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1.
Public Health ; 211: 144-148, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36113200

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to assess the determinants of willingness to pay to enhance pandemic preparedness in Mauritius. STUDY DESIGN: A contingent valuation method is used to estimate willingness to pay to pay for enhancing pandemic preparedness using a sample of working people in Mauritius. METHODS: A two-phase decision process analysis is carried out to model the willingness to pay to enhance pandemic preparedness. The first phase is to analyse the respondents' decision of whether or not to pay for enhancing pandemic preparedness using a Probit model. The second phase is to estimate the determinants of the amount of money respondents are willing to pay using a Tobit model. RESULTS: Income earners are willing to pay an average of Rs. 1,900 (approximately USD 50) per annum to enhance pandemic preparedness. 'Perceived Response Efficacy', 'Awareness of the Need and Responsibility for Paying', 'Subjective Obligation to Pay' and the 'Theory of Planned Behaviour' are found to affect both stages of of the decision-making process. Knowledge on COVID-19 is found to have a positive impact on the decision to pay and health responsibility attitude is found to have a negative impact on the amount people are willing to pay. CONCLUSIONS: On average, the government can potentially expect to mobilise an additional Rs. 1,047,470,000 (USD 27,565,000) from taxpayers to spend on enhancing pandemic preparedness in Mauritius. To increase willingness to pay for enhanced pandemic preparedness, the government can focus on improving knowledge on a pandemic, perceived response efficacy and awareness on need and responsibility of paying.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Atitude Frente a Saúde , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Renda , Maurício , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(10): 676, 2022 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35974238

RESUMO

The coating industry is one of the most important consumers of water and chemicals and consequently is a major water polluter in Mauritius. The focus of this study was to characterise wastewater generated by a coating industry in Mauritius. The objectives were to develop a wastewater sampling strategy and to analyse the pollutant parameters as per Mauritian regulations. The wastewater samples were analysed for physicochemical properties and metal abundances over a period of 6 months. The physicochemical parameters analysed were pH, electrical conductivity (EC), true colour, total suspended solids (TSS), biological oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrate, phosphate, sulphate and free chlorine. The wastewater samples were also analysed for metal ions such as sodium, potassium, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, nickel and zinc. The results of the physicochemical parameters indicated the presence of biologically resistant organic matters in all the wastewater samples with elevated values of BOD5 and COD, and low biodegradability index, respectively. The coating industry wastewater samples were acidic and saline in nature. Moreover, they presented high concentrations of TSS, free chlorine and sodium ions compared to standard limits promulgated by the Mauritian Government. Spearman's rank correlation matrix with non-linear regression analysis showed significant associations among the measured parameters which were found to have a common origin in the coating industry wastewater. This research will be useful for regular monitoring and setting up an adequate coating industry wastewater treatment for the potential reuse in production processes in Mauritius.


Assuntos
Águas Residuárias , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , Cloro/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Maurício , Metais/análise , Sódio/análise , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias/química , Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
3.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(9): 640, 2022 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35930074

RESUMO

Microplastics had been collected at two sites namely Trou d'eau Douce (TD) and La Cambuse (LC) public beaches, lying in the east coast and south-east coast of Mauritius, respectively, over 6 months from September 2019 to February 2020. The sizes of the latter varied from 180 µm to 4 mm. A higher amount of microplastics collected/6-kg sand sample was recorded at LC. Two-way ANOVA revealed that (1) there was a considerable gap in the variability regarding quantity and size distribution of microplastics on the two beaches. The post-hoc analysis showed that the majority of the microplastics at LC were > 1.40 mm, whereas the smaller plastic fragments < 1.40 mm were more dominant at TD. (2) There was a significant interaction between location and event (p value = 0.025). The post-hoc analysis showed that the torrential rain hitting the island prior to sampling week 7 had decreased the microplastic counts at both TD and LC, but not significantly. Interestingly, the two hurricanes, prior to weeks 8 and 9, had appreciably reduced the microplastic counts at TD and, on the other hand, there was an increase in the amount of microplastics at LC, but not to a significant effect. The chemical nature (qualitative analysis) of microplastics was determined by density flotation and FTIR spectroscopy. Microplastics at TD were exclusively high-density polyethylene (HDPE) in origin, whereas, at LC, microplastics were both HDPE and polypropylene (PP) in origin.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Maurício , Plásticos/análise , Polietileno/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
4.
Vet Clin Pathol ; 51(3): 356-375, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35608195

