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1.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0269870, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35913972

RESUMO

Detailed knowledge about biodiversity distribution is critical for monitoring the biological effects of global change processes. Biodiversity knowledge gaps hamper the monitoring of conservation trends and they are especially evident in the desert biome. Mauritania constitutes a remarkable example on how remoteness and regional insecurity affect current knowledge gaps. Mammals remain one of the least studied groups in this country, without a concerted species checklist, the mapping of regions concentrating mammal diversity, or a national assessment of their conservation status. This work assessed the diversity, distribution, and conservation of land mammals in Mauritania. A total of 6,718 published and original observations were assembled in a spatial database and used to update the occurrence status, distribution area, and conservation status. The updated taxonomic list comprises 107 species, including 93 extant, 12 Regionally Extinct, and 2 Extinct in the Wild. Mapping of species distributions allowed locating concentrations of extant mammal species richness in coastal areas, along the Senegal River valley, and in mountain plateaus. Recent regional extinction of large-sized Artiodactyla and Carnivora has been very high (11% extinct species). From the extant mammals, 11% are threatened, including flagship species (e.g., Addax nasomaculatus and Panthera pardus). Species richness is poorly represented by the current protected areas. Despite the strong advances made, 23% of species categorise as Data Deficient. Persisting systematics and distribution uncertainties require further research. Field surveys in currently unexplored areas (northern and south-eastern regions) are urgently needed to increase knowledge about threatened mammals. The long-term conservation of land mammals in Mauritania is embedded in a complex web of socioeconomic and environmental factors that call for collaborative action and investment in sustainable human development. The current work sets the baseline for the future development of detailed research studies and to address the general challenges faced by mammals and biodiversity in the country.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Mamíferos , África Ocidental , Animais , Biodiversidade , Humanos , Mauritânia
2.
BMC Cancer ; 22(1): 802, 2022 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35858847

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIM: Carrying a pathogenic BRCA1/2 variant increases greatly young women's risk of developing breast cancer (BC). This study aimed to provide the first genetic data on BC in Mauritania. METHODS: Using NGS based screening; we searched for BRCA1/2 variants in DNA samples from 137 patients diagnosed for hereditary BC. RESULTS: We identified 16 pathogenic or likely pathogenic (PV) variants carried by 38 patients. Two predominant BRCA1 PV variants were found: c.815_824dup and c.4986 + 6 T > C in 13 and 7 patients, respectively. Interestingly, three novels BRCA1/2 predicted pathogenic variants have also been detected. Notably, no specific distribution of BRCA1/2 variants was observed regarding triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) or patient gender status. CONCLUSIONS: In this first genetic profiling of BC in Mauritania, we identified a substantial number of BRCA1/2 pathogenic variants. This finding could be important in the future diagnosis and prevention policy of hereditary BC in Mauritania.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Mauritânia/epidemiologia
3.
Tunis Med ; 100(2): 133-136, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35852247

RESUMO

AIM: To determine the prevalence of carotid atheroma in hypertensive patients and assess the levels of cardiovascular risk. METHODS: This is a prospective study that took place in the outpatient department of the National Cardiology Center of Nouakchott over a period of 6 months (October 2019 to March 2020). Patients with hypertension without complications were included. Patients lost to followup and those whose records were incomplete were excluded from the study. RESULTS: Out of a total of 171 patients, a total of 93 patients (54.38%) was collected, of which 54.8% were women, 55.9% of the patients in the series were over 50 years old.The associated cardiovascular risk factors were dominated by dyslipidemia (27.9%), diabetes (20.4%), smoking (26.8%). hypertension was grade 2 in 47.3% of patients and grade 3 in 52.7% of patients. Left ventricular hypertrophy was noted in 77.4% of patients. Echo-Doppler of the supra-aortic trunks revealed atherosclerotic plaques in 63.4% of patients. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of carotid atheroma in hypertensive patients at high cardiovascular risk level was frequent in our series, it follows from this to recommend early detection for optimal management.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Hipertensão , Placa Aterosclerótica , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Feminino , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Mauritânia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Placa Aterosclerótica/complicações , Placa Aterosclerótica/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
4.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(4): e0010203, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35427361

