trust to maternal care, especially in conditions of resource scarcity or fear (e.g., fear of COVID). We provide evidence of overt disparagement of Dais by LHWs; (2) illustration of the conflicts between gender norms and biomedical priorities of hospitalized births; and (3) exacerbated fear of hospitals during COVID, which served to highlight the advantages of Dai care. Professionalization programs for midwifery must include structures and training to ensure collaborative communications across the country's midwives. Failure to respect the rational decisions of traditional midwives and their patients in circumstances of scarcity, high stress, and isolation only ignores the material and cultural conditions of these vulnerable communities.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Serviços de Saúde Materna , Tocologia , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Mortalidade Materna , População Rural , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Pandemias
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