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical pathology and body weight information for the cynomolgus monkey in the literature is primarily derived from a small number of animals with limited age ranges, varying geographic origins, and mixed genders. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to summarize the age- and sex-related changes in clinical pathology analytes and body weights in cynomolgus monkeys of Mauritian origin. METHODS: Pre-study age and body weight data were reviewed in 1819 animals, and pre-study hematologic, coagulation, and serum biochemical analytes were reviewed in 1664 animals. RESULTS: Body weights were statistically higher (P < 0.01) in males than females in all age groups (2-10 years). These measurements became prominent after 4 years of age and peaked at 7 to 8 years of age in both sexes. Sex-related differences were noted in reticulocyte (RETIC) counts, creatinine, cholesterol, and triglyceride concentrations, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) activities. Age-related differences were noted in RETIC and lymphocyte counts, creatinine, triglyceride, phosphorus, and globulin concentrations, and ALP and GGT activities. The youngest (2 to <3 year) age group had the fewest number of clinical pathologic analyte differences including ALP and GGT activity differences which occurred in all age groups from 2 to 10 years; they also had age-related lower globulin concentrations. There were no age- or sex-related differences in coagulation measurands. CONCLUSIONS: Sexual dimorphism in body weight was apparent for all ages from 2 to 10 years of age. The only difference in clinical pathology analytes unique to the 2 to <3 years of age group were age-related lower globulin levels.


Assuntos
Globulinas , Patologia Clínica , Animais , Peso Corporal , Creatinina , Feminino , Macaca fascicularis , Masculino , Maurício , Triglicerídeos
5.
Toxicol Pathol ; 50(5): 607-627, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35535738

RESUMO

To investigate the influence of geographical origin, age, and sex on toxicologically relevant spontaneous histopathology findings in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis), we performed a comparative analysis of historical control data (HCD) from 13 test sites that included 3351 animals (1645 females and 1706 males) sourced from Mauritius, China, Vietnam, and Cambodia, aged from 2 to 9.5 years, and from 446 toxicology studies evaluated between 2016 and 2021. The most common findings were mononuclear infiltrates in the kidney, liver, brain, and lung, which showed highest incidences in Mauritian macaques, and heart, salivary glands, and gastrointestinal tract (GIT), which showed highest incidences of mononuclear infiltrates in mainland Asian macaques. Developmental and degenerative findings were more common in Mauritian macaques, while lymphoid hyperplasia and lung pigment showed higher incidences in Asian macaques. Various sex and age-related differences were also present. Despite origin-related differences, the similarities in the nature and distribution of background lesions indicate that macaques from all geographical regions are suitable for toxicity testing and show comparable lesion spectrum. However, in a toxicity study, it is strongly recommended to use animals from a single geographical origin and to follow published guidelines when using HCD to evaluate and interpretate commonly diagnosed spontaneous lesions.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , China , Feminino , Macaca fascicularis , Masculino , Maurício , Vietnã
6.
Toxicol Pathol ; 50(5): 552-559, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35608013

RESUMO

Long-tailed macaques are the predominant nonhuman primate species for the nonclinical safety testing of biopharmaceuticals. This species comprises 9 subspecies with Macaca fascicularis fascicularis naturally occurring in Southeast Asia. Since the 17th century, M. f. fascicularis also occurs on Mauritius. Cynomolgus macaques do not naturally occur in China, but are bred in many farms across the country. The current shortage in animal supply raises the question whether geographical animal origin matters and if animals from different geographical regions can be combined on a drug development program or even a single experiment. This article reviews geographical animal origin in relation to selected endpoints that are relevant in nonclinical drug safety testing. Animals from different countries within Asia mainland do not appear to show any meaningful difference. Very little data are available for animals from Asia island. Mauritian animals show consistent differences from Asian animals in several clinical and anatomical pathology parameters. For developmental parameters, animals from Mauritius and Asia are comparable with the exception that Mauritian animals mature faster. In the authors' view, differences between the geographical clusters can be accounted for as long as baseline and reference data are available.