RESUMO

In Mauritania, several mosquito-borne viruses have been reported that can cause devastating diseases in animals and humans. However, monitoring data on their occurrence and local distribution are limited. Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an arthropod-borne virus that causes major outbreaks throughout the African continent and the Arabian Peninsula. The first Rift Valley fever (RVF) epidemic in Mauritania occurred in 1987 and since then the country has been affected by recurrent outbreaks of the disease. To gain information on the occurrence of RVFV as well as other mosquito-borne viruses and their vectors in Mauritania, we collected and examined 4,950 mosquitoes, belonging to four genera and 14 species. The mosquitoes were captured during 2018 in the capital Nouakchott and in southern parts of Mauritania. Evidence of RVFV was found in a mosquito pool of female Anopheles pharoensis mosquitoes collected in December on a farm near the Senegal River. At that time, 37.5% of 16 tested Montbéliarde cattle on the farm showed RVFV-specific IgM antibodies. Additionally, we detected IgM antibodies in 10.7% of 28 indigenous cattle that had been sampled on the same farm one month earlier. To obtain information on potential RVFV reservoir hosts, blood meals of captured engorged mosquitoes were analyzed. The mosquitoes mainly fed on humans (urban areas) and cattle (rural areas), but also on small ruminants, donkeys, cats, dogs and straw-colored fruit bats. Results of this study demonstrate the circulation of RVFV in Mauritania and thus the need for further research to investigate the distribution of the virus and its vectors. Furthermore, factors that may contribute to its maintenance should be analyzed more closely. In addition, two mosquito pools containing Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes showed evidence of dengue virus (DENV) 2 circulation in the city of Rosso. Further studies are therefore needed to also examine DENV circulation in Mauritania.


Assuntos
Aedes , Vírus da Dengue , Comportamento Alimentar , Flavivirus , Vírus da Febre do Vale do Rift , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Flavivirus/isolamento & purificação , Imunoglobulina M , Mauritânia/epidemiologia , Mosquitos Vetores , Vírus da Febre do Vale do Rift/isolamento & purificação
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35329257

RESUMO

Skilled birth attendance is critical to reduce infant and maternal mortality. Health development plans and strategies, especially in developing countries, consider equity in access to maternal health care services as a priority. This study aimed to measure and analyze the inequality in the use of skilled birth attendance services in Mauritania. The study identifies the inequality determinants and explores its changes over the period 2007-2015. The concentration curve, concentration index, decomposition of the concentration index, and Oaxaca-type decomposition technique were performed to measure socioeconomically-based inequalities in skilled birth attendance services utilization, and to identify the contribution of different determinants to such inequality as well as the changes in inequality overtime using data from Mauritania Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) 2007 and 2015. The concentration index for skilled birth attendance services use dropped from 0.6324 (p < 0.001) in 2007 to 0.5852 (p < 0.001) in 2015. Prenatal care, household wealth level, and rural-urban residence contributed most to socioeconomic inequality. The concentration index decomposition and the Oaxaca-type decomposition revealed that changes in prenatal care and rural-urban residence contributed positively to lower inequality, but household economic status had an opposite contribution. Clearly, the pro-rich inequality in skilled birth attendance is high in Mauritania, despite a slight decrease during the study period. Policy actions on eliminating geographical and socioeconomic inequalities should target increased access to skilled birth attendance. Multisectoral policy action is needed to improve social determinants of health and to remove health system bottlenecks. This will include the socioeconomic empowerment of women and girls, while enhancing the availability and affordability of reproductive and maternal health commodities. This policy action can be achieved through improving the availability of obstetric service providers in rural areas; ensuring better distribution and quality of health infrastructure, particularly health posts and health centers; and, ensuring user fees removal for equitable, efficient, and sustainable financial protection in line with the universal health coverage objectives.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Materna , Saúde Materna , Feminino , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Mauritânia , Parto , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Fatores Socioeconômicos
6.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(10): e0009829, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34695119