Assuntos
Macaca fascicularis , Animais , China , Maurício
7.
Adv Ther ; 39(6): 2850-2861, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35438448

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Most patients with hypertension in sub-Saharan Africa require two or more drugs to control their blood pressure. Triple fixed-dose combination therapy of perindopril arginine/indapamide/amlodipine is more effective in lowering blood pressure, offers better target organ protection and has increased adherence compared to monotherapy and free combination therapy, and is safe to use. This observational study evaluates the effectiveness of perindopril arginine/indapamide/amlodipine in controlling blood pressure at least 1 month after treatment initiation and assesses patient- and physician- reported drug tolerance over a 3-month period in Madagascar and Mauritius. METHODS: A total of 198 patients with hypertension in ambulatory care who had been on fixed-dose combination of perindopril arginine, indapamide, and amlodipine for at least 4 weeks were included. The main outcome measures were changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, attainment of blood pressure control under 140/90 mmHg and 130/80 mmHg, self-reported drug tolerance by the patient, and perceived drug tolerance by the treating physician. Data was collected at 1 month and 3 months. RESULTS: Mean systolic blood pressure was significantly lower at the 1-month (- 3.4 mmHg, p = 0.002) and 3-month (- 8.5 mmHg, p < 0.0001) visits. Diastolic blood pressure also decreased significantly (- 2.4 mmHg at 1-month, p = 0.017 and - 5.4 mmHg at the 3-month visits, p < 0.0001). At 3 months, 80.4% of the patients attained blood pressure targets less than 140/90 mmHg and 42.7% attained targets less than 130/80 mmHg on the basis of their baseline blood pressure. Excellent drug tolerance was reported by more than 90% of patients and physicians at the 1-month visit and by more than 95% at the 3-month visit. CONCLUSION: Triple fixed-dose therapy of perindopril arginine/indapamide/amlodipine continues to show additional blood pressure-lowering capacity even months after initiating the treatment in patients with hypertension in Madagascar and Mauritius. It is also well tolerated by patients with hypertension and assessed as safe to use by physicians.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Indapamida , Anlodipino , Anti-Hipertensivos/efeitos adversos , Arginina/farmacologia , Arginina/uso terapêutico , Pressão Sanguínea , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial , Combinação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Madagáscar , Maurício , Perindopril/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Toxicol Pathol ; 50(5): 591-606, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35467458

RESUMO

Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) are commonly used in safety assessment and as translational models for drug development. Recent supply chain pressures, exportation bans, and increased demand for drug safety assessment studies exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic have prompted the investigation of utilizing macaques of different geographic origin in preclinical toxicity studies. This study compares routine hematology, coagulation, and clinical chemistry endpoints of 3 distinct subpopulations of mainland Asia origin (Cambodia, China, and Vietnam) with Mauritius origin macaques compiling results of 3,225 animals from 123 regulatory toxicology studies conducted at North American and European Union contract research organization facilities between 2016 and 2019. Results were generally similar amongst the subpopulations compared in this study. Few notable differences in hematology test results and several minor differences in serum biochemistry and coagulation test results were identified when 3 distinct subpopulations of mainland Asia origin macaques were compared with Mauritius origin macaques. Our findings support the use of different origin macaques in drug development programs; however, emphasizes the importance of maintaining consistency in geographic origin of animals within a study.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Hematologia , Animais , Testes de Coagulação Sanguínea , Camboja , Química Clínica , Humanos , Macaca fascicularis , Maurício , Pandemias , Vietnã
9.
Health Econ ; 31(6): 1033-1045, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35297120

RESUMO

Taxes on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are relatively new and there is limited evidence about their impact on SSB consumption or body mass index (BMI) (as opposed to prices, purchases, or sales), their impact on youth (as opposed to adults), or their impact in non-Western nations. This paper adds to the evidence across all these dimensions by estimating the effect of an SSB tax on SSB consumption and the BMI of youth in Mauritius, an island nation in the Indian Ocean, which we compare to Maldives, another island nation which did not implement an SSB tax during the time of our data. Results of difference-in-differences models indicate that the tax in Mauritius had no detectable impact on the consumption of SSBs or the BMI of the pooled sample of boys and girls. However, models estimated separately by sex indicate that the probability that boys consumed SSBs fell by 9.4 percentage points (11%). These are among the first estimates of the effect of SSB taxes on youth consumption and contribute to the limited evidence on the impact of SSB taxes on weight, and in non-Western countries.


Assuntos
Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar , Impostos , Adolescente , Adulto , Bebidas , Índice de Massa Corporal , Comércio , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Maurício/epidemiologia
10.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0264455, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35213645

RESUMO

The pandemic of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) took the world by surprise. Following the first outbreak of COVID-19 in December 2019, several models have been developed to study and understand its transmission dynamics. Although the spread of COVID-19 is being slowed down by vaccination and other interventions, there is still a need to have a clear understanding of the evolution of the pandemic across countries, states and communities. To this end, there is a need to have a clearer picture of the initial spread of the disease in different regions. In this project, we used a simple SEIR model and a Bayesian inference framework to estimate the basic reproduction number of COVID-19 across Africa. Our estimates vary between 1.98 (Sudan) and 9.66 (Mauritius), with a median of 3.67 (90% CrI: 3.31-4.12). The estimates provided in this paper will help to inform COVID-19 modeling in the respective countries/regions.


Assuntos
Número Básico de Reprodução , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Teorema de Bayes , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Maurício/epidemiologia , Modelos Teóricos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Sudão/epidemiologia
11.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263515, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35134059

RESUMO

This paper proposes some high-ordered integer-valued auto-regressive time series process of order p (INAR(p)) with Zero-Inflated and Poisson-mixtures innovation distributions, wherein the predictor functions in these mentioned distributions allow for covariate specification, in particular, time-dependent covariates. The proposed time series structures are tested suitable to model the SARs-CoV-2 series in Mauritius which demonstrates excess zeros and hence significant over-dispersion with non-stationary trend. In addition, the INAR models allow the assessment of possible causes of COVID-19 in Mauritius. The results illustrate that the event of Vaccination and COVID-19 Stringency index are the most influential factors that can reduce the locally acquired COVID-19 cases and ultimately, the associated death cases. Moreover, the INAR(7) with Zero-inflated Negative Binomial innovations provides the best fitting and reliable Root Mean Square Errors, based on some short term forecasts. Undeniably, these information will hugely be useful to Mauritian authorities for implementation of comprehensive policies.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Modelos Estatísticos , Distribuição de Poisson , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , COVID-19/transmissão , COVID-19/virologia , Humanos , Maurício/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Acta Biomed ; 92(6): e2021452, 2022 01 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35075064
13.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 175: 113330, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35066411

RESUMO

Oil spills from tanker ships provide adverse and irreversible impacts of a pollutant over coastal and marine environments. Using Sentinel-1 and 2 satellite images, this baseline paper presents the detection, assessment, and monitoring of the aground and further oil spill from the Wakashio ship of August 06, 2020, on the Mauritius coast. The oil spill started on August 06, after cracks developed on the hull, and continued until the total breakup of the ship on August 15, 2020. Data shows displacements in ship position of about 100 m, and a maximum change of 80° in orientation (from NS to NE). The remote sensing results were validated using met-ocean observations and reanalysis, which showed winds, waves, and tides of high magnitude at the accident site during the incident period. Analysis of the results of this event using REAS and CMEMS data indicate their usefulness to study similar future oil spills events.


Assuntos
Desastres , Poluição por Petróleo , Oceano Índico , Maurício , Poluição por Petróleo/análise , Navios
14.
Int Dent J ; 72(1): 106-115, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33875276

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the oral care habits and assess the determinants of oral care behaviour among people with diabetes in the Republic of Mauritius. METHODS: The present study draws on data collected from 589 dentate persons with diabetes by means of a close-ended questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the association of different demographic and clinical factors with recommended dental hygiene practices. RESULTS: The majority of the participants brushed at least twice daily (84.2%), never flossed (88.6%), attended dental clinics on need only (87.1%), and did not monitor their blood glucose levels regularly (69.9%). Neither awareness about the increased risk of periodontal disease and xerostomia nor receiving advice from diabetes care providers was found to be associated with good oral hygiene or increased service utilisation. The experience of oral diseases did not encourage recommended oral health practice, with participants without experience with periodontal disease being 3 times more likely to floss (odds ratio [OR], 2.9; P = .045). Regular dental visits were strongly associated with self-reported type 1 diabetes (OR, 7.8; P = .025). Participants from urban areas were more than twice as likely to visit their dental care provider at least once annually (OR, 2.3; P = .006). Regular dental attendance (OR, 3.7; P = .011) and flossing (OR, 4.5; P = .012) were strongly associated with one another. CONCLUSION: There is widespread noncompliance with regular flossing and dental service utilisation. Our findings highlight the need for an emphasis on preventive care through the provision of integrated medical and dental interventions to high-risk individuals suffering from both diabetes and chronic periodontitis.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Higiene Bucal , Assistência Odontológica , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Maurício/epidemiologia , Saúde Bucal , Escovação Dentária
15.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2021: 3733762, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34955692