RESUMO

The number of sporadic and epidemic dengue fever cases have reportedly been increasing in recent years in some West African countries, such as Senegal and Mali. The first epidemic of laboratory-confirmed dengue occurred in Nouakchott, the capital city of Mauritania situated in the Saharan desert, in 2014. On-site diagnosis of dengue fever was established using a rapid diagnostic test for dengue. In parallel, the presence of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in the city was confirmed. The initial diagnosis was confirmed by RT-PCR, which showed that all samples from the 2014 dengue epidemic in Nouakchott were dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2). The whole genome or envelope protein gene of these strains, together with other DENV-2 strains obtained from travelers returning from West African countries to France between 2016 and 2019 (including two Mauritanian strains in 2017 and 2018), were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis suggested a recent emergence of an epidemic strain from the cosmopolitan genotype belonging to West African cosmopolitan lineage II, which is genetically distinct from African sylvatic genotype. The origin of this DENV-2 lineage is still unknown, but our data seem to suggest a recent and rapid dispersion of the epidemic strain throughout the region. More complete genome sequences of West African DENV-2 are required for a better understanding of the dynamics of its circulation. Arboviral surveillance and outbreak forecasting are urgently needed in West Africa.


Assuntos
Vírus da Dengue/genética , Dengue/virologia , África Ocidental , Dengue/epidemiologia , Vírus da Dengue/classificação , Vírus da Dengue/isolamento & purificação , França/epidemiologia , Genoma Viral , Genótipo , Humanos , Mauritânia/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Sorogrupo , Viagem
7.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258461, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662888

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of stunting in under five children is high in Mauritania. However, there is a paucity of evidence on the extent and the overtime alteration of inequality in stunting. To this end, we did this study to investigate stunting inequality and the change with time using three rounds of Mauritania Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys. The evidence is important to inform implementation of equitable nutrition interventions to help narrow inequality in stunting between population groups. METHODS: World Health Organization's (WHO) Health Equity Assessment Toolkit (HEAT) was used in the analysis of stunting inequality. Following standard equity analysis methods recommended by the WHO, we performed disaggregated analysis of stunting across five equity stratfiers: Wealth, education, residence, sex and sub-national regions. Then, we summarized stunting inequality through four measures of inequality: Difference, Ratio, Population Attributable Fraction and Population Attributable Risk. The point estimates of stunting were accompanied by 95% confidence intervals to measure the statistical significance of the findings. RESULTS: The national average of childhood stunting in 2007, 2011 and 2015 was 31.3%, 29.7% and 28.2%, respectively. Glaring inequalities in stunting around the five equity stratifiers were observed in all the studied periods. In the most recent survey included in our study (2015), for instance, we recorded substantial wealth (PAF = -33.60; 95% CI: -39.79, -27.42) and education (PAF = -5.60; 95% CI: -9.68, -1.52) related stunting inequalities. Overall, no substantial improvement was documented in wealth and sex related inequality in stunting between 2007 and 2011 while region-based inequality worsened during the same time periods. CONCLUSIONS: The burden of stunting appeared to be heavily concentrated among children born to socioeconomically worse-off women, women who live in rural settings and certain subnational regions. Targeted nutrition interventions are required to address drivers of stunting embedded within geographic and socioeconomic contexts.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Crescimento , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Mauritânia , População Rural , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
8.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1818, 2021 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627186