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Injuries are a major global health problem that affects teenagers in many countries. Though several studies have been done in many countries, little is known among adolescents in Mauritius. Therefore, our paper explored the prevalence and correlates of serious injuries among adolescents in Mauritius. METHODS: We analysed the 2017 Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS) data from Mauritius, using the Chi-square test and binomial logistic regression analysis with adjusted odds ratio (AOR) at 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: The prevalence of serious injuries among adolescents in Mauritius stood at 39.0%. Also, the predictors of serious injuries included sex (AOR = 0.70, CI = 0.58-0.81), physical attack (AOR = 0.47, CI = 0.39-0.57), being bullied (AOR = 0.48, CI = 0.48-0.70), suicide ideation (AOR = 0.65, CI = 0.49-0.85), hunger (AOR = 0.65, CI = 0.48-0.86), truancy from school (AOR = 0.77, CI = 0.63-0.93), marijuana use (AOR = 0.54, CI = 0.39-0.76), alcohol consumption (AOR = 0.64, CI = 0.70-0.98), and parental neglect (AOR = 0.83, CI = 0.70-0.98). CONCLUSION: The rate of injury among adolescents in Mauritius is moderately high, with sex, suicidal thought, hunger, truancy, drug use, and parental neglect as correlates. There is an urgent need for health promotion interventions at family, community, and school levels to deal with this level of serious injuries and the factors influencing such occurrences among these adolescents in Mauritius.


Assuntos
Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Maurício/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas
16.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(12)2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34952858

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ensuring benefits of free healthcare services are accessible to those in need is essential to achieve universal health coverage (UHC). Mauritius has sustained a welfare state over four decades with free health services in all public facilities. However, paradoxically, the national UHC service coverage index stood at only 63 in 2017. An assessment of who benefits from health interventions is, therefore, vital to shape future health financing strategies. METHODS: The study applied benefit incidence analysis (BIA) to understand the distribution of healthcare utilisation and spending in comparison to income distribution. Also, a financial incidence analysis (FIA) was conducted to assess the progressivity of the health financing systems. Data from the national survey on household out-of-pocket (OOP) expenditure for health were used for the purpose of BIA and FIA. Concentration curves and concentration indices (CI) were nationally estimated and disaggregated to rural/urban levels. Kakwani index (KI) was calculated to assess the progressivity of private healthcare financing. RESULTS: The CI for outpatient, inpatient and day care within the public health sector is estimated at -0.33, -0.14 and -0.14, respectively. Overall, CI in the public sector is -0.26. Benefit distribution in the private sector is pro-rich with CI of 0.27. Healthcare financing is regressive as demonstrated by a KI of -0.004, with the poorest population groups contributing a large share, in terms of taxes and OOP, to finance the health system. CONCLUSION: The BIA posits that government spending on public healthcare has resulted in significant pro-poor services distribution. This is largely offset by pro-rich distribution in the private sector. Thus, implying health financing strategies must be reviewed to promote financial protection against catastrophic health payments and bolster efforts to improve UHC service coverage index and achieve UHC Target 3.8 under Sustainable Development Goal 3.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde , Gastos em Saúde , Humanos , Renda , Maurício
17.
Zootaxa ; 5068(2): 295-300, 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810706

RESUMO

A new genus and species, Mauritiorchestia fayetta gen. nov., sp. nov., of talitrid amphipod is described from beaches in Mauritius. Mauritiorchestia differs significantly from the closely related genus Platorchestia in the maxilla 1 palp (absent in Mauritiorchestia, vestigial in Platorchestia) and in the dactylus of gnathopod 1 (simplidactylate in Mauritiorchestia, cuspidactylate in Platorchestia).