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Skilled antenatal care (ANC) has been identified as a proven intervention to reducing maternal deaths. Despite improvements in maternal health outcomes globally, some countries are signaling increased disparities in ANC services among disadvantaged sub-groups. Mauritania is one of sub-Saharan countries in Africa with a high maternal mortality ratio. Little is known about the inequalities in the country's antenatal care services. This study examined both the magnitude and change from 2011 to 2015 in socioeconomic and geographic-related disparities in the utilization of at least four antenatal care visits in Mauritania. METHODS: Using the World Health Organization's Health Equity Assessment Toolkit (HEAT) software, data from the 2011 and 2015 Mauritania Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) were analyzed. The inequality analysis consisted of disaggregated rates of antenatal care utilization using four equity stratifiers (economic status, education, residence, and region) and four summary measures (Difference, Population attributable risk, Ratio and Population attributable fraction). A 95% Uncertainty Interval was constructed around point estimates to measure statistical significance. RESULTS: Substantial absolute and relative socioeconomic and geographic related disparities in attending four or more ANC visits (ANC4+ utilization) were observed favoring women who were richest/rich (PAR = 19.5, 95% UI; 16.53, 22.43), educated (PAF = 7.3 95% UI; 3.34, 11.26), urban residents (D = 19, 95% UI; 14.50, 23.51) and those living in regions such as Nouakchott (R = 2.1, 95% UI; 1.59, 2.56). While education-related disparities decreased, wealth-driven and regional disparities remained constant over the 4 years of the study period. Urban-rural inequalities were constant except with the PAR measure, which showed an increasing pattern. CONCLUSION: A disproportionately lower ANC4+ utilization was observed among women who were poor, uneducated, living in rural areas and regions such as Guidimagha. As a result, policymakers need to design interventions that will enable disadvantaged subpopulations to benefit from ANC4+ utilization to meet the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) of reducing the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) to 140/100, 000 live births by 2030.


Assuntos
Cuidado Pré-Natal , População Rural , Demografia , Feminino , Humanos , Mauritânia/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Fatores Socioeconômicos
9.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 13, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34567340

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a pandemic affecting the world's population, is particularly threatening to dialysis patients. The purpose of this study was to propose recommendations for prevention and containment of COVID-19 in hemodialysis center situated in a regional hospital in Mauritania. Both COVID-19-infected (n = 11) and -uninfected (n = 16) dialysis patients were hospitalized up to three weeks to improve patient management. All COVID-19-infected patients were cured. Patient care and hygiene in a safe environment are the key factors for a favorable outcome, even in resource-limited settings.


Assuntos
COVID-19/terapia , Atenção à Saúde/métodos , Diálise Renal/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Mauritânia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Assistência ao Paciente/métodos , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(8): 1048-1053, 2021 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516409

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In Africa, the first case of COVID-19 was reported in February 2020. Mauritania's first case was confirmed in March 2020. METHODOLOGY: We provide an update of the COVID-19 epidemic in Mauritania as of December 2020, and describe the country's Health System Response. RESULTS: In total, 133,749 diagnostic tests were performed, 14,364 (10.7%) were positive (309 cases/100,000 inhabitants). Case fatality rate was 2.4%. The 20-39 year-olds (41%) and males (59.1%) were most commonly affected. Comorbidities among fatal cases included cardiovascular diseases (44.8%) and diabetes (37.1%). Clinical symptoms included fever (57%), cough (52%), running nose (47%) and headache (26%). After the first case, prevention measures were progressively tightened, and quarantine implemented for all suspected cases. Schools and universities were closed, and flights to Mauritania suspended. Restaurants and cafeterias were closed, and night curfews installed. Friday prayers were suspended nationwide, and movements between regions restricted. These measures helped to contain the spread of SARS-CoV-2 during the first pandemic wave, which peaked in June 2020 with low rates. However, the number of daily cases reached high levels in December 2020, during the second wave (40.1% of all cases and 48.9% of deaths). During the first wave, there were 38 ICU beds nationwide, but the ICU's capacity increased in short time. CONCLUSIONS: Mauritania has passed through the first pandemic wave with relatively low case fatality rates, currently being at the end of the second wave. As the country's health system is very vulnerable, there is a need for strict public health measures during epidemics.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Atenção à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção à Saúde/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Planejamento em Saúde Comunitária , Atenção à Saúde/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mauritânia/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde Pública , Adulto Jovem
11.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 105, 2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34353361

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The elimination of Plasmodium vivax malaria requires 8-aminoquinolines, which are contraindicated in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency due to the risk of acute haemolytic anaemia. Several point-of-care devices have been developed to detect G6PD deficiency. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the performance of two of these devices against G6PD genotypes in Mauritania. METHODS: Outpatients were screened for G6PD deficiency using CareStart™ rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and CareStart™ G6PD biosensor in Nouakchott, Mauritania, in 2019-2020. African-type and Mediterranean-type G6PD genotypes commonly observed in Africa were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequencing. Qualitative variables were compared using Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: Of 323 patients (74 males and 249 females), 5 males and 2 homozygous females had the African-type A- genotype: A-(202) in 3 males and 2 females and G6PD A-(968) in 2 males. Among heterozygous females, 13 carried G6PD A-(202), 12 G6PD A-(968), and 3 G6PD A-(542) variants. None had the Mediterranean-type G6PD genotype. Eight had a positive G6PD RDT result, including all 7 hemizygous males and homozygous females with A- or A-A- (0.12 to 2.34 IU/g haemoglobin, according to G6PD biosensor), but RDT performed poorly (sensitivity, 11.1% at the cut-off level of < 30%) and yielded many false negative tests. Thirty-seven (50.0%) males and 141 (56.6%) females were anaemic. The adjusted median values of G6PD activity were 5.72 and 5.34 IU/g haemoglobin in non-anaemic males (n = 35) and non-anaemic males and females (n = 130) with normal G6PD genotypes using G6PD biosensor, respectively. Based on the adjusted median of 5.34 IU/g haemoglobin, the performance of G6PD biosensor against genotyping was as follows: at 30% cut-off, the sensitivity and specificity were 85.7% and 91.7%, respectively, and at 80% cut-off, the sensitivity was 100% while the specificity was 64.9%. CONCLUSIONS: Although this pilot study supports the utility of biosensor to screen for G6PD deficiency in patients, further investigation in parallel with spectrophotometry is required to promote and validate a more extensive use of this point-of-care device in areas where P. vivax is highly prevalent in Mauritania.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase/genética , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mauritânia/epidemiologia , Projetos Piloto
12.
Infect Genet Evol ; 94: 104995, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34246798

RESUMO

In the framework of a viral discovery research program using metagenomics, Human Pegivirus-1 reads (HPgV-1, formerly known as GBV-C) were detected in plasma pools of healthy blood donors from seven sub-Saharan African countries. For five of these countries, Mauritania, Mali, Niger, Burundi and Madagascar, no data about HPgV-1 genotypes was reported to date. To confirm our metagenomic findings and further investigate the genotype diversity and distribution of HPgV-1 in Africa, 400 blood donations from these five localities as well as from Cameroon, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and the Burkina Faso were screened with a RT-nested PCR targeting the viral 5'NCR region. Amplified products were sequenced, and the virus was genotyped by phylogenetic analysis. Out of the 400 plasma samples tested, 65 were positive for HPgV-1 RNA and 61 were successfully genotyped. Among these, 54 strains (88.5%) clustered with genotype 1, six (9.8%) with genotype 2 and one (1.6%) with genotype 5. Genotype 1 was observed in all countries studied, except in Madagascar, genotype 2 was detected in Mauritania and Madagascar, and genotype 5 in DRC. Overall, our results extend the geographic distribution of HPgV-1 in Africa and provide six additional nearly complete genomes. Considering that some HPgV-1 genotypes have been reported as potential predictive indicators of lower disease progression in HIV-1 infected subjects, further investigations should be conducted to better understand the positive impact, if any, of this virus.


Assuntos
Infecções por Flaviviridae/virologia , Vírus GB C/fisiologia , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Hepatite Viral Humana/virologia , Burkina Faso , Burundi , Camarões , República Democrática do Congo , Vírus GB C/genética , Madagáscar , Mali , Mauritânia , Níger
13.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 342, 2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34187526