Assuntos
Anfípodes , Animais , Maurício
18.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641314

RESUMO

The recent emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) in Brazil and the increasing resistance developed by pathogenic bacteria to nearly all existing antibiotics should be taken as a wakeup call for the international authority as this represents a risk for global public health. The lack of antiviral drugs and effective antibiotics on the market triggers the need to search for safe therapeutics from medicinal plants to fight viral and microbial infections. In the present study, we investigated whether a mangrove plant, Bruguiera gymnorhiza (L.) Lam. (B. gymnorhiza) collected in Mauritius, possesses antimicrobial and antibiotic potentiating abilities and exerts anti-ZIKV activity at non-cytotoxic doses. Microorganisms Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 70603, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 43300 (MRSA), Salmonella enteritidis ATCC 13076, Sarcina lutea ATCC 9341, Proteus mirabilis ATCC 25933, Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778 and Candida albicans ATCC 26555 were used to evaluate the antimicrobial properties. Ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol and streptomycin antibiotics were used for assessing antibiotic potentiating activity. ZIKVMC-MR766NIID (ZIKVGFP) was used for assessing anti-ZIKV activity. In silico docking (Autodock 4) and ADME (SwissADME) analyses were performed on collected data. Antimicrobial results revealed that Bruguiera twig ethyl acetate (BTE) was the most potent extract inhibiting the growth of all nine microbes tested, with minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 0.19-0.39 mg/mL. BTE showed partial synergy effects against MRSA and Pseudomonas aeruginosa when applied in combination with streptomycin and ciprofloxacin, respectively. By using a recombinant ZIKV-expressing reporter GFP protein, we identified both Bruguiera root aqueous and Bruguiera fruit aqueous extracts as potent inhibitors of ZIKV infection in human epithelial A549 cells. The mechanisms by which such extracts prevented ZIKV infection are linked to the inability of the virus to bind to the host cell surface. In silico docking showed that ZIKV E protein, which is involved in cell receptor binding, could be a target for cryptochlorogenic acid, a chemical compound identified in B. gymnorhiza. From ADME results, cryptochlorogenic acid is predicted to be not orally bioavailable because it is too polar. Scientific data collected in this present work can open a new avenue for the development of potential inhibitors from B. gymnorhiza to fight ZIKV and microbial infections in the future.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rhizophoraceae/química , Zika virus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Antibacterianos/química , Antifúngicos/química , Antivirais/química , Brasil , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Simulação por Computador , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Klebsiella pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Klebsiella pneumoniae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Maurício , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Proteus mirabilis/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteus mirabilis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zika virus/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 171: 112917, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488148

RESUMO

Very Low Sulfur Fuel Oils (VSLFO, <0.5% S) are a new class of marine fuel oils, introduced to meet recent International Maritime Organization regulations. The MV Wakashio was reported to have released 1000 t of VLSFO when it grounded on a reef in Mauritius on 25th July 2020. A field sample of oily residue contaminating the Mauritian coast was collected on 16th August 2020 and compared with the Wakashio fuel oil. Both oils were analyzed for organic and elemental content, and stable isotope ratios δ13C and δ2H measured. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with high-resolution mass spectrometry was used to identify and compare biomarkers resistant to weathering. The aromatic content in the VLSFO was relatively low suggesting that the potential for ecosystem harm arising from exposure to toxic components may be less than with traditional fuel oil spills. The Wakashio oil spill is, to our knowledge, the first documented spill involving VLSFO.


Assuntos
Óleos Combustíveis , Poluição por Petróleo , Ecossistema , Maurício , Enxofre
20.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 173(Pt B): 112941, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34571413

RESUMO

Marine litter is a major global concern that is threatening marine ecosystems. This study assessed the meso-litter and microplastics density around Mauritius Island, South West Indian Ocean (SWIO) region. WIOMSA guidelines were used for meso-litter and microplastics sampling from October to December 2019 at 12 sites. A total of 1095 meso-litter items (weighing 1250 g) was sampled. Plastics were the most abundant litter category. 'Shoreline and recreational activities' were the main meso-litter source. Microplastics density was highest at the vegetation line (VL) zone. Fragments, mostly blue-coloured, were the most encountered type of microplastics, and polyethylene was the most prevalent polymer type. This study provides important baseline data which can be used by relevant authorities for more effective waste management strategies and awareness campaigns that will help further mitigate the marine litter problem in Mauritius, and to check the effectiveness of management measures in place.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Plásticos , Praias , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Maurício , Polietileno , Resíduos/análise
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