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) belongs to the genus Orthonairovirus (Nairovididae) and is a (re)emerging tick-borne pathogen. It is endemic in most parts of Africa, Asia and southern Europe, and can cause severe hemorrhagic symptoms in humans, with high fatality rates (5-30%). METHODS: Hyalomma ticks were collected from four different livestock herds (cattle and camels) in Mauritania in 2018. The tick species were determined morphologically and confirmed molecularly by using the cytochrome oxidase 1 gene marker. For the detection of CCHFV, ticks were tested individually by one-step multiplex real-time reverse-transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The small segment of all positive samples was sequenced to determine the CCHFV genotype. RESULTS: In total, 39 of the 1523 ticks (2.56%) collected from 63 cattles and 28 camels tested positive for CCHFV. Three Hyalomma species were identified. Hyalomma rufipes had the largest proportion of positivity (5.67%; 16/282), followed by Hyalomma dromedarii (1.89%; 23/1214). No Hyalomma impeltatum tested positive (0%; 0/21). Positive ticks were found in only six out of 91 host animals. Viral sequence analysis revealed the presence of two different CCHFV lineages (Africa I and Africa III). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, 2.56% of Hyalomma ticks collected from camels and cattle in Mauritania tested positive for CCHFV. However, the true prevalence of CCHFV in unfed ticks may be lower, as a considerable number of ticks may have been passively infected during blood-feeding by co-feeding ticks or due to viremia of the host. The results indicate the need to track the actual area of circulation of this virus.


Assuntos
Sangue , Vírus da Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia-Congo/genética , Gado/parasitologia , Carrapatos/virologia , Animais , Camelus/parasitologia , Camelus/virologia , Bovinos/parasitologia , Bovinos/virologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Genótipo , Vírus da Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia-Congo/isolamento & purificação , Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia/virologia , Gado/virologia , Masculino , Mauritânia , Filogenia , RNA Viral/genética , Carrapatos/genética , Carrapatos/fisiologia
14.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 55, 2021.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33854684

RESUMO

The first outbreak of epidemic respiratory disease due to unknown etiology was reported in the Chinese city of Wuhan December 2019. The World Health Organization (WHO) firstly used the term "new coronavirus 2019" on December 29, 2019. This pandemic, which is currently called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a disease caused by SARS-CoV-2. It was subsequently called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) by the WHO. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in all employees of the Nouakchott National Hospital Center (CHN). The study was conducted during the week 20/05/2020 to 27/05/2020. It involved 853 employees of all ranks (doctors, pharmacists, nurses, secretaries, security personnel, administrators...) of whom 504 were male and 331 were female, with a sex ratio of 1,52 with an average age of 39 years, ranging from 20 to 60 years. The screening for IgG and IgM antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 was performed using Biotime (Xiamen Biotime Biotechnology Co., Ltd.) immunochromatographic technique. Out of 835 employees included in our study, 14 were positive (1.67%) of whom 12 had IgM and IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and 2 had isolated IgM. Nasopharyngeal swab polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed in these 14 patients and was positive in six. While PCR is the gold standard for the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2, serological tests for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, in particular rapid tests (RDTs) are a diagnostic complement to COVID-19. They have the advantage of being easy to realize, of being safe both in the laboratories and outside the laboratories. RDTs enabled us to detect asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 carriers within CHN employees. This allowed for patients management and isolation to protect patients and their environments.


Assuntos
Teste para COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Pessoal de Saúde , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Masculino , Mauritânia/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Sorológicos/métodos , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(4): e0009228, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33844691

RESUMO

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is one of the most widespread zoonotic arthropod-borne viruses in many parts of Africa, Europe and Asia. It belongs to the family of Nairoviridae in the genus of Orthonairovirus. The main reservoir and vector are ticks of the genus Hyalomma. Livestock animals (such as cattle, small ruminants and camels) develop a viremias lasting up to two weeks with absence of clinical symptoms, followed by seroconversion. This study was carried out to assess risk factors that affect seroprevalence rates in different species. In total, 928 livestock animal samples (cattle = 201; sheep = 247; goats = 233; camels = 247) from 11 out of 13 regions in Mauritania were assayed for CCHFV-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) (including a novel indirect camel-IgG-specific CCHFV ELISA). Inconclusive results were resolved by an immunofluorescence assay (IFA). A generalized linear mixed-effects model (GLMM) was used to draw conclusions about the impact of certain factors (age, species, sex and region) which might have influenced the CCHFV antibody status of surveyed animals. In goats and sheep, about 15% of the animals were seropositive, whereas in cattle (69%) and camels (81%), the prevalence rate was significantly higher. On average, cattle and camels were up to twice to four times older than small ruminants. Interestingly, the seroprevalence in all species was directly linked to the age of the animals, i.e. older animals had significantly higher seroprevalence rates than younger animals. The highest CCHFV seroprevalence in Mauritania was found in camels and cattle, followed by small ruminants. The large proportion of positive animals in cattle and camels might be explained by the high ages of the animals. Future CCHFV prevalence studies should at least consider the age of surveyed animals in order to avoid misinterpretations.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anti-Idiotípicos/análise , Vírus da Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia-Congo/imunologia , Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia/diagnóstico , Carrapatos/virologia , Animais , Camelus , Bovinos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Imunofluorescência , Cabras , Vírus da Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia-Congo/isolamento & purificação , Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia/virologia , Gado/sangue , Gado/parasitologia , Masculino , Mauritânia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Ovinos
16.
Vaccine ; 39(16): 2274-2279, 2021 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33752951

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Hepatitis B and D infections are highly endemic in Mauritania, with prevalences ranging from 10 to 20%. With the present prospective transversal pilot study, we aimed to evaluate the prevalences of HBV, HCV, and HDV infections in healthcare workers (HCWs), and offer treatment or vaccination as required. METHODS: At inclusion, each HCW was screened for anti-HBc Ab (followed by HBsAg assay when positive). Additional biological analyses were performed for HBsAg + cases. Depending on the results, HBV vaccination or anti-viral treatment was offered. RESULTS: A total of 3,857 HCWs were included, of whom 1,363 tested negative for anti-HBc Ab and received full vaccination. Of the 2,494 HCWs who were positive for anti-HBc Ab, 1,246 were positive for anti-HBs Ab and 418 were positive for HBsAg. Three HCWs were positive for HBeAg; 66 and 18 had HBV DNA levels respectively > 2,000 and > 20,000 IU/mL; and 48 were positive for anti-HDV Ab among whom 10 were positive for HDV RNA. HCV prevalence was 0.5%. Only seven HCWs fulfilled the criteria for treatment and five of them were treated. CONCLUSION: Few HCWs in Mauritania are immunised against HBV. The prevalences of anti-HBc Ab and HBsAg observed in this work were similar to those observed in our earlier works, whereas prevalence of active HDV infection was less high. HBV and HDV infections are a serious health concern in Mauritania. New recommendations developed in accordance with WHO guidelines should include mandatory HBV screening and immunisation for HCWs.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite B , Hepatite B , Pessoal de Saúde , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B , Humanos , Mauritânia , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Vacinação
17.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(2): 195, 2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33666802

RESUMO

This study reports the monitoring of several emerging viral pathogens in Mauritania, which was carried out by the analysis of bovine and camel samples taken at the slaughterhouse of Nouakchott. Blood and serum were collected by random sampling from 159 camels and 118 cattle in March 2013 at the large animals abattoir in Nouakchott. Serological tests for Rift Valley Fever (RVF), Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR), West Nile disease (WND), epizootic haemorrhagic disease (EHD) and African horse sickness (AHS) were carried out using commercial ELISA kits. The samples, which resulted positives for PPR, WND and AHS, were tested with the confirmatory virus neutralization test (VNT). According to ELISA results, serological prevalence of RVF was 45% (95% CI 52.3-37.7) in camels and 16% (95% CI 22.6-9.4) in cattle. The difference between the observed prevalences in camels and in cattle was significant (p value ≤ 0.01). PPR was absent in camels and had 12% prevalence (95% CI, 17.86-6.14) in cattle. Furthermore, camels showed 92% (95% CI, 96.1-87.9) prevalence of WNV, 73% (95% CI, 82.3-63.64) of EHD and 3% (95% CI, 5.6-0.4) of AHS. This data are of relevance since provided useful feedbacks on the circulation of the pathogens in field. Moreover, this survey provided new information on the susceptibility of camels to several emerging pathogens and on the possible use of this species as sentinel animal.


Assuntos
Matadouros , Camelus/virologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Viroses/veterinária , Doença Equina Africana/epidemiologia , Doença Equina Africana/virologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/análise , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Vírus da Doença Hemorrágica Epizoótica/imunologia , Vírus da Doença Hemorrágica Epizoótica/isolamento & purificação , Mauritânia/epidemiologia , Vírus da Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/imunologia , Vírus da Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/isolamento & purificação , Febre do Vale de Rift/epidemiologia , Febre do Vale de Rift/virologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Viroses/epidemiologia , Viroses/virologia , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/epidemiologia , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/veterinária , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/virologia
18.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 166: 112040, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33676109

RESUMO

Levrier Bay is an important fishing area which is under growing anthropogenic pressures seriously threatening this treasure. Among these pressures Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon are of great environmental concern. Therefore, 16 EPA-PAHs were analyzed using GC-MS in Perna perna species and sediment. Comparison with Dakar (Senegal) and Moroccan coasts shows that PAHs levels are strikingly lower than that of heavily polluted Dakar coast (2474 µg/kg); nevertheless, comparable to Moroccan Casablanca and Tangier coasts (245 and 351 µg/kg, respectively). Ratio analysis indicates the predominance of pyrogenic sources and partial contribution of automotive traffic for the half of 4 sites. Furthermore, statistical analys shows that there are no significative differences, except for Benzo(b)Fluorentene in P. perna tissue and 4 PAHs (Fluorene; Fluorenthene; Pyrene; diBenzo(ah)Anthracene and dBahANT) in sediment for sites samples. Furthermore, bioconcentration indicates that P. perna is an excellent PAHs bioindicator. This points the necessity for immediate introduction of a sound Pollutants monitoring system.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Baías , Monitoramento Ambiental , Mauritânia , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Senegal , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
19.
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg ; 115(4): 315-319, 2021 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33580966

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mycetoma is a chronic, progressive and destructive inflammatory disease that affects the skin, subcutaneous and other tissues. The objective of this study was to identify all cases of mycetoma diagnosed in three health facilities in Nouakchott, Mauritania during 2016-2018. METHODS: This retrospective hospital-based study was conducted at the Dermatology, Orthopedics, Mycology and Pathology departments of the National Hospital Center of Nouakchott, the Military Hospital of Nouakchott and the National Institute for Research in Public Health of Nouakchott. RESULTS: Eighty-seven patients were included in this study. They comprised 65 male patients (74.71%) and 22 females (25.28%) with a gender ratio of 4:1. The mean age was 41.87 y and ages ranged from 14 to 70 y. The most common age group was 40-45 y (11%). The foot was the most frequently affected site seen in 60 patients (69%), followed by ankle and hand with 6 patients each (7%). In the study, 56 patients (64%) had regional lymphadenopathy. Forty-nine patients (56%) had bone involvement. Thirty-two patients (37%) had medical treatment. Twenty-seven patients (87%) received fluconazole and four patients (13%) had co-trimoxazole treatment. CONCLUSION: The mycetoma patients seen in these three centres were mainly male farmers from rural areas. The lesions were seen mainly in the lower limbs and the majority had bone involvement radiologically.


Assuntos
Micetoma , Adulto , Feminino , Instalações de Saúde , Hospitais , Humanos , Masculino , Mauritânia/epidemiologia , Micetoma/diagnóstico , Micetoma/tratamento farmacológico , Micetoma/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Transfus Clin Biol ; 28(2): 137-142, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516889

RESUMO

The Maghreb region comprises five countries: Algeria Libya, Morocco, Mauritania, and Tunisia. This is a review aiming at providing an update on the situation of transfusion in the five countries. Three countries have developed regulations covering all transfusion-related activities including policy development. All the countries are running blood safety activities using a National Blood Service as the main entity. Except for Mauritania and Lybia, all the blood safety activities are centralized and conducted regularly. The blood safety indicators are globally better compared to those of sub-Saharan Africa. Despite the efforts of the states of the Maghreb region, and the progress made in the field of transfusion in these countries, shortcomings persist and concern virtually all the key elements of a national blood supply system mainly in the quality management system.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Sangue , Argélia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Líbia , Mauritânia , Marrocos , Tunísia
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